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  • 1.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Scale of global road map is impractical2013In: Nature, Vol. 496, no 7445, p. 300-300Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

  • 3.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

  • 4.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Conservation at risk: conflict analysis in the Białowieża Forest, a European biodiversity hotspot2010In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, Per
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Antonson, Hans
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Road, forestry and regional planners’ work for biodiversity conservation and public participation: a case study in Poland’s hotspots regions2011In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1373-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied how regional, road and forestry planning sectors work to implement policies about biodiversity conservation and public participation. Evaluations were based on a normative model for planning derived from the existing international policies and relevant literature. Key planning actors were then interviewed with regard to their understanding of biodiversity and participation policies as well as ability to act and willingness to implement them. The results indicate several gaps in planning processes, for example, insufficient knowledge about biodiversity conservation and participation, limited resources and tools for planning of functional habitat networks and collaboration, poor connections between local and regional planning, and weakly developed public participation. The main problem for effective policy implementation seems to be related to planners' ability to act, which indicates that relatively low priority was given to provide resources for biodiversity conservation and public participation by the relevant units. We discuss our findings in relation to the implementation of environmental policies in the new EU countries of Eastern and Central Europe.

  • 6.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Axelsson, Robert
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Skorupski, Maciej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    Wegiel, Andrzej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    The Polish Promotional Forest Complex: objectives, implementation and outcomes towards sustainable forest management?2012In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 23, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Baxter, Peter
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Practical implementation of species’ recovery plans – lessons from the White-backed Woodpecker Action Plan in Sweden.2014In: Ornis Fennica, ISSN 0030-5685, Vol. 91, p. 108-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Grandin, Ulf
    Why protect biodiversity? Perspectives of conservation professionals in Poland.2015In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 11, p. 349-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    “A Thousand flowers are flowering just now” – towards integration of ecosystem services concept into decision making2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 30, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the integration of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in decision making.

    We use the three dimensions of learning to investigate the use of the ES concept.

    ES concept seems to meet several positive expectations put forward in science and policy.

    A main contribution from the concept may potentially be its function as a “boundary object”.

    Implementing ES into practice is a complex process and a multifaceted task.

  • 10.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Richardson, Tim
    Univ Aalborg, Dept Dev & Planning, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark.
    Wu, Chia-Jung
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Geog, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
    Context dependency and stakeholder involvement in EIA: the decisive role of practitioners2011In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 337-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outcomes of frameworks and practices for stakeholder involvement in environmental impact assessment (EIA) for road planning, under the umbrella of a common EU legal framework, are investigated here in specific national contexts. Data for the two empirical cases examined - Poland and Sweden - are related to the recent ongoing discussion on context dependency for Environmental Assessments (EA). The analysis, informed by practitioner interviews and documentary review, comprises a historical review of the evolution of EIA and stakeholder involvement, and examines more closely the legal frameworks, formal and informal arenas for stakeholder involvement, and norms of stakeholder involvement held by professionals involved in the planning process in the two countries. The results challenge existing assumptions about the relative depth of institutionalisation of stakeholder involvement and environmental concern in a Scandinavian and Central-Eastern European context, and highlight the decisive role of practitioners in the application of EA frameworks in planning practice.

  • 11.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Urban ponds for people and by people2016In: Urban Landscape Ecology: Science, Policy and Practice / [ed] Robert A. Francis , James D.A. Millington, Michael A. Chadwick, Routledge, 2016, p. 164-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Developing world: use mentoring to fix science inequality.2015In: Nature, Vol. 517, p. 271-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy.2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1558-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Department of Auqatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Metrics: a long-term threat to society2012In: Nature, Vol. 490, no 7420, p. 343-343Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Department of Auqatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Old trees: cultural value.2013In: Science, Vol. 339, p. 904-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Think bigger for conservation2011In: Nature, Vol. 470, no 7332, p. 39-39Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Godbole, Archana
    Safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services of sacred groves – experiences from northern Western Ghats.2013In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, ISSN 2151-3732, E-ISSN 2151-3740, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Orlikowska, Ewa
    Jean-Michel, Roberge
    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata
    Contribution of social science to large scale biodiversity conservation: a review of research about the Natura 2000 network2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 199, p. 110-122Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful conservation needs to be informed by social science because it is closely linked to socio-economic processes and human behaviour. Limited knowledge about ecosystems' interactions with these processes currently undermines conservation efforts. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of social science concerning the world's largest multinationally-coordinated conservation infrastructure: the European Ecological Network - ‘Natura 2000’. Based on a review of 149 publications, we analyse and discuss the main findings and outline key social-science research gaps with regard to the Natura 2000 network. The review shows that human dimension of the Natura 2000 network is complex and varies among EU Member States. In general, low level and quality of public participation in implementation of the Natura 2000 network and its management, negative public perceptions of the network, lack of flexibility of responsible authorities and insufficient consideration of the local context pose the greatest challenges to the network's functioning. Important but hitherto little studied research topics include: evaluation of participation; effects of education on potential to raise public awareness; effects of potential financing mechanisms for compensating private land-owners; economic studies on cost-effectiveness; and benefits from conservation and ecosystem services. These knowledge gaps will need to be filled for the Natura 2000 network to reach its goals.

  • 19.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Recreational fishing for sea trout – Resource for whom and to what value?2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 204, p. 380-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational fishing is an important activity that delivers substantial social and economic values. Proper management of recreational fisheries relies on information about resource use and associated values by different fishers, but such information is rare, particularly for open access fisheries. In this study a survey of 471 fishers on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, assessed catches, proportion of catch-and-release (C&R), and economic value (expenditures and willingness to pay, WTP) of sea trout fishing in 2015-2016. Data was analysed in relation to gear used (fly and spin angling, nets and mixed fishery) and fisher connection to fishing site (permanent and temporary residents, Swedish and international tourists). There were marginal differences in daily catch rates, but significant differences in effort and annual catches between different fishers, with resident fishers having the highest catches. Anglers had 86% C&R rates, and fly fishers (> 95%) differed significantly from other anglers. Anglers, particularly fly fishers and fishing tourists, had much higher expenditures per year, fish caught and fish kept compared to net fishers. WTP before refraining from fishing, for doubling of fish supply and for potential fishing license was also highest among anglers. Our findings are discussed in terms of distinguishing characteristics for different types of recreational fishers. Fishing efforts, economic values and the need for further studies are also outlined in the context of fisheries and tourism management.

  • 20.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management? The case of “pike factories” and wetland restoration in Sweden.In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management?: The case of "pike factories' and wetland restoration in Sweden2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 5-6, p. 950-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging civil society in conservation activities is an important complementary strategy to counteract ongoing biodiversity decline and loss of ecosystem services. Since 2011, the Swedish Anglers Association (SAA) has cooperated with landowners to restore wetlands nationwide. We investigated factors that enabled or hindered civil society-led wetland restoration in Sweden through interviews and surveys with the SAA's project leaders and landowners. Principal internal and external factors contributing to the project's implementation included: flexibility and adaptive management of its leadership; support from authorities and policies; the good reputation of the SAA team; and landowners' willingness to cooperate. The latter was linked to their feelings of environmental responsibility, the low investment required by them, and expectations of some benefits. We discuss the need to enable adaptive management in environmental management projects, adjust existing policies to their needs, and re-think funding strategies to consider the long-term nature of such projects.

  • 22.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Bialowieza Forest: Political stands2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6376, p. 646-646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resources Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resources Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lund Univ, Dept Architecture & Built Environm, Environm Psychol, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Sandström, Per
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resources Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Svensson, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Shades of grey challenge practical application of the Cultural Ecosystem Services concept2017In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 23, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite rapid advances in development of the ecosystem services (ES) concept, challenges remain for its use in decision making. Cultural ES (CES) have proven particularly difficult to pin down and resultant “shades of grey” impede their consideration by decision-makers. This study undertakes a literature review of CES to highlight the shades of grey, briefly illustrates findings by reference to the Swedish mountain landscape, then addresses potential implications for practical decision making. The concept of CES is complex and difficult to operationalize. The root of confusion appears to be a lack of rigour in identifying CES, hindering identification of proper methods for determining: the ecosystem elements that underpin CES; the beneficiaries of CES and how they value benefits delivered; and how CES may vary in space and time. We conclude by proposing a framework of questions, which we relate to the ES cascade model, that is intended to help researchers and decision-makers to reflect when considering CES. Answers to the questions should enable decision-makers to prioritise policy development or implementation in relation to the differing needs of potentially competing beneficiaries and what needs to be done or not done to the ecosystem, where, when and by whom.

  • 24.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Agrawal, Ganesh K.
    Gutiérrez, José M.
    Hassanali, Ahmed
    Huq, Saleemul
    Koller, Silvia H.
    Marjit, Sugata
    Mshinda, Hassan M.
    Masjuki, Hj Hassan
    Solomons, Noel W.
    Van Staden, Johannes
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Steps to overcome the North-South divide in research relevant to climate-change policy and practice2017In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global North-South divide in research, and its negative consequences, has been highlighted in various scientific disciplines. Northern domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by Southern researchers in Southern countries, may hinder further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. Despite efforts to address the North-South divide, progress has been slow. In this Perspective, we illustrate the extent of the divide, review underlying issues and analyse their consequences for climate change policy development and implementation. We propose a set of practical steps in both Northern and Southern countries that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to span the North-South divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.

  • 25.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Van Herzele, Ann
    What a forest? Whose forest? Struggles over concepts and meanings in the debate about the conservation of the Białowieża Forest in Poland.2015In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 57, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 103, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous conservation initiatives have been undertaken to protect large marine animals by legal protection and implementing marine protected areas (MPAs). Despite these efforts, many marine animals are still threatened, partly due to lack of compliance with conservation regulations. Meanwhile, research suggests that conservation efforts which also take socio-economic factors such as fishermen's livelihoods into account during planning and implementation are more likely to succeed. This study examined the compliance and socio-economic situation of local fishing communities at three sites in Indonesia (Nusa Penida, Tanjung Luar and Komodo National Park) where shark and manta ray conservation efforts have been implemented. 59 local residents were interviewed. The results showed that 49% of those residents had experienced a deterioration and 37% an improvement in their economic situation since conservation efforts in the form of species protection or MPAs were implemented in their area. The economic situation of the residents was associated with their access to alternative livelihoods, access to information on conservation rules, and relationship with conservation authorities. Particularly, interviewees with easier access to alternative income and a positive relationship with conservation authorities also experienced an increase in their economy. In addition, compliance with conservation efforts was positively related to improved economic situation, access to alternative livelihoods and information on conservation rules. These factors all differed among the three study sites, leading to different compliance levels between sites. The results of this study indicate the importance of considering socio-economic factors and of involving local communities when planning and implementing conservation efforts.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, SE-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Orebro Cty Adm Board, Environm & Nat Resources, SE-70186 Orebro, Sweden.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, SE-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, SE-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    When development and amphibians meet – a case study of a translocation of great crested newts (Triturus cristatus) in Sweden2016In: Herpetological Conservation and Biology, ISSN 2151-0733, E-ISSN 1931-7603, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 552-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The Great Crested Newt (Triturus cristatus) is considered threatened throughout Europe; consequently, the species and its breeding habitat are protected in many countries. Translocation of a population is a conservation tool used when habitat occupied by a species is scheduled to be destroyed by human development. The outcome of these translocations is rarely monitored. This study describes and discusses a translocation of T. cristatus in south-central Sweden (Orebro), which occurred because of planned destruction of breeding habitat associated with development of a shopping and industrial area. We provide quantitative data concerning numbers of relocated amphibians and subsequent monitoring in both the pond being destroyed, which is serving as the source of newts to be translocated, and the pond that received the translocated newts. The translocation exemplifies how difficult it is to determine size and conservation value of a population without thorough initial investigations. A large part of the translocated population seemed to disappear at the receiving area, which initially indicated that the translocation was ineffective. Nevertheless, longer term monitoring indicated that a population was established and reproduced in the new habitat. We argue that translocation should never be a first choice to make human development possible but one should always strive for preservation of an existing habitat. However, if a translocation is unavoidable, an appriopriate assessment of the affected population should be performed and a detailed analysis of habitats in the potential receiving areas should be carried out to select an area best fitted for the species in question.

  • 28. Harrison, Paula
    et al.
    Berry, Pam
    Simpson, G
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Brandweiner, U
    et, al.
    Linkages between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: a systematic review2014In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 9, p. 191-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et, al.
    Public participation in road planning process and perceived landscape values – a case study from Sweden2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 631-653Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Iwinska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Coll Civitas, PKIN, Pl Defilad 1, Warsaw, Poland.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Pierotti, Livia
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England.
    Tainio, Marko
    Polish Acad Sci, Syst Res Inst, Warsaw, Poland; Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, MRC Epidemiol Unit, UKCRC Ctr Diet & Act Res CEDAR, Cambridge, England.
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England.
    Cycling in Warsaw, Poland - Perceived enablers and barriers according to cyclists and non-cyclists2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling in urban environments provides many benefits to people. However, planning of cycling infrastructures in large cities faces numerous challenges and requires better understanding of both the factors enabling cycling as well as barriers to it, determined by particular local context. While there is a growing body of research that tackle the bike transport related questions in Western Europe and the USA, there is relatively little research on that in Central Eastern Europe (CEE), in post-communist countries. In this study we used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore urban cyclists and non-cyclists opinions about the cycling, the perceived problems and obstacles, and perception of the on-going changes in bicycle transportation system in Warsaw, Poland. Although many people see potential advantages of cycling, it is mostly perceived as a leisure time activity. Those who do utilitarian cycling are more acutely aware of the benefits, such as rapidity and flexibility of this mean of transport. The main perceived barriers are linked to lack of good cycling infrastructure in the city, the feeling of insecurity linked to the behaviour of drivers, and to maintenance during winter. In conclusion, our research highlights both the opportunities and challenges linked to the development of improved cycle transportation system, suggesting the need for a range of policies, from the infrastructure improvements and comprehensive planning of the whole transportation system, to improving the driving culture that would support feeling of security of the cyclists.

  • 31.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Possingham, Hugh
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Biodiversity important areas and religions – a global analysis of spatial overlap.2014In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Niedzialkowski, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Jedrzejewska, Bogumila
    Why is it difficult to enlarge a protected area? Ecosystem services perspective on the conflict around the extension of the Białowieża National Park.2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 38, p. 314-329Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Orlikowska, Ewa
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Forest Resource Management, NILS, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. wedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Gaps in ecological research on the world's largest internationally coordinated network of protected areas: A review of Natura 20002016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 200, p. 216-227Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natura 2000 (N2k) is a multinational and" coordinated conservation network designated to support the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable species and habitats. It is the key conservation tool in the European Union. We reviewed 510 peer-reviewed publications (period 1998-2014) focusing on ecological aspects of N2k, with the aims of identifying key research gaps and proposing future research priorities for improved conservation success. We categorized the articles by spatial scale, biogeographical regions, taxonomic groups, habitat types, and the analytical methods used. The majority of studies were performed in single N2k sites or at the regional level within countries. The Mediterranean region had the greatest number of publications and the terrestrial Black Sea, Macaronesia, Pannonian and Steppic regions were overrepresented in relation to their total area and to the area of N2k sites that they comprised. Grasslands, freshwater and wetland habitats were overrepresented in comparison to their area within N2k. Plants were the most commonly studied taxonomic group and quantitative empirical studies dominated. Future N2k research should address knowledge gaps by directing more efforts towards: 1) the Boreal region, 2) alpine, agricultural, forest and marine habitats, and 3) under represented taxonomic groups such as reptiles, amphibians, lichens and fungi. For enhanced evaluation and realization of the conservation potential of N2k, more studies will need to encompass large spatial scales and utilize modelling approaches to effectively address future climate and land-use changes.

  • 34. Primmer, Eeva
    et al.
    Jokinen, Pekka
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Barton, D.N.
    Bugter, Rob
    Potschin, Marion
    Governance of ecosystem services: a framework for empirical analysis.2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 16, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Primmer, Eeva
    et al.
    Termansen, Mette
    Bredin, Yennie
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Garcia-Llorente, Marina
    Berry, Pam
    Jääskeläinen, Tiina
    Bela, Györgyi
    Fabok, Veronika
    Geamana, Nicoleta
    Harrison, Paula A.
    Haslett, John R.
    Cosor, Georgia Lavinia
    Andersen, Anne H.K.
    Caught between personal and collective values: biodiversity conservation in European decision-making2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 588-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual decision-makers at different governance levels operate in social contexts, which means that they sometimes need to compromise their personal values. Yet, this dissonance is rarely the direct target of empirical analyses of environmental decision-making. We undertake a Q-analysis of decision-makers' personal perspectives and the perspectives they perceive to dominate in their decision-making contexts. Our empirical analysis addresses biodiversity conservation, which has traditionally been justified with intrinsic value- and science-based arguments. The arguments have recently been broadened with the concept of ecosystem services, highlighting human benefits and values. This evolving context is interesting because of the new rise of anthropocentric values, which can lead to decision-makers experiencing dissonance. Our analysis of interviews with 43 biodiversity conservation decision-makers from nine European countries reveals four personally held perspectives that highlight different, yet partly overlapping, values – intrinsic, human benefit, conservation and connection – as well as three perspectives perceived to dominate in decision-making – utilitarian, insurance and knowledge values. The comparison of personally held and perceived dominant perspectives points to one major conflict: those decision-makers who personally associate with intrinsic values and perceive utilitarian values to dominate in decision-making experience dissonance. By contrast, personally held human benefit values are accommodated well in decision-making contexts and decision-makers who perceive insurance values to dominate experience the least conflict with personally held values. These findings demonstrate the potential of arguments stressing long-term benefits for easing tension and conflicts in conservation decision-making, and the usefulness of empirically testing of the coincidence of individual and social values. 

  • 36.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Harwell OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Indirect impacts of climate change2016In: Science, Vol. 354, no 6318, p. 1386-1386Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Harwell, Berks, England.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Maria Gutiérrez, José
    Univ Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Inequality: span the global divide2016In: Nature, Vol. 539, p. 31-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Doick, Kieron J.
    Forest Res, Farnham GU10 4LH, Surrey, England.
    Burton, Aaron
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Sibille, Raphael
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Steinbach, David
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Harris, Rachel
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Groves, Lisa
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Comparing the relative abilities of tree species to cool the urban environment2018In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 851-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing urbanisation poses numerous challenges to human quality of life. Cities are particularly vulnerable to the urban heat-island effect, which will be amplified by climate change. Increasing tree cover may be one of the most cost-effective ways of moderating urban temperatures. Trees cool their surroundings by casting shade, reflecting solar radiation, transpiring, and intercepting rainfall that subsequently evaporates. However, the potential of trees to reduce the urban heat-island effect is underutilised. The aim of this study was to synthesise understanding of the relative abilities of different tree species to provide urban cooling in temperate regions of the world and thereby develop a pragmatic approach for choosing those trees that have greatest potential in that regard. Based on a literature review and semi-structured interviews with leading experts, we developed a series of scenarios to illustrate the impacts of a tree's cooling mechanisms and tree species' attributes on components of the surface-energy balance equation. This enabled us to select parameters and propose simple equations that can be used to compare the relative abilities of tree species in relation to each of the cooling mechanisms. The parameters selected were for: transpiration - crown diameter, Leaf Area Index (LAI), canopy aspect ratio, and stomatal conductance or growth rate; reflection - albedo, crown diameter and LAI; shading - canopy aspect ratio, crown diameter, LAI and tree height. The approach is intended for use by urban planners and managers who wish to make informed decisions about which tree species to select for planting to counter the urban heat-island effect.

  • 39.
    Tinch, Rob
    et al.
    Econ Environm Consultancy, 73-75 Mortimer St, London W1W 7SQ, England.
    Bugter, Rob
    Wageningen Environm Res, Team Biodivers & Policy, POB 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, POB 7050, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Harrison, Paula
    Lancaster Environm Ctr, CEH, Lib Ave, Lancaster LA1 4AP, England.
    Haslett, John
    Univ Salzburg, Div Anim Struct & Funct, Dept Cell Biol & Physiol, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Jokinen, Pekka
    Univ Tampere, Fac Management, Tampere 33014, Finland.
    Mathieu, Laurence
    Econ Environm Consultancy, 73-75 Mortimer St, London W1W 7SQ, England.
    Primmer, Eeva
    Finnish Environm Inst, POB 140, Helsinki, Finland.
    Arguments for biodiversity conservation: factors influencing their observed effectiveness in European case studies2018In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1763-1788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making a strong case for biodiversity protection is central to meeting the biodiversity targets in international agreements such as the CBD and achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Effective arguments are needed to convince diverse actors that protection is worthwhile, and can play a crucial role in closing the implementation gap between biodiversity policy targets and outcomes. Drawing on a database of arguments from 11 European case studies, along with additional interview and case study material from all 13 case studies of the BESAFE project, we analysed relationships between potential and observed effectiveness of arguments. Our results show that strong logic, robustness, and timing of arguments are necessary but not sufficient conditions for arguments to be effective. We find that use of multiple and diverse arguments can enhance effectiveness by broadening the appeal to wider audiences, especially when arguments are repeated and refined through constructive dialogue. We discuss the role of framing, bundling and tailoring arguments to audiences in increasing effectiveness. Our results provide further support for the current shift towards recognition of value pluralism in biodiversity science and decision-making. We hope our results will help to demonstrate more convincingly the value of biodiversity to stakeholders in decision processes and thus build better cases for its conservation.

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