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  • 1.
    Anderson, David M.
    et al.
    Univ Warwick, African Hist, Global Hist & Culture Ctr, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. ;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Marie Curie Sklodowska Resilience East African La, Uppsala, Sweden..
    The unburied victims of Kenya's Mau Mau Rebellion: where and when does the violence end?2017In: Human remains in society: Curation and exhibition in the aftermath of genocide and mass-violence / [ed] Jean-Marc Dreyfus and Élisabeth Anstett, Manchester University Press, 2017, p. 14-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Armstrong, Chelsey
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    McKechnie, Iain
    Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Hakai Institute, Heriot Bay, Quadra Island, British Columbia, Canada.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Szabó, Péter
    Department of Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa .
    McAlvay, Alex C.
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America .
    Boles, Oliver
    Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Walshaw, Sarah
    Department of History, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gibbons, Kevin
    Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.
    Quintana Morales, Erendira
    Department of Anthropology, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America .
    Anderson, Eugene
    Department of Anthropology, University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America .
    Ibragimow, Aleksandra
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Podruczny, Grzegorz
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Vamosi, Jana
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada .
    Marks-Block, Tony
    Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    LeCompte, Joyce
    Independent Scholar, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Awâsis, Sākihitowin
    Department of Geography, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, Atlohsa Native Family Healing Services, Canada, London, Ontario, Canada .
    Nabess, Carly
    Department of Anthropology, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America; Integrated History of Future of People on Earth (IHOPE) Initiative, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.

  • 3.
    Boles, Oliver J. C.
    et al.
    UCL, Inst Archaeol, 31-34 Gordon Sq, London WC1H 0PY, England..
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    The Green, Green Grass of Home: an archaeo-ecological approach to pastoralist settlement in central Kenya2016In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 507-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the ecological residues of pastoralist occupation at the site of Maili Sita in Laikipia, central Kenya, drawing links with the archaeological record so as to contribute a fresh approach to the ephemeral settlement sites of mobile herding communities, a methodological aspect of African archaeology that remains problematic. Variations in the geochemical and micromorphological composition of soils along transects across the site are compared with vegetation distributions and satellite imagery to propose an occupation pattern not dissimilar to contemporary Cushitic-speaking groups further north. We argue that Maili Sita exemplifies the broad migratory and cultural exchange networks in place during the mid- to late second millennium AD, with pastoralist occupants who were both physically and culturally mobile.

  • 4.
    Boles, Oliver J. C.
    et al.
    Univ Penn, Dept Anthropol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ York, Dept Environm, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York, N Yorkshire, England;UCL, Inst Archaeol, London, England.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ York, Dept Environm, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York, N Yorkshire, England;Univ Basel, Dept Environm Sci, Geoecol, Basel, Switzerland.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge, England;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect2019In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectre of overgrazing' looms large in historical and political narratives of ecological degradation in savannah ecosystems. While pastoral exploitation is a conspicuous driver of landscape variability and modification, assumptions that such change is inevitable or necessarily negative deserve to be continuously evaluated and challenged. With reference to three case studies from Kenya - the Laikipia Plateau, the Lake Baringo basin, and the Amboseli ecosystem - we argue that the impacts of pastoralism are contingent on the diachronic interactions of locally specific environmental, political, and cultural conditions. The impacts of the compression of rangelands and restrictions on herd mobility driven by misguided conservation and economic policies are emphasised over outdated notions of pastoralist inefficiency. We review the application of overgrazing' in interpretations of the archaeological record and assess its relevance for how we interpret past socio-environmental dynamics. Any discussion of overgrazing, or any form of human-environment interaction, must acknowledge spatio-temporal context and account for historical variability in landscape ontogenies.

  • 5.
    Conolly, James
    et al.
    Trent Univ, Peterborough, ON, Canada.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Vulnerability, risk, resilience: an introduction2018In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 547-553Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Radimilahy, Chantal
    Rakotoarisoa, J.-A.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Virah-Samwy, Malika
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    Migrations and interactions between Madagascar and the eastern Africa, 500 BC – 1000 AD:: the archeological perspective2016In: Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World / [ed] Campbell, G., Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 191-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Plant Conservat Unit, Bot Dept, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, England;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa2019In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review the potential of biocultural heritage in biodiversity protection and agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. We begin by defining the concept of biocultural heritage into four interlinked elements that are revealed through integrated landscape analysis. This concerns the transdisciplinary methods whereby biocultural heritage must be explored, and here we emphasise that reconstructing landscape histories and documenting local heritage values needs to be an integral part of the process. Ecosystem memories relate to the structuring of landscape heterogeneity through such activities as agroforestry and fire management. The positive linkages between living practices, biodiversity and soil nutrients examined here are demonstrative of the concept of ecosystem memories. Landscape memories refer to built or enhanced landscapes linked to specific land-use systems and property rights. Place memories signify practices of protection or use related to a specific place. Customary protection of burial sites and/or abandoned settlements, for example, is a common occurrence across Africa with beneficial outcomes for biodiversity and forest protection. Finally, we discuss stewardship and change. Building on local traditions, inclusivity and equity are essential to promoting the continuation and innovation of practices crucial for local sustainability and biodiversity protection, and also offer new avenues for collaboration in landscape management and conservation.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Lennartsson, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology2018In: Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: ThePast and Future of Landscapes and regions / [ed] Crumley, Carole; Lennartsson,Tommy & Westin, Anna, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 145-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Esterhuysen, Amanda
    et al.
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Archaeology and education2013In: The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology / [ed] Peter Mitchell & Paul J. Lane, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 239-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10. Fleisher, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    LaViolette, Adria
    Horton, Mark
    Pollard, Edward
    Morales, Erendira Quintana
    Vernet, Thomas
    Christie, Annalisa
    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie
    When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?2015In: American Anthropologist, ISSN 0002-7294, E-ISSN 1548-1433, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 100-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we examine an assumption about the historic Swahili of the eastern African coast: that they were a maritime society from their beginnings in the first millennium C.E. Based on historical and archaeological data, we suggest that, despite their proximity to and use of the sea, the level of maritimity of Swahili society increased greatly over time and was only fully realized in the early second millennium C.E. Drawing on recent theorizing from other areas of the world about maritimity as well as research on the Swahili, we discuss three arenas that distinguish first- and second-millennium coastal society in terms of their maritime orientation. These are variability and discontinuity in settlement location and permanence; evidence of increased engagement with the sea through fishing and sailing technology; and specialized architectural developments involving port facilities, mosques, and houses. The implications of this study are that we must move beyond coastal location in determining maritimity; consider how the sea and its products were part of social life; and assess whether the marine environment actively influences and is influenced by broader patterns of sociocultural organization, practice, and belief within Swahili and other societies.

  • 11.
    Githumbi, Esther N.
    et al.
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Kariuki, Rebecca
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Chuhila, Maxmillian
    Department of History, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Richer, Suzi
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.; Department of Archaeology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Marchant, Rob
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Pollen, People and Place: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Ecosystem Change at Amboseli, Kenya2018In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 5, p. 1-26, article id 113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a multidisciplinary perspective for understanding environmental change and emerging socio-ecological interactions across the Amboseli region of southwestern Kenya. We focus on late Holocene (<5,000 cal yr. BP) changes and continuities reconstructed from sedimentary, archeological, historical records and socio-ecological models. We utilize multi-disciplinary approaches to understand environmental-ecosystem-social interactions over the longue durée and use this to simulate different land use scenarios supporting conservation and sustainable livelihoods using a socio-ecological model. Today the semi-arid Amboseli landscape supports a large livestock and wildlife population, sustained by a wide variety of plants and extensive rangelands regulated by seasonal rainfall and human activity. Our data provide insight into how large-scale and long-term interactions of climate, people, livestock, wildlife and external connections have shaped the ecosystems across the Amboseli landscape. Environmental conditions were dry between ~5,000 and 2,000 cal yr. BP, followed by two wet periods at ~2,100–1,500 and 1,400–800 cal yr. BP with short dry periods; the most recent centuries were characterized by variable climate with alternative dry and wet phases with high spatial heterogeneity. Most evident in paleo and historical records is the changing woody to grass cover ratio, driven by changes in climate and fire regimes entwined with fluctuating elephant, cattle and wild ungulate populations moderated by human activity, including elephant ivory trade intensification. Archeological perspectives on the occupation of different groups (hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and farmers) in Amboseli region and the relationships between them are discussed. An overview of the known history of humans and elephants, expanding networks of trade, and the arrival and integration of metallurgy, livestock and domesticated crops in the wider region is provided. In recent decades, increased runoff and flooding have resulted in the expansion of wetlands and a reduction of woody vegetation, compounding problems created by increased enclosure and privatization of these landscapes. However, most of the wetlands outside of the protected area are drying up because of the intensified water extraction by the communities surrounding the National Park and on the adjacent mountains areas, who have increased in numbers, become sedentary and diversified land use around the wetlands.

  • 12.
    Iles, L.
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Archaeol, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    Stump, D.
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, York, N Yorkshire, England.
    Heckmann, M.
    Bundesanstalt Geowissensch & Rohstoffe, Hannover, Germany.
    Lang, C.
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, York, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Iron Production in North Pare, Tanzania: Archaeometallurgical and Geoarchaeological Perspectives on Landscape Change2018In: African Archaeological Review, ISSN 0263-0338, E-ISSN 1572-9842, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 507-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeology, archaeometallurgy and geoarchaeology are combined in this research to examine the chronology and development of iron metallurgy and its environmental repercussions in North Pare, Tanzania. Pare was a prominent centre for iron production from at least the second half of the first millennium AD, and it has been assumed that this technologywith its demand for wood charcoalhad a significant and detrimental effect on local forest cover. This research sought to examine this claim by exploring the spatial, chronological and technological characteristics of iron production in Pare in conjunction with geoarchaeological evidence. Contrary to older assumptions, our results demonstrate that erosion processes were well established in North Pare before the documented intensification of smelting and smithing activity, and that iron production continued despite environmental changes. We suggest that although iron production may well have contributed to deforestation and erosion in Pare, it is unlikely to be the sole causal factor.

  • 13.
    Iles, Louise
    et al.
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England..
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Iron production in second millennium AD pastoralist contexts on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya2015In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 372-401Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron has played an important role within East African pastoralist societies for many hundreds of years, yet the means by which iron was produced or obtained by these communities has not been thoroughly documented. The bulk of our understanding is presently based on a limited number of ethnographic and artefact studies, which have tended to focus on the functional and symbolic nature of iron objects themselves. We argue that the research presented here provides the first opportunity to add to this narrow knowledge base by reconstructing the iron production technologies of pastoralist communities in Laikipia, Kenya, using an archaeometallurgical approach. Seven furnaces and one iron-production refuse area were excavated at two discrete workshop sites in Laikipia, central Kenya, that date to the second half of the second millennium AD. The recovered archaeometallurgical materials were analysed using optical microscopy, SEM-EDS and ED-XRF. These techniques revealed that the smelting technologies in question were complex and sophisticated and that they utilised titania-rich black sands and lime-rich charcoal. Whereas the technical approach and raw materials were found to be similar at both sites studied, there was striking stylistic variation in furnace design for no apparent functional reason, which might suggest nuanced differences in the socio-cultural affiliations of the smelters who worked at these sites. This paper explores some of the possible reasons for these differences. In particular, by integrating archaeological data with existing ethnographic and ethnohistoric research from the region, we discuss the technological choices of the smelters and what this might tell us about their identities, as well as considering how future research should best be targeted in order to develop a greater understanding of the organisation of production within pastoralist central Kenya.

  • 14.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    “African Church”, Botswana2015In: Trophies, Relics and Curios? : Missionary Heritage from Africa and the Pacific / [ed] Karen Jacobs, Chantal Knowles and Chris Wingfield, Leiden: Sidestone Press, 2015, p. 118-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Early agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa to ca. AD 5002015In: Cambridge World HistoryVolume II: A World with Agriculture / [ed] Graeme Barker and Candice Goucher, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 736-773Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Editorial - Debates in World Archaeology2016In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 605-608Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Ethnicity, archaeological ceramics and changing paradigms in East African archaeology2015In: Ethnic Ambiguities in African Archaeology: Materiality, History, and the Shaping of Cultural Identities / [ed] Kevin C. MacDonald and Francois Richard, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press Inc., 2015, p. 245-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Historical Archaeology in South Africa: Material Culture of the Dutch East India Company at the Cape2016In: Journal of African History, ISSN 0021-8537, E-ISSN 1469-5138, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 306-308Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Hunter-gatherer-fishers, ethnoarchaeology and analogical reasoning2014In: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers / [ed] Vicki Cummings, Peter Jordan and Marek Zvelebil, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 104-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Introduction: archaeological ivories in a global perspective2015In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Iron Age imaginaries and barbarian encounters: British prehistory’s African past2015In: Theory in Africa, Africa inTheory: Locating Meaning in Archaeology / [ed] Stephanie Wynne-Jones and Jeffrey B. Fleisher, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 175-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Just how long does ‘long-term’ have to be?: Matters of temporal scale as impediments to interdisciplinary understanding in historical ecology2015In: Oxford Handbook of AppliedArchaeology / [ed] Christian Isendahl and Daryl Stump, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phrase ‘long term’ is increasingly used as a keyword descriptive for research proposals and outputs claiming to contribute to debates on past and future climate change, sustainable economies, and the resilience of different landscapes. Scholars from across the environmental and social sciences and the humanities are engaged in this kind of research and are keen to see their results used to influence policy and practice. While ostensibly addressing mutually common issues, scrutiny of these studies indicates very divergent uses of the term ‘long term’. Such variation can act as an impediment to the development of truly interdisciplinary historical ecologies, especially since scholars often fail to specify the precise temporal range they have in mind when they employ the phrase ‘long term’. This chapter reviews these alternative understandings of the term and their associated problems, and offers some suggestions as to how these might be overcome.

  • 23.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Presencing the past: Implications for bridging the history-prehistory divide2014In: The Death of Prehistory / [ed] Peter R. Schmidt and Stephen A. Mrozowski, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 47-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Sustainability: Primordial conservationists,environmental sustainability and the rhetoric of pastoralist cultural heritagein East Africa.2015In: Heritage Keywords: Rhetoric and Redescriptionin Cultural Heritage / [ed] Trinidad Rico and Kathryn Lafrenz Samuels, Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado , 2015, p. 259-283Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    The archaeological potential for the history of labor relations in East Africa, ca.1500–19002014In: History in Africa - A Journal of Method, ISSN 0361-5413, E-ISSN 1558-2744, Vol. 41, p. 227-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of past labor relations in different parts of Africa have relied almost entirely on documentary sources. While such records can provide valuable insights into the range of different labor categories that have existed and the relative proportions of the population involved, for much of the continent they are severely restricted in a temporal sense. Thus, for many areas suitable documentary materials covering the periods prior to AD 1850 are scarce; as is the case, for example, for much of East Africa. To extend scholarly understanding of the nature of labor relations prior to this date, alternative sources need to be utilized. This paper presents a brief overview of the potential scope for utilizing archaeological data, with specific reference to mainland Tanzania. The paper also highlights the many limitations of archaeological data and offers some thoughts on how these might be addressed from both a conceptual and methodological perspective. The paper concludes with an appeal for more studies oriented toward investigation of the archaeological remains of the last five hundred years and greater dialogue between the region’s historian and archaeologists.

  • 26.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    The Archaeology and Ethnography of Central Africa2014In: South African Archaeological Bulletin, ISSN 0038-1969, E-ISSN 2224-4654, Vol. 69, no 200, p. 223-223Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Sci, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Archaeology in the age of the Anthropocene: A critical assessment of its scope and societal contributions2015In: Journal of field archaeology, ISSN 0093-4690, E-ISSN 2042-4582, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 485-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent decades have witnessed heightened public and governmental awareness of the nature and scale of environmental challenges likely to face the planet over the course of the next fifty to one hundred years. Scholars from across a broad range of disciplines have been drawn into these debates and have begun to reorient their research towards finding solutions to some of the most pressing problems and to devising more sustainable and resilient livelihoods. Archaeologists, with their conventional orientation toward past events and processes have been rather slower to engage with these issues. Recently, however, there has been a steady shift within the discipline so as to incorporate more future-oriented perspectives, and 'the use of the past to plan for a better future' is rapidly becoming a common theme within archaeological research projects and publications. While welcoming some of these developments, this paper offers a critical assessment of the various claims that are now being made of archaeology's potential to help overcome current environmental challenges and its contributions to defining and understanding 'the Anthropocene.'

  • 28.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Commentary: the only way is ethics2014In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This commentary explores the intersection of the different ethical concerns raised by the contributors. In particular it discusses the need to move beyond simple rule following and regulation in order to incorporate the dual notions of 'care of the self' and the 'constitution of persons through their relationships to other persons' as fundamental to the creation of ethical subjects within the field of African archaeology.

  • 29.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala Univ, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    New Directions For Historical Archaeology In Eastern Africa?2016In: Journal of African History, ISSN 0021-8537, E-ISSN 1469-5138, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen growth in the number of historical archaeology studies in Eastern Africa. Combining critical analysis of material remains alongside the available documentary and oral sources, these offer new insights into the precolonial and colonial pasts of the region. However, the field is less well established than in either West or Southern Africa and the full potential of the subdiscipline has yet to be realised. This contribution reviews the main analytical and theoretical trends, drawing on a selection of examples. Several other research themes that might warrant investigation are also identified, and the general lack of engagement with material culture and the archaeology of the last few hundred years on the part of historians, is lamented.

  • 30.
    Lane, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Marchant, Robert A.
    University of York.
    Past perspectives for the future: foundations for sustainable development in East Africa2014In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 51, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    East African ecosystems are shaped by long-term interactions with a dynamic climate and increasing human interventions. Whereas in the past the latter have often been regarded solely in a negative light, more recent research from the perspective of historical ecology has shown that there has often been a strong beneficial connection between people and ecosystems in East Africa. These relationships are now being strained by the rapidly developing and growing population, and their associated resource needs. Predicted future climatic and atmospheric change will further impact on human-ecosystem relationships culminating in a host of challenges for their management and sustainable development, compounded by a backdrop of governance, land tenure and economic constraints. Understanding how ecosystem-human interactions have changed over time and space can only be derived from combining archaeological, historical and palaeoecological data. Although crucial gaps remain, the number and resolution of these important archives from East Africa is growing rapidly, and the application of new techniques and proxies is allowing a more comprehensive understanding of past ecosystem response to climate change to be developed. When used in conjunction it is possible to disentangle human from climate change impacts, and assess how the former interacts with major environmental changes such as increased use offire, changing herbivore densities and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. With forecasted environmental change it is imperative that our understanding of past human-ecosystem interactions is queried to impart effective long term conservation and land use management strategies. Such an approach, that has its foundation in the long term, will enhance possibilities for a sustainable future for East African ecosystems and maximise the livelihoods of the populations that rely on them.

  • 31.
    Lane, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Mitchell, Peter
    University of Oxford.
    Introducing African archaeology2013In: The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology / [ed] Peter Mitchell & Paul J. Lane, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lane, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Peter, MitchellUniversity of Oxford.
    The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lane, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Reid, Andrew
    Institute of Archaeology, University College London.
    Editorial:: Azania at Fifty2015In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 425-436Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lane, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Precolonial Sub-Saharan African Farming and Herding Communities2017In: Oxford Encyclopedia of African HistoryArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural practices on the African continent are exceptionally diverse and have deep histories spanning at least eight millennia. Over time, farmers and herders have independently domesticated different food crops and a more limited range of animals, and have effectively modified numerous ecological niches to better suit their needs. They have also adopted “exotic” species from other parts of the globe, nurturing these to produce new cross-breeds and varieties better adapted to African conditions. Evidence for the origins of these different approaches to food production and their subsequent entanglement is attested by diverse sources. These include archaeological remains, bio- and geo-archaeological signatures, genetic data, historical linguistics, and processes of landscape domestication.

  • 35.
    Marchant, Rob
    et al.
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Richer, Suzi
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England;Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Boles, Oliver
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Capitani, Claudia
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prendergast, Mary E.
    St Louis Univ, Dept Anthropol, Ave Valle 34, Madrid 28003, Spain.
    Stump, Daryl.
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    De Cort, Gijs
    Royal Museum Cent Africa, Dept Earth Sci, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium;Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    ARVE Res SARL, Pully, Switzerland;Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Phelps, Leanne
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kay, Andrea
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Olago, Dan
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Climate Change & Adaptat, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Platts, Philip J.
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England;Univ York, Dept Biol, York Y010 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.
    Punwong, Paramita
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Environm & Resource Studies, Salaya 73170, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Human Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie
    Univ South Africa, Dept Anthropol & Archaeol, UNISA, POB 392, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Ferro-Vazquez, Cruz
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Benard, Jacquiline
    Kenya Wildlife Serv, Shimba Hills, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Boivin, Nicole
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Crowther, Alison
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Deere, Nicolas J.
    Univ Kent, Sch Anthropol & Conservat, DICE, Marlowe Bldg, Canterbury CT2 7NR, Kent, England.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Farmer, Jennifer
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, Scotland;Carbon Fdn East Africa, POB 70480 Lubowa Estate, Kampala, Uganda.
    Finch, Jemma
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Agr Earth & Environm Sci, Discipline Geog, Private Bag X01, ZA-3201 Scottsville, South Africa.
    Fuller, Dorian
    UCL, Inst Archaeol, 31-34 Gordon Sq, London WC1H OPY, England.
    Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-Jose
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Plant Conservat Unit, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Bot Dept, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Githumbi, Esther
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kabora, Tabitha
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kariuki, Rebecca
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kinyanjui, Rahab
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Kyazike, Elizabeth
    Lang, Carol
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lejju, Julius
    Mbarara Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, POB 1410, Mbarara, Uganda.
    Morrison, Kathleen D.
    Univ Penn, Dept Anthropol, 3260 South St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Muiruri, Veronica
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Mumbi, Cassian
    Tanzania Wildlife Res Inst TAWIRI, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Muthoni, Rebecca
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Muzuka, Alfred
    Nelson Mandela African Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Water Resources & Environm Sci & Engn, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Ndiema, Emmanuel
    Natl Museums Kenya, Archaeol Sect, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Nzabandora, Chantal Kabonyi
    Univ Officielle Bukavu, Bukavu, DEM REP CONGO.
    Onjala, Isaya
    Kyambogo Univ, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Kampala, Uganda.
    Schrijver, Annemiek Pas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Human Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rucina, Stephen
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England;Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Thornton-Barnett, Senna
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    van der Plas, Geert
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Watson, Elizabeth E.
    Kyambogo Univ, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Kampala, Uganda;Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Downing Pl, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England.
    Williamson, David
    IRD, United Nations Ave,POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Wright, David
    Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Archaeol & Art Hist, 1 Gwanak Ro, Seoul 08826, South Korea.
    Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present2018In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, p. 322-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region. Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

  • 36.
    Mumbi, Casian
    et al.
    York Institute for Ecosystem, UK.
    Marchant, Rob
    York Institute for Ecosystem, UK.
    Lane, Paul
    Department of Archaeology, University of York, King's Manor, York, UK.
    Vegetation response to climate change and human impacts in the Usambara Mountains2014In: ISRN Forestry, ISSN 2090-892X, article id 240510Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The East and West Usambara Mountain blocks are unique based on three characteristics. Firstly, they are connected blocks; secondly, they have an oceanic-influenced climate; and thirdly, the rain seasons are not easily discernible due to their close proximity to the Indian Ocean and Equator. Sediment cores were collected from peat bogs in Derema (DRM) and Mbomole (MBML) in East Usambara and from Madumu (DUMU) in West Usambara. The multiproxy record provides an understanding on climate and vegetation changes during the last 5000 years. DRM and MBML cores result in radiocarbon ages and age-depth curve which showed hiatus at 20 cm and 61 cm and huge inversion for DUMU core at 57 cm. Period 5000–4000 14C yr BP for DUMU core revealed increased Montane forest indicative of relatively moist conditions. Periods 3000–2000 and 2000–1000 14C yr BP, DUMU core demonstrated increased submontane and lowland forests. Period 1000–200 14C yr BP, DUMU core signified increased coprophilous fungi while DRM and MBML cores signified fluctuating herbaceous pollen spectra (wet-dry episodes). Period 200 14C yr BP to present, all cores demonstrated stable recovery of forest types especially dominance of submontane forests. Abundant coprophilous fungi indicated increased human impacts including forest fires, cultivation, and grazing.

  • 37.
    Petek, Nik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. of Geography, Archaeology & Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
    Ethnogenesis and surplus food production: communitas and identity building among nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ilchamus, Lake Baringo, Kenya2017In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 40-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most archaeological discussions of surplus production tend to focus either on its role in the emergence and maintenance of social complexity (whether among hunter-gatherers, farming communities or incipient states) or on the enabling properties of surplus as a basis for technological advances and aesthetic elaboration. Here, we offer a rather different perspective on surplus as an initiator of communitas and driver of ethnogenesis following a period of intense socio-ecological stress, environmental degradation and localized demographic decline during the nineteenth century. The particular case study concerns the Maa-language-speaking Ilchamus community who currently occupy areas around the southern end of Lake Baringo in the Central Rift Valley, Kenya. Drawing on a combination of new archaeological evidence, oral accounts and archival sources, the paper details the processes whereby destitute groups were drawn together into acts of surplus food production, initially of grain via the implementation of a system of irrigated agriculture and subsequently of cattle through the mobilization of kinship and related ties. In so doing, disparate older identities were abandoned or transformed and a different, unifying ethnicity – Ilchamus – emerged based on a new moral economy of shared prosperity.

  • 38.
    Straight, Bilinda
    et al.
    Western Michigan Univ, Dept Anthropol, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 USA..
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Hilton, Charles
    Grinnell Coll, Dept Anthropol, Grinnell, IA 50112 USA..
    Letua, Musa
    "Dust people": Samburu perspectives on disaster, identity, and landscape2016In: Journal of Eastern African Studies, ISSN 1753-1055, E-ISSN 1753-1063, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 168-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a Samburu pastoralist landscape idiom, ntoror, that encapsulates ideas about agentive pastoralist landscapes that inherently attract conflict; and passionate, place-based identities forged out of environmental and human-wrought disaster. The paper grows out of a project that experimentally integrated ethnographic self-scrutiny with a bio-archaeological excavation involving human remains, with the aim of encouraging reciprocal knowledge production. The inspiration for exploring ntoror and expanding its metaphorical reach came from our Samburu co-author, Musa Letua, who responded to the challenges the excavation posed by drawing upon the idiom of ntoror, which made sense to him. The overlapping stories of ntoror we narrate follow closely the ways in which Letua explored them in interviews associated with the excavation, and in other interview settings in earlier years. As such, this paper represents the fruits of cross-cultural collaboration and shared knowledge production.

  • 39. Straight, Bilinda
    et al.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Hilton, Charles E.
    Letua, Musa
    "It was maendeleo that removed them': disturbing burials and reciprocal knowledge production in a context of collaborative archaeology2015In: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, ISSN 1359-0987, E-ISSN 1467-9655, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 391-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent decades have witnessed a growth in approaches to research and writing across anthropology's four fields that emphasize the need to respect alternative narratives and constructions of history, and to engage with anthropology's publics'. These developments have generated more ethically responsible research and more inclusive writing practices. Nevertheless, the actual doing of cross-cultural collaboration and knowledge production remains a challenge. In this three-field (cultural, biological, and archaeological anthropology) study, we aim to capture, in writing, a process of collaborative fieldwork with Samburu pastoralists in northern Kenya that experimentally integrated ethnographic self-scrutiny with a bio-archaeological excavation involving human remains. In the process, we highlight the reciprocal knowledge production that this cross-subdisciplinary, transcultural fieldwork produced.

  • 40.
    van der Plas, Geert W.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    De Cort, Gijs
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium;Royal Museum Cent Africa, Dept Earth Sci, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium.
    Petek-Sargeant, Nik
    British Museum, Dept Africa Oceania & Amer, Great Russell St, London WC1B 3DG, England.
    Wuytack, Tabitha
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Colombaroli, Daniele
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium;Royal Holloway Univ London, Ctr Quaternary Res, Dept Geog, Egham TW20 0EX, Surrey, England.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, England.
    Verschuren, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Distinct phases of natural landscape dynamics and intensifying human activity in the central Kenya Rift Valley during the past 1300 years2019In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 218, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-ecological stresses currently affecting the semi-arid regions of equatorial East Africa are driving environmental changes that need to be placed in a proper context of long-term human-climate-landscape interaction. Here we present a detailed reconstruction of past human influences on the landscape of the central Kenya Rift Valley, against the backdrop of natural climate-driven ecosystem dynamics over the past 1300 years. Proxy records of vegetation dynamics (pollen), animal husbandry (fungal spores), biomass burning (charcoal) and soil mobilization (clastic mineral influx) extracted from the continuous depositional archive of Lake Bogoria reveal six distinct phases of human activity. From ca 700 to 1430 CE, strong primary response of savanna woodland ecotonal vegetation to climatic moisture-balance variation suggests that anthropogenic influence on regional ecosystem dynamics was limited. The first unambiguous ecological signature of human activities involves a mid-15th century reduction of woodland/forest trees followed by the appearance of cereal pollen, both evidence for mixed farming. From the mid-17th century, animal husbandry became a significant ecological factor and reached near-modern levels by the mid-19th century, after severe early-19th century drought had substantially changed human-landscape interaction. A short-lived peak in biomass burning and evidence for soil mobilization in low-lying areas of the Bogoria catchment likely reflects the known 19th-century establishment of irrigation agriculture, while renewed expansion of forest and woodland trees reflect the return of a wetter climate and abandonment of other farmland. Since the mid-20th century, the principal signature of human activity within the Lake Bogoria catchment is the unprecedented increase in clastic sediment flux, reflecting widespread soil erosion associated with rapidly intensifying land use. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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