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  • 1.
    Toller, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Alternative binder hardmetals for steel turning2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work is to understand how the wear and deformation mechanisms of hardmetalinserts change when the cobalt binder phase is replaced with a dierent metal or analloy. The focus is on inserts for steel turning. The work presented in this licentiate thesisconsists of the rst steps.Cobalt is the most common binder phase in hardmetal tools based on tungsten carbide asthe hard phase. Metallic cobalt powder, present during the manufacturing, has been associatedwith lung diseases and an increased risk for lung cancer if inhaled. Therefore it is importantto investigate alternative binders as one possible solution.This work studies binder phase alloys from the iron-nickel-cobalt system. These alloyscan be either austenitic, martensitic or a mixture of the two phases. By changing the binderphase composition to change the crystal structure it is possible to tailor the macroscopic mechanicalproperties of the material. It is also possible to tailor the composition in such a waythat the binder is transformation toughening, forming martensite as a response to mechanicaldeformation.The majority of inserts for steel turning are coated, and it is important to investigate if thehardmetals with alternative binder can be coated and if the coating adhesion is sucient forsteel turning.Four dierent alternative binder alloys and one reference with cobalt binder coated bychemical vapour deposition were investigated by scratch testing to determine the adhesion.The scratch test adhesion was sucient on all samples, but signicant variations in coatingadhesion were found.One alternative binder with 86wt%Ni and 14wt%Fe and a reference with cobalt binder manufacturedto mimic state of the art turning inserts were tested in steel turning. The alternativebinder grades had a lower resistance to plastic deformation and this was attributed to earlyaking of the coating due to a lower coating adhesion. Focused ion beam and scanning electronmicroscopy were used to study the deformation of the hard metal in the used cuttinginserts.

    List of papers
    1. Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 62, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health concerns surrounding the use of cobalt as a binder for tungsten carbide in cemented carbides there is a drive to find an alternative binder. Although there are many publications on cemented carbides with alternative binders very few consider the possibility to coat these materials. In this work four different binder compositions containing iron-nickel or iron-nickel-cobalt and a pure cobalt reference are investigated with respect to coating ability. It is shown that it is possible to coat these cemented carbides with alternative binders through the same chemical vapor deposition process that is commonly used for cobalt based inserts and get similar coating structure. It is further shown that it can be done without the formation of η-phase and with comparable scratch test adhesion.

    Keywords
    alternative binders, cemented carbide, CVD
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310617 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2016.07.005 (DOI)000390503200019 ()
    Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
    2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

    Keywords
    Cutting tools, Cemented carbide, Alternative binder, Face turning
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329133 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.018 (DOI)000403902000097 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning2017In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

  • 3.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB R&D.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    CVD Coating Adhesion on Metal Cutting Insertswith Alternative Binders2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Liu, Chunxin
    Holmström, Erik
    Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB R&D.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Liu, Chunxin
    Royal Institute of Technologi.
    Holmström, Erik
    Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB R&D.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating2017In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 62, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health concerns surrounding the use of cobalt as a binder for tungsten carbide in cemented carbides there is a drive to find an alternative binder. Although there are many publications on cemented carbides with alternative binders very few consider the possibility to coat these materials. In this work four different binder compositions containing iron-nickel or iron-nickel-cobalt and a pure cobalt reference are investigated with respect to coating ability. It is shown that it is possible to coat these cemented carbides with alternative binders through the same chemical vapor deposition process that is commonly used for cobalt based inserts and get similar coating structure. It is further shown that it can be done without the formation of η-phase and with comparable scratch test adhesion.

  • 6.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Mechanisms of plastic deformation in WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe turning inserts2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is an inital study on microstructural features along the flank face of plastically deformed turning inserts. The turning inserts used are WC-NiFe hardmetals that have been used in face turning with noticeable plastic deformation and flaking of the coating at the cutting edge limiting the life time. It was found that the flank face could be split into five zones of different conditions during the turning test based on the outer appearance. These five zones also exhibited different signs of plastic deformation in their microstructure, seen in both focused ion beam cross sections and in a mechanically polished cross section, including what is believed to be cavity and lamellae formation from grain boundary sliding. The microscopic plastic deformation of the turning inserts in this work were compared with litterature on deformed WC-Co.

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