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  • 1.
    Toller, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Alternative binder hardmetals for steel turning2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work is to understand how the wear and deformation mechanisms of hardmetalinserts change when the cobalt binder phase is replaced with a dierent metal or analloy. The focus is on inserts for steel turning. The work presented in this licentiate thesisconsists of the rst steps.Cobalt is the most common binder phase in hardmetal tools based on tungsten carbide asthe hard phase. Metallic cobalt powder, present during the manufacturing, has been associatedwith lung diseases and an increased risk for lung cancer if inhaled. Therefore it is importantto investigate alternative binders as one possible solution.This work studies binder phase alloys from the iron-nickel-cobalt system. These alloyscan be either austenitic, martensitic or a mixture of the two phases. By changing the binderphase composition to change the crystal structure it is possible to tailor the macroscopic mechanicalproperties of the material. It is also possible to tailor the composition in such a waythat the binder is transformation toughening, forming martensite as a response to mechanicaldeformation.The majority of inserts for steel turning are coated, and it is important to investigate if thehardmetals with alternative binder can be coated and if the coating adhesion is sucient forsteel turning.Four dierent alternative binder alloys and one reference with cobalt binder coated bychemical vapour deposition were investigated by scratch testing to determine the adhesion.The scratch test adhesion was sucient on all samples, but signicant variations in coatingadhesion were found.One alternative binder with 86wt%Ni and 14wt%Fe and a reference with cobalt binder manufacturedto mimic state of the art turning inserts were tested in steel turning. The alternativebinder grades had a lower resistance to plastic deformation and this was attributed to earlyaking of the coating due to a lower coating adhesion. Focused ion beam and scanning electronmicroscopy were used to study the deformation of the hard metal in the used cuttinginserts.

    List of papers
    1. Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 62, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health concerns surrounding the use of cobalt as a binder for tungsten carbide in cemented carbides there is a drive to find an alternative binder. Although there are many publications on cemented carbides with alternative binders very few consider the possibility to coat these materials. In this work four different binder compositions containing iron-nickel or iron-nickel-cobalt and a pure cobalt reference are investigated with respect to coating ability. It is shown that it is possible to coat these cemented carbides with alternative binders through the same chemical vapor deposition process that is commonly used for cobalt based inserts and get similar coating structure. It is further shown that it can be done without the formation of η-phase and with comparable scratch test adhesion.

    Keywords
    alternative binders, cemented carbide, CVD
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310617 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2016.07.005 (DOI)000390503200019 ()
    Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
    2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

    Keywords
    Cutting tools, Cemented carbide, Alternative binder, Face turning
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329133 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.018 (DOI)000403902000097 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning2017In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

  • 3.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB R&D.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    CVD Coating Adhesion on Metal Cutting Insertswith Alternative Binders2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Liu, Chunxin
    Holmström, Erik
    Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB R&D.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Liu, Chunxin
    Royal Institute of Technologi.
    Holmström, Erik
    Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Larsson, Tommy
    Seco Tools AB R&D.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating2017In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 62, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health concerns surrounding the use of cobalt as a binder for tungsten carbide in cemented carbides there is a drive to find an alternative binder. Although there are many publications on cemented carbides with alternative binders very few consider the possibility to coat these materials. In this work four different binder compositions containing iron-nickel or iron-nickel-cobalt and a pure cobalt reference are investigated with respect to coating ability. It is shown that it is possible to coat these cemented carbides with alternative binders through the same chemical vapor deposition process that is commonly used for cobalt based inserts and get similar coating structure. It is further shown that it can be done without the formation of η-phase and with comparable scratch test adhesion.

  • 6.
    Toller, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Mechanisms of plastic deformation in WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe turning inserts2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is an inital study on microstructural features along the flank face of plastically deformed turning inserts. The turning inserts used are WC-NiFe hardmetals that have been used in face turning with noticeable plastic deformation and flaking of the coating at the cutting edge limiting the life time. It was found that the flank face could be split into five zones of different conditions during the turning test based on the outer appearance. These five zones also exhibited different signs of plastic deformation in their microstructure, seen in both focused ion beam cross sections and in a mechanically polished cross section, including what is believed to be cavity and lamellae formation from grain boundary sliding. The microscopic plastic deformation of the turning inserts in this work were compared with litterature on deformed WC-Co.

  • 7.
    Toller-Nordström, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Insights into wear and deformation of alternative binder hardmetals2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents new insights into how hardmetals with alternative binders as well as cobalt based references react to wear and deformation. The main focus has been on hardmetals for steel turning, but also on studying certain fundamental properties of the new binder materials.

    Cobalt has traditionally been the most common binder phase for tungsten carbide grains in hardmetals, but recent insights into the carcinogenicity of cobalt powder has led to a need to research alternatives. In this work hardmetals with binder phases consisting of alloys of iron and nickel or iron, nickel and cobalt have been studied.

    Coated hardmetal inserts used until end of tool life in steel turning have been evaluated with respect to the plastic deformation and coating adhesion. It was found that grain boundary sliding of tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide grain boundaries is an important deformation mechanism during dry face turning, concluded based on an increased number of binder phase lamellae in tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide grain boundaries in the deformed microstructure.  The lamellae were found to have a preferred orientation, coinciding with the expected flow of material during deformation.

    For turning inserts with exposed hardmetal due to flaked coating it was further observed that the microstructure contained cavities caused by the increased temperature of the hardmetal when the protective coating layers are lost. No cavities were found in samples which were still covered by coating at the end of a test. It was therefore concluded that improving the coating adhesion is an important step towards improved performance of alternative binder hardmetals.

    Some of the alternative binders in this work were iron rich alloys. Alloys rich in iron can be either austenitic, martensitic or a mixture of the two and this will have a large influence on the final hardmetal properties. It is also possible to make an iron rich alloy which is austenitic at room temperature, but forms deformation induced martensite as a response to stress or strain. This work investigated deformation induced martensite formed during scratching and in abrasive wear of a binder phase alloy of iron, nickel and cobalt. Electron diffraction in both scanning electron microscopes and transmission electron microscopes showed that scratching the surface of this hardmetal resulted in a finely grained surface layer of mixed austenite and martensite. This could prove beneficial in applications.

    List of papers
    1. Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
    2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

    Keywords
    Cutting tools, Cemented carbide, Alternative binder, Face turning
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329133 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.018 (DOI)000403902000097 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Towards understanding plastic deformation in hardmetal turning inserts with different binders
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards understanding plastic deformation in hardmetal turning inserts with different binders
    (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    This works investigates the deformation of coated hardmetal turning inserts used until the end of life. Three different hardmetals with binder phases, pure cobalt, 15 wt% iron 85 wt% nickel and 85 wt% iron 15 wt% nickel are tested. It is shown that grain boundary sliding accommodated by formation of binder phase lamellaeis present in all tested inserts, given by a clear increase in number of lamellae in the microstructure of a tested cutting edge compared to a pristine cutting edge ofthe same material. The lamellae formation is discussed and can be explained by the stresses experienced by the cutting edge during turning. The importance of good coating adhesion was shown by formation of cavities in inserts that experienced akiflng of the coating.

    Keywords
    Hardmetal, steel turning, plastic deformation, grain boundary sliding
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395617 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22
    3. Orientation of binder phase lamellae formed through grain boundary sliding in hardmetal turning inserts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Orientation of binder phase lamellae formed through grain boundary sliding in hardmetal turning inserts
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    hardmetal; cemented carbide; grain boundary sliding; alternative binders
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395616 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22
    4. Deformation induced martensite in a Fe-Ni-Co binder phase of a hardmetal
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deformation induced martensite in a Fe-Ni-Co binder phase of a hardmetal
    2019 (English)In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 155, article id 109783Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates deformation induced martensite in a hardmetal binder phase with target composition 50 wt% iron, 25 wt% nickel and 25 wt% cobalt. A fully austenitic ion polished cross-section surface was scratched with a diamond indenter and investigated with X-ray and electron diffraction. It was found that the top 100 nm of the scratched surface contained a mixture of austenite and a second phase identified as BCC/BCT martensite. The martensite grain size varied between a few 10 nm and a over 1 mu m in dimensions.

    Keywords
    Hardmetal, Deformation, Diffraction, Electron microscopy, Martensite
    National Category
    Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394261 (URN)10.1016/j.matchar.2019.06.025 (DOI)000483411900015 ()
    Funder
    Vinnova, Co-2014-01916
    Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
    5. Abrasive wear of hardmetals with a binder phase forming deformation induced martensite
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abrasive wear of hardmetals with a binder phase forming deformation induced martensite
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardmetals with alternative binder phases with compositions tailored for specific applications may be used to achieve improved performance of tools. In this paper an iron based binder phase that has previously been found to undergo a phase transformation from austenite to martensite as a response to plastic deformation is tested in three different tests: Micro scratch tests, micro abrasion and rock turning. All three tests show characteristic wear of the tungsten carbide and removal of binder phase from the surface.

    Keywords
    hardmetal, alternative binders, cemented carbides, rock drilling, microscale abrasion, micro scratch testing
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395618 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-11-06
  • 8.
    Toller-Nordström, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gee, Mark
    National Physical Laboratory.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mingard, Ken
    National Physical Laboratory.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Sandvik Mining and Rock Technology, R&D Rock Tools division.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Abrasive wear of hardmetals with a binder phase forming deformation induced martensiteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardmetals with alternative binder phases with compositions tailored for specific applications may be used to achieve improved performance of tools. In this paper an iron based binder phase that has previously been found to undergo a phase transformation from austenite to martensite as a response to plastic deformation is tested in three different tests: Micro scratch tests, micro abrasion and rock turning. All three tests show characteristic wear of the tungsten carbide and removal of binder phase from the surface.

  • 9.
    Toller-Nordström, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mingard, K.
    Natl Phys Lab, Hampton Rd, Teddington TW11 0LW, Middx, England.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Sandvik Coromant R&D, Lerkrogsvagen 13, S-12680 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deformation induced martensite in a Fe-Ni-Co binder phase of a hardmetal2019In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 155, article id 109783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates deformation induced martensite in a hardmetal binder phase with target composition 50 wt% iron, 25 wt% nickel and 25 wt% cobalt. A fully austenitic ion polished cross-section surface was scratched with a diamond indenter and investigated with X-ray and electron diffraction. It was found that the top 100 nm of the scratched surface contained a mixture of austenite and a second phase identified as BCC/BCT martensite. The martensite grain size varied between a few 10 nm and a over 1 mu m in dimensions.

  • 10.
    Toller-Nordström, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Orientation of binder phase lamellae formed through grain boundary sliding in hardmetal turning insertsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Toller-Nordström, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Östby, Jonas
    Sandvik Coromant R&D.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Towards understanding plastic deformation in hardmetal turning inserts with different bindersIn: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This works investigates the deformation of coated hardmetal turning inserts used until the end of life. Three different hardmetals with binder phases, pure cobalt, 15 wt% iron 85 wt% nickel and 85 wt% iron 15 wt% nickel are tested. It is shown that grain boundary sliding accommodated by formation of binder phase lamellaeis present in all tested inserts, given by a clear increase in number of lamellae in the microstructure of a tested cutting edge compared to a pristine cutting edge ofthe same material. The lamellae formation is discussed and can be explained by the stresses experienced by the cutting edge during turning. The importance of good coating adhesion was shown by formation of cavities in inserts that experienced akiflng of the coating.

  • 12.
    Wiklund, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Emy, Guttenkunst
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Grandin, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Toller, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wear mechanisms of tools for exploration drilling2019In: Euromat 2019, Stockholm, Sweden, 2019, p. 787-Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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