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  • 1.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Can Mapping Learning Replace Smart Meters?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Feedback learning and multiple goal pursuit in an electricity consumption task2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with the thesis was to investigate how learning to pursue two conflicting goals (cost and utility) in an electricity consumption task is affected by different forms of feedback, goal phrasing, and task environment. Applied research investigating the efficiency of outcome feedback on electricity consumption via in-home displays points at modest reductions (2-4%). Further, a wealth of cognitive psychological research shows that learning with outcome feedback is not unproblematic. A new experimental paradigm, the simulated household, that captures the cognitive task that confronts people when trying to regulate their electricity consumption, was developed. In three studies, different aspects of the problem of regulating one’s consumption was investigated. Study I, investigated how different feedback in terms of frequency, detail, and presence of random noise or not affect performance. It also investigated if participants pursued the goals sequentially or simultaneously and if they were able to derive a model of the task. Results showed that frequent feedback was beneficial only in a deterministic system and, surprisingly, random noise improved performance by highlighting the most costly appliances. Modelling results indicated that participants pursued goals sequentially and did not have a mental model of the task. Study II, investigated if a short feedforward training could replace or complement outcome feedback. Results indicated that the performance with one of the feedforward training schemes lead to comparable performance to outcome feedback only. The best performance was obtained when this feedforward scheme was combined with outcome feedback. Study III, investigated if the sequential goal pursuit observed in Study I was related to interpretation of the task or cognitive limitations by specifying goals for cost and/or utility. Further, it investigated the reason for the cost prioritisation. Results indicated that the sequential goal pursuit derives from cognitive constraints. Together, the results from the studies suggest that people pursue the goals sequentially and that instant outcome feedback may harm performance by distracting people from the most important and costly appliances to the appliances that allow large variability in use.

    List of papers
    1. Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 106-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive research on feedback, little research is aimed at the use of feedback to optimise conflicting goals. A task modelled after In Home Displays for providing feedback about electricity cost was designed to investigate the effects of feedback frequency, detail, and stability, when participants try to balance cost and utility. Frequent feedback proved to be advantageous in a deterministic system, but feedback aggregated over time was advantageous in a system with noisy feedback. Surprisingly, performance was better with noisy feedback, where the probabilism, in effect, acted as a filter, highlighting the applications that are most important for the cost and the utility. Computational modelling suggested that the best-fitting model assumes that the participants are sequential, considering one goal at a time, first satisfying the cost budget, only thereafter trying to maximise the utility, and reflexive, myopically responding primarily to the feedback explicitly available on a given trial.

    Keywords
    Feedback, optimisation, goal conflict, cognitive myopia, energy efficiency
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-274420 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2015.1095192 (DOI)000367337800008 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning
    2015 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 326-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A popular way to improve consumers' control over their electricity consumption is by providing outcome feedback on the cost with in-home displays. Research on function learning, however, suggests that outcome feedback may not always be ideal for learning, especially if the feedback signal is noisy. In this study, we relate research on function learning to in-home displays and use a laboratory task simulating a household to investigate the role of outcome feedback and function learning on electricity optimization. Three function training schemes (FTSs) are presented that convey specific properties of the functions that relate the electricity consumption to the utility and cost. In Experiment 1, we compared learning from outcome feedback with 3 FTSs, 1 of which allowed maximization of the utility while keeping the budget, despite no feedback about the total monthly cost. In Experiment 2, we explored the combination of this FTS and outcome feedback. The results suggested that electricity optimization may be facilitated if feedback learning is preceded by a brief period of function training.

    Keywords
    function learning, electricity consumption, electricity optimization, in-home displays
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272132 (URN)10.1037/xap0000056 (DOI)000366318200002 ()26460677 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Why Do People Pursue Goals Sequentially when they Try to Balance the Cost and the Utility in an Electricity Consumption Task?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Do People Pursue Goals Sequentially when they Try to Balance the Cost and the Utility in an Electricity Consumption Task?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research in Cognitive Psychology has investigated people’s ability to use feedback to pursue a single goal, little research has addressed their ability to use feedback to pursue multiple goals. In a study (Juslin et al., 2016) that investigated people’s ability to use electricity efficiently in a simulated household, balancing the cost of its use against its utility, results showed that the goals were addressed sequentially, first the cost, thereafter the utility. In the present study, we investigated the reasons for this sequential goal pursuit and, specifically, if it derives from cognitive constraints. In Experiment 1, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if they are equally emphasized by an explicit “budget”. In Experiment 2, we tested if the initial priority assigned to cost derives from its larger evaluability. In Experiment 3, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if not only cost but also utility is represented by a linear function. The results suggest that the sequential goal pursuit is driven by limits on cognitive capacity that are little affected by training, goal phrasing, and function form. We found no evidence that the initial priority assigned to cost is caused by its higher evaluability or its linear function form.

    Keywords
    sequential goal pursuit, goal-shielding, goal-dilution, electricity consumption
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348820 (URN)
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Guath, Mona
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rackwitz, Roger
    Why Do People Pursue Goals Sequentially when they Try to Balance the Cost and the Utility in an Electricity Consumption Task?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research in Cognitive Psychology has investigated people’s ability to use feedback to pursue a single goal, little research has addressed their ability to use feedback to pursue multiple goals. In a study (Juslin et al., 2016) that investigated people’s ability to use electricity efficiently in a simulated household, balancing the cost of its use against its utility, results showed that the goals were addressed sequentially, first the cost, thereafter the utility. In the present study, we investigated the reasons for this sequential goal pursuit and, specifically, if it derives from cognitive constraints. In Experiment 1, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if they are equally emphasized by an explicit “budget”. In Experiment 2, we tested if the initial priority assigned to cost derives from its larger evaluability. In Experiment 3, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if not only cost but also utility is represented by a linear function. The results suggest that the sequential goal pursuit is driven by limits on cognitive capacity that are little affected by training, goal phrasing, and function form. We found no evidence that the initial priority assigned to cost is caused by its higher evaluability or its linear function form.

  • 4.
    Guath, Mona
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Millroth, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does Sequential or Simultaneous Presentation of Value and Probability Affect the Information Integration in Risky Prospects?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Guath, Mona
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Millroth, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning2015In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 326-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A popular way to improve consumers' control over their electricity consumption is by providing outcome feedback on the cost with in-home displays. Research on function learning, however, suggests that outcome feedback may not always be ideal for learning, especially if the feedback signal is noisy. In this study, we relate research on function learning to in-home displays and use a laboratory task simulating a household to investigate the role of outcome feedback and function learning on electricity optimization. Three function training schemes (FTSs) are presented that convey specific properties of the functions that relate the electricity consumption to the utility and cost. In Experiment 1, we compared learning from outcome feedback with 3 FTSs, 1 of which allowed maximization of the utility while keeping the budget, despite no feedback about the total monthly cost. In Experiment 2, we explored the combination of this FTS and outcome feedback. The results suggested that electricity optimization may be facilitated if feedback learning is preceded by a brief period of function training.

  • 6.
    Juslin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Millroth, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task2016In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 106-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive research on feedback, little research is aimed at the use of feedback to optimise conflicting goals. A task modelled after In Home Displays for providing feedback about electricity cost was designed to investigate the effects of feedback frequency, detail, and stability, when participants try to balance cost and utility. Frequent feedback proved to be advantageous in a deterministic system, but feedback aggregated over time was advantageous in a system with noisy feedback. Surprisingly, performance was better with noisy feedback, where the probabilism, in effect, acted as a filter, highlighting the applications that are most important for the cost and the utility. Computational modelling suggested that the best-fitting model assumes that the participants are sequential, considering one goal at a time, first satisfying the cost budget, only thereafter trying to maximise the utility, and reflexive, myopically responding primarily to the feedback explicitly available on a given trial.

  • 7.
    Millroth, Philip
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory and decision making: Effects of sequential presentation of probabilities and outcomes in risky prospects2019In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 304-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rationality of decision making under risk is of central concern in psychology and other behavioral sciences. In real-life, the information relevant to a decision often arrives sequentially or changes over time, implying nontrivial demands on memory. Yet, little is known about how this affects the ability to make rational decisions and a default assumption is rather that information about outcomes and probabilities are simultaneously available at the time of the decision. In 4 experiments, we show that participants receiving probability- and outcome information sequentially report substantially (29 to 83%) higher certainty equivalents than participants with simultaneous presentation. This holds also for monetary-incentivized participants with perfect recall of the information. Participants in the sequential conditions often violate stochastic dominance in the sense that they pay more for a lottery with low probability of an outcome than participants in the simultaneous condition pay for a high probability of the same outcome. Computational modeling demonstrates that Cumulative Prospect Theory (Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) fails to account for the effects of sequential presentation, but a model assuming anchoring-and adjustment constrained by memory can account for the data. By implication, established assumptions of rationality may need to be reconsidered to account for the effects of memory in many real-life tasks.

  • 8.
    Nygren, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mixed Digital Messages: The ability to determine news credibility among Swedish teenagers2018In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE15th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COGNITION AND EXPLORATORY LEARNING IN THE DIGITAL AGE (CELDA 2018) / [ed] Demetrios G. Sampson, Dirk Ifenthaler and Pedro Isaías, 2018, Vol. 15, p. 375-378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the abilities to determine credibility of digital news among 532 teenagers. Using an onlinetest we assess to what extent teenagers are able to determine the credibility of different sources, evaluate credible and biased uses of evidence, and corroborate information. Many respondents fail to identify the credibility of false, biased and vetted news. We identify a digital divide between people with and without the ability to determine credibility. We also find that a large proportion of the respondents struggle to identify the source of information in Sweden’s most read online newspaper. Respondents struggle to determine the bias of news reports regarding racism and weight loss, but are better at debunking manipulated images. Respondents who value the importance of credible news and who indicate that they have learned media literacy in school seem to hold a mind-set helping them to determine credibility better than other respondents. Our findings provide a basis for further research of how to better understand and support digital civic literacy in classrooms and society.

  • 9.
    Nygren, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Swedish teenagers’ difficulties and abilities to determine digital news credibility2019In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the abilities to determine the credibility of digital news among 483 teenagers. Using an online survey with a performance test we assess to what extent teenagers are able to determine the credibility of different sources, evaluate credible and biased uses of evidence, and corroborate information. Many respondents fail to identify the credibility of false, biased and vetted news. Respondents who value the importance of credible news seem to hold a mindset helping them to determine credibility better than other respondents. In contrast, respondents self-reporting to be good at searching informa-tion online and who find information online trustworthy are not very good at civic online reasoning. Our findings, which may be linked to theories of disciplinary literacy, science curiosity and overconfidence, provide a basis for further research of how to better under-stand and support civic online reasoning in classrooms and society.

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