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  • 1.
    Barankova, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Amorphous Carbon Films on Glass Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure2016In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 5, no 9, p. N57-N60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Barankova, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. BB Plasma Design AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. BB Plasma Design AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, A.
    BB Plasma Design AB.
    Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target2018In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 152, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetized Hollow Cathode Activated Magnetron in which the target is coupled with the hollow cathode magnetized by the magnetic field of the magnetron was tested in the reactive process of TiN deposition. Increased deposition rate compared to the Ti metal deposition rate was confirmed. The depositions as well as optical measurements were performed at several pressures in the reactor. The results of the TiN reactive deposition are presented and discussed, including the TiN deposition in pure nitrogen.

  • 3.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    DLC coatings prepared by hollow cathodes at moderate pressure2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    DLC coatings were prepared using the rf powered cylindrical and linear hollow cathodes. The deposition process is hybrid, combining both the PE CVD and PVD. A cylindrical graphite nozzle and graphite plates were used as targets. The gas mixture used in the deposition process was argon with acetylene.

     

    Compared to e.g. magnetron sputtering, the optimum content of acetylene is lower. The effect of the acetylene content in the gas mixture as well as rf power on the deposition rate and properties of the coatings are evaluated.

     

    The geometrical effect is studied, the cylindrical hollow cathode and the linear hollow cathode are compared and the transfer of the optimized process from the cylindrical into the linear hollow cathode is discussed.

  • 4.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Silins, Silins
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    DLC coatings prepared by hollow cathodes at moderate pressure2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    DLC coatings were prepared using the rf powered cylindrical and linear hollow cathodes. The deposition process is hybrid, combining both the PE CVD and PVD. A cylindrical graphite nozzle and graphite plates were used as targets. The gas mixture used in the deposition process was argon with acetylene.

     

    Compared to e.g. magnetron sputtering, the optimum content of acetylene is lower. The effect of the acetylene content in the gas mixture as well as rf power on the deposition rate and properties of the coatings are evaluated.

     

    The geometrical effect is studied, the cylindrical hollow cathode and the linear hollow cathode are compared and the transfer of the optimized process from the cylindrical into the linear hollow cathode is discussed.

  • 5.
    Ma, D. L.
    et al.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Liu, H. Y.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Q. Y.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Yang, W. M.
    China Acad Engn Phys, Inst Mech Mfg Technol, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Huang, N.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Leng, Y. X.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Optimal target sputtering mode for aluminum nitride thin film deposition by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 160, p. 410-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low surface roughness, low residual stress, and(002) textured aluminum nitride(AlN) thin films are favored for applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, AlN thin films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering(HPPMS). The effect of aluminum target sputtering mode and sputtering power on thin film residual stress, crystalline structure, surface roughness, and morphology of AlN thin films was studied. The results indicate that, with Al target sputtering mode transfer from metallic mode to transitional and compound modes, respectively, the number of Al species decrease, and ion-to-neutral ratio of Al species increase. Comparing the AIN thin film deposited in compound mode with that deposited in transitional mode, the latter exhibited lower surface roughness and residual stress. In addition, AlN thin film with (002) texture and lower residual stress is obtained by increasing sputtering power in transitional mode. For fabricating AIN film via reactive HPPMS with a particular (002) texture, low surface roughness, and residual stress, sputtering the target in the transitional mode with high sputtering power is optimal.

  • 6.
    Ma, D. L.
    et al.
    Southwest Jiaotong University.
    Wu, B. H.
    Southwest Jiaotong University.
    Deng, Q. Y.
    Southwest Jiaotong University.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Chen, C. Z.
    Southwest Jiaotong University.
    Yang, W. M.
    China Academy of Engineering Physics.
    Leng, Y.X.
    Southwest Jiaotong University.
    Huang, N.
    Southwest Jiaotong University.
    Optimal target-sputtering mode for Aluminum Nitride thin film deposition by high power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Silins, Kaspars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Barankova, Hana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates2017In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 115206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick amorphous carbon films were deposited by the Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) rf linear hollow cathode at varying acetylene contents in Ar in a hybrid PVD/PE-CVD process directly on glass substrates. The hollow cathode plates manufactured from graphite were used as the PVD target. The measurements show that the films can reach thickness of up to 50 mu m at deposition rates of up to 2.5 mu m/min. Scratch test measurements confirm that well adhering films several mu m thick can be achieved at C2H2 contents of up to 0.5%.

  • 8.
    Silins, Kaspars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Baránková, Hana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Raman Analysis of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure2017In: Proceedings of ISERD International Conference, San Diego, USA, June 21st-22nd, 2017, 2017, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Siliņš, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Plasma Enhanced Chemical- and Physical- Vapor Depositions Using Hollow Cathodes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of coating deposition technologies, in terms of performance and costs, is an ongoing process. A promising class of deposition technologies are based on hollow cathode discharges.

    This thesis investigates performance of selected hollow cathode plasma sources developed at the Plasma group, at Uppsala University for coating deposition at moderate pressures. Amorphous carbon film deposition was investigated by Radio frequency (RF) Hollow Cathode Plasma Jet (RHCPJ) and Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) linear hollow cathode plasma sources. Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced magnetron Target (HoCET). Aluminium nitride (AlN) deposition by RHCPJ was compared with High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS).

    Amorphous carbon films were prepared on glass substrates without an interlayer. The AlN and TiN films were deposited on Si substrates. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze plasma composition. The coating structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of films was measured by scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The TiN hardness was analyzed by microhardness test method and confirmed by nanoindentation analysis.

    Adherent amorphous carbon coating deposition process was transferred from RHCPJ to the M-M linear hollow cathode. Utilizing the latter plasma source, it was found that thick and adherent amorphous carbon coatings can be deposited in a range of 0.25% to 0.5% of C2H2 in Ar at constant a deposition pressure of 0.3 Torr and 1200 W of RF power. Deposition rates of 0.2 μm/min and 0.375 μm/min respectively were reached. Self-delaminating, thick (50 μm) amorphous carbon films can be deposited at a deposition rate of 2.5 μm/min at 2% C2H2. A non-linear relation was observed between the deposition rate and the C2H2 content.

    Utilizing the HoCET arrangement, high deposition rates of stoichiometric, polycrystalline TiN films are obtained. A maximum of 0.125 μm/min is obtained at 2.4% N2 in Ar, 1200 W RF power, 14 mTorr deposition pressure. TiN films deposited at 4 - 20% nitrogen contents displayed hardness values above 28 GPa reaching a maximum of 31.4 GPa at 5% N2.

    For a (002) oriented AlN film deposition the RHCPJ offers deposition rates of up to 150 nm/min. Using the HiPIMS at comparable deposition conditions the AlN films were achieved at a rate of 24 nm/min.

    List of papers
    1. Amorphous Carbon Films on Glass Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amorphous Carbon Films on Glass Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
    2016 (English)In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 5, no 9, p. N57-N60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310693 (URN)10.1149/2.0311609jss (DOI)000387983000006 ()
    Projects
    EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-01
    2. Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates
    2017 (English)In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 115206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thick amorphous carbon films were deposited by the Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) rf linear hollow cathode at varying acetylene contents in Ar in a hybrid PVD/PE-CVD process directly on glass substrates. The hollow cathode plates manufactured from graphite were used as the PVD target. The measurements show that the films can reach thickness of up to 50 mu m at deposition rates of up to 2.5 mu m/min. Scratch test measurements confirm that well adhering films several mu m thick can be achieved at C2H2 contents of up to 0.5%.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    USA: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2017
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335470 (URN)10.1063/1.5002091 (DOI)000416825700056 ()
    Projects
    EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Raman Analysis of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Raman Analysis of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of ISERD International Conference, San Diego, USA, June 21st-22nd, 2017, 2017, p. 1-5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Keywords
    Amorphous carbon, hollow cathode, hybrid PVD/PE-CVD, Raman analysis
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Analysis
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335472 (URN)978-93-86083-34-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    International Conference on Science and Innovative Engineering, San Diego, USA, June 21st-22nd, 2017
    Projects
    EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-02-01
    4. Optimal target-sputtering mode for Aluminum Nitride thin film deposition by high power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal target-sputtering mode for Aluminum Nitride thin film deposition by high power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS)
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340571 (URN)
    Projects
    NSAF (Grant No. U1330113)NSFC 31300787Educational Comission of Hubei Province of China (Q20164301)
    Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-02-01
    5. Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target
    2018 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 152, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetized Hollow Cathode Activated Magnetron in which the target is coupled with the hollow cathode magnetized by the magnetic field of the magnetron was tested in the reactive process of TiN deposition. Increased deposition rate compared to the Ti metal deposition rate was confirmed. The depositions as well as optical measurements were performed at several pressures in the reactor. The results of the TiN reactive deposition are presented and discussed, including the TiN deposition in pure nitrogen.

    Keywords
    Ionized magnetron, Reactive deposition in ionized magnetron, Magnetized hollow cathode, Hollow cathode activated magnetron, Hollow cathode enhanced target
    National Category
    Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340514 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.03.010 (DOI)000432499100018 ()
    Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
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