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  • 1.
    Charalampoudis, Petros
    et al.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Breast Unit, London, England; Kings Coll London, Div Canc Studies, London, England.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer2018In: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 19, no 3, p. E128-E128Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Edfeldt, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Backlin, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Tiensuu Janson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Midkine Is a New Novel Serum Biomarker in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors (SI-NETs)2016In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 103, p. 45-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hessman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stuart, Heather C.
    Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Miami, Florida, USA.
    Welin, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Tiensuu Janson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrin Oncology.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Association of a Prophylactic surgical approach to Stage IV Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors with Survival.2018In: JAMA Oncology, ISSN 2374-2437, E-ISSN 2374-2445, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 183-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: Primary tumor resection and mesenteric lymph node dissection in asymptomatic patients with stage IV Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors (SI-NETs) is controversial.

    Objective:  To determine whether locoregional surgery performed at diagnosis in asymptomatic SI-NETs patients with distant metastases affects overall survival (OS), morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and re-operation rates.

    Design: This investigation was a cohort study of asymptomatic patients with stage IV SI-NET, diagnosed between 1985 and 2015, using the prospective Uppsala database of SI-NETs and the Swedish National Patient Register. Patients included were followed until May 2016 and divided to a first group, which underwent Prophylactic Upfront Surgery within six months from diagnosis Combined with Oncological treatment (PUSCO group) and a second group, which was either treated non-surgically or operated later (Delayed Surgery As Needed Combined with Oncological treatment [DSANCO group]).

    Setting: A tertiary referral center with follow-up data from the Swedish National Patient Register.

    Participants: We included 363 stage IV SI-NET patients without any abdominal symptoms within 6 months from diagnosis, treated either with PUSCO (n=161) or DSANCO (n=202).

    Exposure: PUSCO vs DSANCO.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), length of hospital stay (LOS), postoperative morbidity and mortality and re-operation rates measured from baseline. Propensity score match was performed between the two groups.

    Results: Two isonumerical groups (n=91) occurred after propensity score matching. There was no difference between groups in OS (PUSCO median 7.9 vs DSANCO 7.6 years; [hazard ratio] HR, 0.98; [95% CI, 0.70-1.37]; log-rank P=.93) and cancer-specific survival (median 7.7 vs 7.6 years, HR, 0.99; [95%CI, 0.71-1.40]; log-rank P=.99). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (0% in both matched groups) or postoperative morbidity (2% vs 1%; P>.99), LOS (median 73 vs 76 days; P=.64), LOS due to local tumor-related symptoms (median 7 vs 11.5 days; P=.81) or incisional hernia repairs (4% in both groups; P>.99).  Patients from the PUSCO group underwent more re-operative procedures (14%) compared to the DSANCO group (3%) due to intestinal obstruction (P< .001).

    Conclusion: Prophylactic upfront locoregional surgery confers no survival advantage in asymptomatic stage IV SI-NET patients. Delayed surgery as needed seems to be comparable in all examined outcomes, whilst offering the advantage of less re-operations for intestinal obstruction.  The value of a priori locoregional surgery in the presence of distant metastases is challenged and needs to be elucidated in a randomized controlled study.

     

  • 4.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Clinical signs of fibrosis in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours2017In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs), serotonin and other cytokines released from tumour cells may induce fibrosis, leading to carcinoid heart disease and abdominal fibrotic reactions. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical complications and management of this reaction in the abdomen.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with SI-NETs diagnosed between 1985 and 2015. Clinical data, outcomes, radiological findings, and surgical and radiological interventions were reviewed.

    RESULTS: A total of 824 patients were diagnosed with SI-NETs in the study interval. Clinically significant abdominal signs and symptoms of fibrosis occurred in 36 patients. Of these, 20 had critically symptomatic central mesenteric fibrosis causing obstruction of mesenteric vessels, and 16 had retroperitoneal fibrosis causing obstructive uropathy with hydronephrosis. Extensive fibrosis causing mesenteric vessel obstruction and/or obstructive uropathy was more often associated with symptomatic and advanced disease encompassing lymph node metastases in the mesenteric root, para-aortic lymph node metastases, as well as liver metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Palliative intervention in terms of superior mesenteric vein stenting or resection of central mesenteric metastases and/or percutaneous nephrostomy and J stent treatment was beneficial in the majority of the patients.

    CONCLUSION: Extensive abdominal fibrosis associated with clinically significant symptoms of intestinal ischaemia and/or obstructive uropathy was linked to advanced disease in patients with SI-NETs. Prompt recognition and minimally invasive intervention was effective in disease palliation.

  • 5.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Ex vivo activity of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents in Small Intestinal NETsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumours (SI-NET) are considered to be generally resistant to systemic treatment. To date predictive markers for drug activity are lacking.

    Patients and Methods: Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NET were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinico-pathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers.

    Results: For standard cytotoxic drugs, SI-NETs demonstrated similar or higher sensitivity to 5-FU, platinums, gemcitabine and doxorubicin compared with CRC. For targeted kinase inhibitors, SI-NET was among the most sensitive diagnoses. CLL and ovarian cancer were generally the most sensitive diagnoses to both cytotoxic drugs and protein kinase inhibitors. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus exhibited modest cytotoxic activity.

    Individual SI-NET samples demonstrated great variability in ex vivo sensitivity for most drugs. Cross-resistance between different drugs also varied considerably, being higher among protein kinase inhibitors.

    Age, stage, grade, peritoneal carcinomatosis and extra-abdominal metastases as well as serum chromogranin A and urine 5-HIAA concentrations at diagnosis did not correlate to drug sensitivity ex vivo.

    Conclusions: SI-NETs exhibit variable but generally intermediate sensitivity ex vivo to cytotoxic and targeted drugs. Clinico-pathological factors and currently used biomarkers were not clearly associated to ex vivo sensitivity, challenging these criteria for treatment decisions in SI-NETs. The great variability in drug sensitivity calls for individualized selection of therapy.

  • 6.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Ex Vivo Activity of Cytotoxic Drugs and Targeted Agents in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors2018In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 106, no Supplement: 1, p. 189-189Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Ex vivo activity of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors2018In: Endocrine-Related Cancer, ISSN 1351-0088, E-ISSN 1479-6821, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 471-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumor samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinicopathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers. For cytotoxic drugs, SI-NETs demonstrated similar or higher sensitivity to 5-FU, platinum, gemcitabine and doxorubicin compared with CRC. For several of the targeted kinase inhibitors, SI-NET was among the most sensitive solid tumor types. CLL and ovarian cancer were generally the most sensitive tumor types to both cytotoxic drugs and protein kinase inhibitors. SI-NET was more sensitive to the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus than the other solid tumor types tested. Individual SI-NET samples demonstrated great variability in ex vivo sensitivity for most drugs. Cross-resistance between different drugs also varied considerably, being higher among protein kinase inhibitors. Age, stage, grade, peritoneal carcinomatosis and extra-abdominal metastases as well as serum chromogranin A and urine 5-HIAA concentrations at diagnosis did not correlate to drug sensitivity ex vivo. SI-NETs exhibit intermediate sensitivity ex vivo to cytotoxic and targeted drugs. Clinicopathological factors and currently used biomarkers are not clearly associated to ex vivo sensitivity, challenging these criteria for treatment decisions in SI-NET. The great variability in drug sensitivity calls for individualized selection of therapy.

  • 8.
    Hersi, Abdi-Fatah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences. Västmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ramos, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Radiol, Västerås, Sweden.
    Abdsaleh, Shahin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    A combined, totally magnetic technique with a magnetic marker for non-palpable tumour localization and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer surgery2019In: European Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0748-7983, E-ISSN 1532-2157, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 544-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgery for non-palpable breast cancer may often be a challenging procedure. Recently, a magnetic seed (Magseed®) used for tumour localization has been developed. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) for sentinel lymph node (SN) detection is a novel tracer that may be injected up to four weeks preoperatively. This study is the first combining the magnetic seed and SPIO.

    Material and methods: Patients planned for breast conserving surgery and SN-biopsy (SNB) were recruited from two units in Sweden. Patients underwent lesion localization with Magseed® and SPIO injection (Magtrace™) by the breast radiologist in the preoperative period. Feasibility of successful lesion localization and excision together with a successful SNB detection was evaluated. Seed migration, number of SNs, specimen volume and calculated resection ratio (CRR) were reported.A survey of the physicians’ experience was conducted.

    Results: Localization was performed at a median of three days before surgery (range 0–25). All 32 patients underwent microscopically radical resection with a CRR of 1.49. No seed migration was noticed. SNB was successful in all patients. A median of two SNs was retrieved. Radiologists and surgeons reported the procedure easy to learn and outperformed guidewire localization in terms of localization and excision time. They thought the technique facilitated planning localization and surgery.

    Conclusions: The combined magnetic technique provided accuracy in tumour localization and SN detection without excess tissue excision and with promising results for flexibility in delivery of care. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  • 9.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Christiansen, Peer Michael
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Randers Reg Hosp, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Fischer, Lone
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Randers Reg Hosp, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Hedin, Christina
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Pistioli, Lida
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Sund, Malin
    Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Rasmussen, Nils Ryegaard
    SVS, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Jornsgard, Hjordis
    SVS, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Tegnelius, Daniel
    Univ Orebro, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Markopoulos, Christos J.
    Univ Athens, Sch Med, Athens 11528, Greece..
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    The Nordic SentiMag trial: a comparison of super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles versus Tc-99 and patent blue in the detection of sentinel node (SN) in patients with breast cancer and a meta-analysis of earlier studies2016In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 157, no 2, p. 281-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of SPIO as a tracer in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer with Tc and patent blue in a multicentre prospective study and perform a meta-analysis of all published studies. It also aims to follow skin discoloration after SPIO injection and describe when and how it resolves. Totally 206 patients with early breast cancer were recruited. Tc and patent blue were administered in standard fashion. Patients were injected with SPIO (Sienna+) preoperatively. SNB was performed and detection rates were recorded for both methods. Skin discoloration was followed and documented postoperatively. Data extraction and subsequent meta-analysis of all previous studies were also performed. SN detection rates were similar between standard technique succeeded and SPIO both per patient (97.1 vs. 97.6 %, p = 0.76) as well as per node (91.3 vs. 93.3 %, p = 0.34), something which was not affected by the presence of malignancy. Concordance rates were also consistently high (98.0 % per patient and 95.9 % per node). Discoloring was present in 35.5 % of patients postoperatively, almost exclusively in breast conservation. It fades slowly and is still detectable in 8.6 % of patients after 15 months. Meta-analysis depicted similar detection rates (p = 0.71) and concordance rates (p = 0.82) per patient. However, it seems that SPIO is characterized by higher nodal retrieval (p < 0.001). SPIO is an effective method for the detection of SN in patients with breast cancer. It is comparable to the standard technique and seems to simplify logistics. Potential skin discoloration is something of consideration in patients planned for breast conservation.

  • 10.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Andersson, Y.
    Vastmanlands Hosp Vasteras, Dept Surg, Sect Breast Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Andersson, S.
    Vastmanlands Hosp Vasteras, Dept Surg, Sect Breast Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as sole method for the detection of sentinel node (SN) in breast cancer. The MONOS study2016In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 57, p. S60-S60Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Daskalakis, Kosmas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Olofsson, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Andersson, Y
    Department of Surgery, Västmanlands County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, S
    Department of Surgery, Västmanlands County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the sole method for sentinel node biopsy detection in patients with breast cancer2017In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 104, no 12, p. 1675-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles is a novel method in breast cancer. Several studies have verified the non-inferiority of SPIO compared with the standard use of radioisotope (99m) Tc with or without blue dye. The aim of the MONOS study presented here was to evaluate the use of SPIO as a sole tracer and the efficacy of tracer injection in the preoperative setting.

    METHODS: This prospective cohort study was carried out in two hospitals, one using (99m) Tc and the other SPIO. (99m) Tc was injected in the morning of the day of surgery or the day before. SPIO was either injected before surgery in the outpatient clinic or 1 h before the operation.

    RESULTS: A total of 338 consecutive patients with breast cancer underwent 343 procedures; SPIO nanoparticles were used in 184 procedures and (99m) Tc-labelled tracer in 159. Detection rates for SPIO and (99m) Tc were 95·6 and 96·9 per cent respectively (P = 0·537). All nodes with SPIO uptake were coloured brown. Fewer nodes were retrieved with SPIO (mean 1·35 versus 1·89), regardless of whether blue dye was used (P < 0·001). Preoperative SPIO injection (58·7 per cent of procedures), a median of 16 (range 2-27) days before the procedure, was associated with a better tracer-specific detection rate (95·3 versus 86 per cent; P = 0·031) and retrieval of more nodes (mean 1·43 versus 1·03; P < 0·001) than perioperative administration. Skin staining was present in 39·9 per cent of patients, and was related to breast-conserving surgery and periareolar injection.

    CONCLUSION: The use of SPIO alone is a safe alternative, with results comparable to those of the standard dual technique using (99m) Tc and blue dye. The efficacy of injection in the preoperative setting simplifies logistics and improves performance. Skin staining can be prevented by a deeper peritumoral injection.

  • 12.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hersi, Abdi-Fatah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Pistiolis, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Surg,Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bagge, R. Olofsson
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Surg,Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lykoudis, P. M.
    UCL, Div Surg & Intervent Sci, London, England.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Vastmanland Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Nagy, G.
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Breast Unit, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Mohammed, I.
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, M.
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Kwong, A.
    Univ Hong Kong, Dept Surg, Hong Kong, Peoples R China;Univ Hong Kong, Shenzhen Hosp, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Peoples R China;Hong Kong Sanat & Hosp, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Olofsson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Effect of preoperative injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles on rates of sentinel lymph node dissection in women undergoing surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (SentiNot study)2019In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 720-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One-fifth of patients with a preoperative diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have invasive breast cancer (IBC) on definitive histology. Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is performed in almost half of women having surgery for DCIS in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to try to minimize unnecessary SLND by injecting superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles at the time of primary breast surgery, enabling SLND to be performed later, if IBC is found in the primary specimen.

    Methods: Women with DCIS at high risk for the presence of invasion undergoing breast conservation, and patients with DCIS undergoing mastectomy were included. The primary outcome was whether this technique could reduce SLND. Secondary outcomes were number of SLNDs avoided, detection rate and procedure-related costs.

    Results: This was a preplanned interim analysis of 189 procedures. IBC was found in 47 and a secondary SLND was performed in 41 women. Thus, 78.3 per cent of patients avoided SLND (P<0.001). At reoperation, SPIO plus blue dye outperformed isotope and blue dye in detection of the sentinel node (40 of 40 versus 26 of 40 women; P<0.001). Costs were reduced by a mean of 24.5 per cent in women without IBC (3990 versus 5286; P<0.001).

    Conclusion: Marking the sentinel node with SPIO in women having surgery for DCIS was effective at avoiding unnecessary SLND in this study. Registration number: ISRCTN18430240 (http://www.isrctn.com).

  • 13.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Obondo, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Abdsaleh, Shahin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Hersi, Abdi-Fatah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanlands Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanlands Cty Hosp, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Optimisation of breast MRI compatibility after sentinel node biopsy with paramagnetic tracers2018In: European Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0748-7983, E-ISSN 1532-2157, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 731-732Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Olofsson, H. M.
    Eriksson, S.
    Andersson, Y.
    Bergkvist, Leif A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Mohammed, I.
    Sundqvist, M.
    Abdsaleh, Shahin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Bagge, R. Olofsson
    Sund, M.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    SentiNot: A way to avoid sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of ductal cancer in situ (DCIS)2017In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Olofsson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Bergkvist, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Abdsaleh, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Simplifying Logistics and Avoiding the Unnecessary in Patients with Breast Cancer Undergoing Sentinel Node Biopsy. A Prospective Feasibility Trial of the Preoperative Injection of Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, ISSN 1457-4969, E-ISSN 1799-7267, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Sentinel node is routinely localized with the intraoperative use of a radioactive tracer, involving challenging logistics. Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle is a non-radioactive tracer with comparable performance that could allow for preoperative localization, would simplify the procedure, and possibly be of value in axillary mapping before neoadjuvant treatment. The current trial aimed to determine the a priori hypothesis that the injection of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the preoperative period for the localization of the sentinel node is feasible.

    METHODS: This is a prospective feasibility trial, conducted from 9 September 2014 to 22 October 2014 at Uppsala University Hospital. In all, 12 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer planned for resection of the primary and sentinel node biopsy were recruited. Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were injected in the preoperative visit in the outpatient clinic. The radioactive tracer (99mTc) and the blue dye were injected perioperatively in standard fashion. A volunteer was injected with super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to follow the decline in the magnetic signal in the sentinel node over time. The primary outcome was successful sentinel node detection.

    RESULTS: Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles' detection after preoperative injection (3-15 days) was successful in all cases (100%). In the volunteer, axillary signal was presented for 4 weeks. No adverse effects were noted. Conclusion and relevance: Preoperative super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles' injection is feasible and leads to successful detection of the sentinel node. That may lead to simplified logistics as well as the identification, sampling, and marking of the sentinel node in patients planned for neoadjuvant treatment.

  • 16.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Royal Marsden Hosp, Breast Surg Unit, London, England.
    Tasoulis, M. K.
    Royal Marsden Hosp, Breast Surg Unit, London, England.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Nilsson, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology. Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sect Expt & Clin Oncol, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden;Gavle Cent Hosp, Dept Oncol, Gavle, Sweden;Visby Hosp, Sect Oncol, Visby, Sweden.
    MacNeill, F.
    Royal Marsden Hosp, Breast Surg Unit, London, England.
    Meta-analysis of neoadjuvant therapy and its impact in facilitating breast conservation in operable breast cancer2018In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 105, no 5, p. 469-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) for operable breast cancer may facilitate more breast-conserving surgery (BCS). It seems, however, that this benefit is not being realized fully.

    Methods

    A systematic review of the literature was performed. RCTs were included. The criteria for inclusion were: documentation of surgical assessment before and after NAT, surgery performed (BCS or mastectomy), and clinical and pathological responses.

    Results

    A total of 1452 patients from seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria. After NAT, the feasibilityof BCS increased from 43⋅3to60⋅4 per cent (P < 0⋅001), but BCS was performed in only 51⋅8percent(P = 0⋅04). Only 31 per cent of patients who became eligible for BCS (assessed on clinical response)underwent BCS (pooled rate ratio 0⋅31, 95 per cent c.i. 0⋅22 to 0⋅44; P < 0⋅001). Of the mastectomycandidates who achieved a pathological complete response after NAT, only 41 per cent underwent BCS(pooled rate ratio 0⋅41, 0⋅23 to 0⋅74; P = 0⋅003). The main factors that influenced the decision not to shiftto BCS, even though it was feasible, were clinical assessment before NAT, multicentricity and tumoursize at presentation.

    Conclusion

    Breast surgery performed after NAT does not reflect tumour response, resulting in potentially unnecessary radical surgery, especially mastectomy. The barriers to maximizing the surgical benefits of NAT need to be better understood and explored. Still unnecessary mastectomies

  • 17.
    MacNeill, Fiona
    et al.
    Royal Marsden Hosp, Fulham Rd, London SW3 6JJ, England..
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Sect Endocrine & Breast Surg, Dept Surg Sci, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Over surgery in breast cancer2017In: Breast, ISSN 0960-9776, E-ISSN 1532-3080, Vol. 31, p. 284-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast surgery remains the original and most effective 'targeted' therapy: excision of early cancer is curative and for more advanced disease surgery improves local disease control. However in well intentioned pursuit of cure and local disease control, some cancers are over-treated resulting in major physical and emotional morbidity. Less breast surgery is safe, as evidenced by steady reductions in mortality and local recurrence; earlier diagnosis and widespread use of systemic therapies and radiotherapy have allowed more conservative surgery. As tumour biology dictates cancer outcomes not surgery extent, surgery can safely be 'minimum required' rather than ` more is better' with the focus on removal of disease rather than healthy tissue. Surgeons can reduce the burden of surgery further but it is important that less surgery is not overcompensated by more radical or unnecessary systemic therapies and/or radiotherapy with their own toxicities and morbidity. We all need to be alert to the potential drivers of over treatment and over surgery such as failure to work within a multidisciplinary team, failure to design a multimodality treatment plan at diagnosis or overuse of novel assessment technologies of uncertain clinical utility. Pursuit of wide margins and the removal of the contra-lateral healthy breast for marginal risk-reduction gains are also to be discouraged as is routine local/regional surgery in stage 4 disease. The surgeon has a pivotal role in minimizing breast surgery to what is required to achieve the best oncological, functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  • 18.
    Obondo, C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Eriksson, S.
    Cent Hosp Vasteras, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Hersi, A. F.
    Cent Hosp Vasteras, Dept Surg, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Pistiolis, L.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Abdsaleh, Shahin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Nilsson, F.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Mohammed, I.
    Kalmar Hosp, Dept Surg, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Wickberg, A.
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Orebro, Sweden..
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    SentiDose - A dose optimizing study with SiennaXP, a superparamagnetic iron oxide for sentinel node detection2018In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 92, p. S79-S79Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Vrielink, O. M.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Surg, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Engelsman, A. F.
    Royal North Shore Hosp, Dept Surg, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Hemmer, P. H. J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Surg, Groningen, Netherlands.
    de Vries, J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Surg, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Vorselaars, W. M. C. M.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Surg, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Vriens, M. R.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Surg, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Sywak, M. S.
    Royal North Shore Hosp, Dept Surg, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    van Leeuwen, B. L.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Surg, Groningen, Netherlands.
    El Moumni, M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Surg, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kruijff, S.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Surg, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Multicentre study evaluating the surgical learning curve for posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy2018In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 105, no 5, p. 544-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy has gained international popularity in the past decade. Despite major advantages, including shorter duration of operation, minimal blood loss and decreased postoperative pain, many surgeons still prefer laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy. It is likely that the unfamiliar anatomical environment, smaller working space and long learning curve impede implementation. The present study assessed the number of procedures required to fulfil the surgical learning curve for posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.

    Methods

    The first consecutive posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies performed by four surgical teams from university centres in three different countries were analysed. The primary outcome measure was duration of operation. Secondary outcomes were conversion to an open or laparoscopic transperitoneal approach, complications and recovery time. The learning curve cumulative sum (LC-CUSUM) was used to assess the learning curves for each surgical team.

    Results

    A total of 181 surgical procedures performed by four surgical teams were analysed. The median age of the patients was 57 (range 15–84) years and 61·3 per cent were female. Median tumour size was 25 (range 4–85) mm. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and tumour size between the teams. The median duration of operation was 89 (range 29–265) min. There were 35 perioperative and postoperative complications among the 181 patients (18·8 per cent); 17 of 27 postoperative complications were grade 1. A total of nine conversions to open procedures (5·0 per cent) were observed. The LC‐CUSUM analysis showed that competency was achieved after a range of 24–42 procedures.

    Conclusion

    In specialized endocrine surgical centres between 24 and 42 procedures are required to fulfil the entire surgical learning curve for the posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Large annual case-load required

  • 20.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Stigberg, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Obondo, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Olofsson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical and experimental pathology.
    Abdsaleh, Shahin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Wärnberg, Madeleine
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Long-Term Outcome After Retro-Areolar Versus Peri-Tumoral Injection of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIO) for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Breast Cancer Surgery.2019In: Annals of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 1068-9265, E-ISSN 1534-4681, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1247-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: SPIO is effective in sentinel node (SN) detection. No nuclear medicine department is needed, and no allergic reactions have occurred. This study aimed to compare retro-areolar and peri-tumoral SPIO injections regarding skin staining, detection rates and number of SNs.

    METHODS: Data on staining size, intensity and cosmetic outcome (0-5; 0 = no problem) were collected by telephone interviews with 258 women undergoing breast conservation. SN detection and the number of SNs were prospectively registered in 332 women.

    RESULTS: After retro-areolar and peri-tumoral injections, 67.3% and 37.8% (p < 0.001) developed skin staining, with remaining staining in 46.2 vs. 9.4% after 36 months (p < 0.001). Initial mean size was 16.3 vs. 6.8 cm (p < 0.001) and after 36 months, 6.6 vs. 1.8 cm2 (p < 0.001). At 75.1% of 738 interviews, staining was reported paler. After retro-areolar injections, cosmetic outcome scored worse for 2 years. The mean (median) scores were 1.3(0) vs. 0.5(0) points, and 0.2(0) vs. 0.1(0) points, at 12 and 36 months, respectively. Overall detection rates were 98.3% and 97.4% (p = 0.43) and the number of SNs 1.35 vs. 1.57 (p = 0.02) after retro-areolar and peri-tumoral injections. Injection, regardless of type, 1-27 days before surgery increased detection rates with SPIO, 98.0% vs. 94.2% (p = 0.06) ,and SN numbers, 1.56 vs. 1.27 (p = 0.003).

    CONCLUSION: SPIO is effective and facilitates planning for surgery. Peri-tumoral injection reduced staining with a similar detection rate. Staining was not considered a cosmetic problem among most women. Injecting SPIO 1-27 days before surgery increased the detection rate by 3.8% and increased the number of SNs by 0.3.

  • 21.
    Wärnberg, Madeleine
    et al.
    Uppsala Academic Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; Aleris, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karakatsanis, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Uppsala Academic Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; Aleris, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abdsaleh, Shahin
    Uppsala Academic Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; Aleris, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Uppsala Academic Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; Aleris, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abstract P3-01-11: Discoloration after injection of super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) for sentinel node biopsy. A long term qualitative follow-up study2018In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 78, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
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