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  • 1.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education –: A total population study of Swedish special needs educators2019In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N = 3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs’ interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs’ employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • 2.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Sweden.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens högskola, Utbildningsvetenskap och Matematik.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö högskola.
    Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 3. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Klang, Nina
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Nilholm, Claes
    Speciella yrken?: Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Nilholm, Claes
    Challenging Traditions?: Pupils in Need of Special Support in Swedish Independent Schools2012In: Nordic Studies in Education, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 262-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the general situation for pupils in need of special support (PNSS) within the Swedish independent compulsory schools. The analysis is based upon a survey of all independent schools in Sweden. Results show that the amount of PNSS is lower in independent schools than in municipal schools and that a deficit perspective seems to be common regarding explanations of school problems. There is, however, great diversity among the schools. Conclusions are that the challenge of independent schools to the traditional way of conceiving education, regarding school choice, seems to be more effective less for some other groups of pupils than for PNSS and that there are few signs that independent schools challenge traditions in work with PNSS in municipal schools.

  • 5. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Inclusive education in Sweden: Past, present and future issues2012In: Bildning för alla: En pedagogisk utmaning / [ed] Barow, Thomas; Östlund ,Daniel, Kristianstad University Press , 2012, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    An amalgam of ideals: images of inclusion in the Salamanca Statement2019In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 7-8, p. 677-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Salamanca Statement is a primary point of departure in research and policy on inclusive education. However, several problems have surfaced in the 25 years since its publication. In particular, several different interpretations of the concept of inclusive education and its enactment in practice have arisen. For instance, the definition of the pupil groups in focus varies greatly. There are also varying definitions of the importance of pupil-placement, when it comes to organisation of inclusive education. Using a theoretical framework combining Bacchi’s [1999. Women, Policy and Politics. The Construction of Policy Problems. London: Sage Publications] poststructural policy-analysis and concepts from Popkewitz [2009. “Curriculum Study, Curriculum History, and Curriculum Theory: The Reason of Reason.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 41 (3): 301–319. doi:10.1080/00220270902777021], this article illustrates that The Salamanca Statement allows for a variety of interpretations of inclusion. As a policy-concept, inclusion encompasses an amalgam of political ideals, including welfare-state ideals where education is viewed as a public-good, as well as market-ideals of education as a private-good. Policies of inclusion also define the desired citizen, through categories of disadvantaged children, the ones excluded but to be included for their own good as well as for the good of the future society. The conclusions are that researchers and policy-makers should elucidate what they mean by inclusion with for instance moral- and practical arguments rather than vague references to The Salamanca Statement.

  • 7.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inclusive education and school choice: Lessons from Sweden2019In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, ISSN 1469-591XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While school choice and marketisation have been studied extensively, some areas remain under-researched, for instance, the consequences of choice for the development of inclusive education. The aim of this article is to illustrate the consequences of school choice for inclusive education, as it relates to special education, using Sweden as a case study. The Swedish education system is often raised as inclusive in an international perspective. However, school segregation has been increasing in terms of attainment and pupils´ socio-economic-, and immigration backgrounds, groups that are over-represented among SEN-pupils and under-represented among pupils that exercise school choice. This summary of research indicates that the increased segregation in the education system also regards special education. There is a clustering of SEN-pupils at schools with particular profiles and a lower proportion at other types of schools, resources for special educational support are less accessible at independent schools, and school choice is not as open to SEN-pupils as other pupils. These are disconcerting results for an education system renowned for being inclusive.

  • 8. Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Traditions and Challenges: Special Support in Swedish Independent Compulsory Schools2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has two overarching aims. The first is to generate further knowledge about Swedish independent schools, specifically regarding the organisation and provision of special support and how these relate to special educational traditions and inclusive education. This is conducted through four empirical studies, utilising data gathered in two total population survey studies. The first survey was a total population study of Swedish independent compulsory schools (N = 686, response rate = 79%), and results from this study are presented in articles I, II and IV. Article III presents results derived from a total population survey of special pedagogues (SENCOs) and special education teachers in Sweden educated according to the degree ordinances of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N = 4252, response rate = 75%). Article I contains a general description of special education issues in the total population of independent schools. Article II continues with comparisons of these issues in different groups of independent compulsory schools. Article III studies differences in organisational prioritisations regarding special support and special educators in municipal and independent schools. Finally, article IV presents qualitative content analysis of over 400 responses regarding special support at independent schools. The second overarching aim of the thesis is to further develop the discussions initiated in the articles about how special education and inclusive education can be understood in light of the education reforms that introduced the independent schools. A critical theoretical analysis and contextualization of the empirical results from the articles is conducted to explain and describe the consequences of the new (market) education paradigm. Results show that, generally, the independent schools have not challenged special educational traditions to a significant degree. Rather, traditional conceptions, explanations and organisational measures are reproduced, and in some cases enhanced, by market mechanisms. However, there are great differences between the different types of schools with regard to both their perspectives on special education and their organisational approaches. There are also indications that the principle of choice is limited for this pupil group as compared to some other groups. Additionally, the increasing clustering of pupils in need of special support at certain schools replicates a system with special schools. In this case, market mechanisms are contributing to a system that is in contradiction to the idea of an inclusive school system. The theoretical interpretation of the results suggests that Skrtic’s theory can largely explain the empirical patterns found. However, his theory gives rise to different predictions or potential scenarios depending on what parts of his theory are underscored. Moreover, his theory must be complemented with additional perspectives to more fully account for diversity within the results, particularly as the results indicate that discourses/paradigms of special education and inclusive education often occur simultaneously and can thus be seen as expressions of practices taking place in a complex social and political environment. Keywords: Special education; inclusion; school choice; education reform; independent schools; compulso-ry schools; pupils in need of special support, SENCOs; special education teachers; critical pragmatism; Thomas M. Skrtic

  • 9.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Malardalen Univ, Sch Educ Culture & Commun, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Educ Studies, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Perimeters of, and challenges to, the jurisdiction of Swedish special educators: an exploration of free text responses2019In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 257-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators (SNEs) have important roles in many education systems. However, their roles are often poorly defined, and differ greatly both between and within education systems. Studies show that SNEs have diverse tasks, have problems defining their jurisdiction, and approach special support with different perspectives than other professions. Here, the aim is to explore what Swedish SNEs express regarding their occupational role and jurisdiction, utilising 676 free text responses to an open question in a total population survey. The results illustrate that SNEs often have to take on tasks they do not view as appropriate and that they often experience misunderstanding from head teachers and colleagues about their roles and tasks, and that they risk being replaced by other professions. Some explanations can be found in vague legal definitions of their jurisdiction and the necessity of adaption to the local school context. The results are interpreted using Abbott’s theory of jurisdiction and Evetts’ distinctions of professionalisation and professionalism. The study confirms results from prior research to a high degree but adds further nuance and dimensions to them with formulations from active professionals.

  • 10.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Lindqvist,, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Contextualizing inclusive education in educational policy: the case of Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we regard inclusive education as a policy phenomenon that contains a range ofideas about the purpose of education, the content of education and the organization ofeducation. As a political ideal expressed in policy, inclusive education competes with otherpolitical ideals regarding education, for instance economic discourses that prioritize effectivityand attainment as educational goals. Thus, inclusive education has to be realized in contextswhere available options for action are restricted by several and often contradictory educationalpolicies on different levels of the education system. We argue that while research anddebate about inclusive education are important, both are insufficient without analyses of thecontext of national educational policy. Any interpretation of inclusive education is necessarilysituated in a general education policy, and measures of what˜inclusive schools" aredependent upon for instance, political interpretation(s) of inclusive education, resourceallocation and political discourse on both local and national educational level. Here, we willprovide support for this argument through presentation of both research on inclusiveeducation, an alignment of prior analyses of Swedish national education policies and ourown analyses of government statements.

  • 11. Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Nilholm, Claes
    Similar Situations?: Special Needs in Different Groups of Independent Schools2014In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores differences between different groups of Swedish independent schools’ work with pupils in need of special support (PNSS). Data comes from a total population study of independent schools. Data is analyzed using six categories of profile that may affect the special educational values at the schools, and therefore the situation for PNSS. Additionally, the data is analyzed with regard to the school ownership structure. Results show that diagnosis is important for receiving support, despite contrary legislative intentions. The groups differ regarding proportions of PNSS (12-100%), incidence of refusals of admission (8-40%), and in the way they explain problems and organize support. Generally, there is little challenge to a deficit perspective in views on school difficulties and the organization of support; market rationality may be a contributing factor. There are more differences between educational profiles of schools than there are between types of school ownership.

  • 12.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Varying access to professional, special educational support: a total population comparison of special educators in Swedish independent and municipal schools2018In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independent schools are securely established in the Swedish education system. Prior research shows they generally have fewer pupils in need of support and lower proportions of special educators. Here, results are presented from a total population study of Swedish special educators (n = 4252) examined after 2001. The aim was to explore and compare the occupational situations of special educators working in Swedish municipal and independent schools. This is done by studying their occupational situations and the values they express regarding identification of – and work with – special support. The results show that while the respondents are demographically similar and express similar values, they have very different occupational situations. Those employed in independent schools have fewer years’ experience as special educators, are more often employed part‐time than full‐time and are more likely to hold other positions in schools (such as head teacher) than those employed in municipal schools. The results further illustrate different organisational approaches towards special educational support. Apparent is that independent schools offer professional special educational resources to a lower degree and utilise them differently. This is likely to influence the situation of pupils in need of support, and has consequences for the image of the Swedish education system.

  • 13.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordmark, Jonas
    Mälardalen University.
    Rytzler, Johannes
    Mälardalen University.
    Pedagogikens centrala frågor: En läsning av Klaus Mollenhauers Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing2018In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 151-161Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rytzler, Johannes
    Mälardalen university.
    Approaching higher education with Didaktik: university teaching for intellectual emancipation2019In: European Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 190-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European higher education has been highly influenced by theBologna-process, entailing coordination and standardisation frompolicy to teaching practices. This led to increased demands onuniversity teachers. Courses in university pedagogy are requiredas part of competence development and have become decisivefor employment. Constructive Alignment has become a popularmodel, being in line with Bologna-process ideals. Emerging is aninstrumental view of higher education that risks excavatinguniversity pedagogy of its pedagogical dimensions and reducingthe autonomy of the university teachers with focus onstandardisation and emphasis on effective output.This paper proposes a Didaktik-approach to university pedagogy.We argue that Didaktik can help revive relational and emancipatoryelements of higher education. By viewing the relationship betweenteachers and students as a gathering around common interests, wemaintain that Didaktik emphasises teachers’ reflections regardingthe subject, the students, and other educational dimensions.

  • 15. Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Rytzler, Johannes
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Didaktik som alternativ till en instrumentell högskolepedagogik2018In: Högskolepedagogisk utveckling i teori och praktik / [ed] Eva Ärlamalm-Hagsér & Marie Öhman, Västerås: Mälardalens högskola , 2018, 1, p. 9-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel diskuterar vi rådande utbildningspolitiska ideal för högre utbildning och deras konsekvenser för högskolepedagogikens pedagogiska och didaktiska dimensioner. Högskolepedagogik kontextualiseras som utbildningsfenomen i relation till en internationell utbildningspolitisk utveckling. Sedan diskuterar vi John Biggs Constructive Alignment (CA), som ett exempel på högskolepedagogiskt uttryck för denna utveckling. Vi menar att CA, trots det sympatiska perspektivet på studentens handling och lärande, gör undervisning och utbildning instrumentell och urholkar olika vetenskapliga ämnestraditioner. Vi föreslår att undervisning i högre utbildning borde diskuteras i termer av didaktik, som förankrar undervisningen i ämnet och den pedagogiska relationen mellan lärare, student och ämne. Vi betraktar didaktik som en teori om utbildning och  undervisning som bevakar utbildningens innehållsliga och mellanmänskliga dimensioner. Därmed argumenterar vi för didaktik som ett radikalt svar och möjligt alternativ till det rådande utbildningspolitiska idealet.

1 - 15 of 15
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