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  • 1.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Development psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Development psychology.
    Response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among preschool children2002In: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, ISSN 1537-4416, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 242-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the relation among response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems in a nonclinical sample of 115 preschool children, using 2 different types of go/no-go tasks well as a Stroop-like task. In line with the assumption that hyperactivity is related to disinhibition, the results showed that it was the measures of response inhibition, and not other performance measures, that were related to teacher ratings of hyperactivity. There was also a significant relation between response inhibition and conduct problems. Interestingly, the correlation between response inhibition and conduct problems was not significant when partialling out the effect of hyperactivity, whereas the correlation between inhibition and hyperactivity did remain significant when controlling for conduct problems. Although the association between inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems appeared to be partly different for boys and girls, these differences were not statistically significant.

  • 2.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    How well do measures of inhibition and other executive functions discriminate between children with ADHD and controls?2004In: Neuropsychol Dev Cogn C Child Neuropsychol, ISSN 0929-7049, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relations betwee inhibition, executive functioning, and ADHD-symptoms: A longitudinal study from age 5 to 82003In: Child Neuropsychology, Vol. 9, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ADHD, EF deficits and socio-emotional functions: Developmental perspectives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ESO-seminarium om tidig hjälp till barn som har det svårt i skolan: Några kommentarer2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Issues in understanding the role of EF in children’s behavior problems2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Brocki, Karin Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 449-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. General externalizing problem behaviors were also measured at age 5 to allow for a developmental analysis. Outcome variables were rated by parents and teachers. The sample consisted of 65 children with an oversampling of children with high levels of externalizing behaviors. Attachment was evaluated using a story stem attachment doll play procedure. Inhibition was measured using four different tasks. The results showed that both disorganized attachment and poor inhibition were longitudinally related to all outcome variables. Controlling for initial level of externalizing problem behavior, poor inhibition predicted ADHD symptoms and externalizing problem behaviors, independent of disorganized attachment, whereas for ASD symptoms no predictive relations remained. Disorganized attachment independently predicted CU traits.

  • 8.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral inhibition as a precursor of peer social competence in early school age: The interplay with attachment and nonparental care2005In: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Behavioral inhibition as a precursor of peer social competence in early school-age:: The interplay with attachment and non-parental care.2005In: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Vol. 51, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral inhibition and attachment as predictors of peer social competence and social anxiety at early school age2004In: Social and moral development: emerging evidence on the toddler years, Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute, L.L.C. , 2004, p. 205-220Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Behavioural problems and psychiatric symptoms in 5-13 year-old Swedish children - a comparison of parent ratings on the FTF (Five to Fifteen) with the ratings on CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist).2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 12.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Behavioural problems and psychiatric symptoms in 5-13 year-old Swedish children - a comparison of parent ratings on the FTF (Five to Fifteen) with the ratings on CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist).2004In: European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Suppl. 3), Vol. 13, no 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Brocki, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive functions in children aged 6-13:: A dimensional and developmental study2004In: Developmental Neuropsychology, Vol. 26, p. 571-593Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interrelations Between Executive Function and Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattention in Preschoolers: A Two Year Longitudinal Study2010In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components - simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and working memory (WM) - at age 5 and 6 as well as their predictive relations to ADHD symptoms at age 7. The results showed that simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 independently predicted complex inhibition and WM at age 6. In addition, EFs primarily predicted symptoms of inattention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity even at this young age. Finally, age 6 complex inhibition was shown to act as a mediator in the relations between simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 and symptoms of inattention at age 7. These findings provide novel longitudinal support for the theory that fundamental EF components show a progression with age toward more complex executive control (see Garon et al. Psychological Bulletin 134(1):31-60 2008). Further, complex inhibition, implicating both inhibition and WM, seems to be a particularly strong correlate of ADHD symptoms in young children and should as such be the focus of future studies examining the relation between cognitive function and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

  • 15.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tillman, Carin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    CPT performance, motor activity, and continuous relations to ADHD symptom domains: A developmental study2010In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 178-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a population-based sample consisting of 401 6- to 12-year-olds, this study examined normative age and sex distributions on motor activity as measured in an actigraphic-based motion tracking system (MTS) and on attention-related functions derived from a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Specific objectives were to present new knowledge on age-related change in motor activity and to study age effects on changes in motor activity and CPT performance as a function of time on task. Further, continuous relations between the two ADHD symptom domains and CPT performance and motor activity, and importantly, age effects in these relations were examined. CPT performance improved, and level of motor activity decreased with age. Linear associations between the two ADHD symptom domains and several of the CPT and MTS parameters support available research describing the nature of ADHD as a continuous dimension with variable expression throughout the general population. Further, our study is one of the first to provide developmental data using a time on task design, particularly with regard to motor activity. Imperative for ADHD future research are our results showing that age matters in the relation between ADHD behaviours and neuropsychological function.

  • 16.
    Dahlman, Sofie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäckström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive abilities of street children: Low-SES Bolivian boys with and without experience of living in the street2013In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study compared results on cognitive tests measuring nonverbal visualization and reasoning, executive functions, and creativity between 36 boys with experience of living in the street and 31 housed yet socioeconomically equivalent boys, in Bolivia. Results: The street children scored significantly higher on the creativity measure, which is discussed in relation to contextual relevance. No significant differences were found on the other cognitive tests. Time elapsed after living in the street and drug use were strongly associated with cognition, while age was not. Both groups scored below average compared to Western norms. The results are discussed in terms of the cultural relevance of the tests and the impact of socioeconomic status, stress, and stimulation on cognition.

  • 17.
    Diamantopoulou, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impact of executive functioning and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on children's peer relations and school performance2007In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 521-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the predictive relations from symptoms of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning (EF) to social and school functioning in 112 (62 girls) school children. High levels of teacher and parent ratings of ADHD symptoms at the ages of 8-8 1/2 years, and poor EF measured at the age of 8 1/2, were associated with poor social functioning measured by peer nominations and poor teacher ratings of school functioning at the age of 9 1/2. ADHD symptoms independently predicted social and school functioning, whereas EF independently predicted only school functioning. Interaction effects between ADHD and EF and between EF and gender were found: At high levels of symptoms of inattention, the poorer the EF, the greater the need for special education. At high levels of symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, the poorer the EF, the higher the levels of physical aggression. Girls with poor EF were less accepted by peers than equivalent boys.

  • 18.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundervold, Astri
    University of Bergen.
    Taanila, Anja
    University of Oulu.
    Heiervang, Einar
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen.
    Loo, Sandra
    University of California Los Angeles.
    Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Imperial College London.
    Smalley, Susan
    Univiersity of California Los Angeles.
    Moilanen, Irma
    University of Oulu.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Independent contributions of cognitive functioning and social risk factors to symptoms of ADHD in two Nordic population-based cohorts2009In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 721-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined independent contributions of executive functioning   (EF), state regulation (SR), and social risk factors to symptom   dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in two   cohorts, which included 221 Norwegian children and 294 Finnish   adolescents. Independent contributions of EF and SR were shown in the   Norwegian cohort and EF contributed independently in the Finnish   cohort. When controlling for each symptom dimension, cognitive   functioning and social risk factors were differentially associated with   inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The results show   the need to include both social risk factors and cognitive functioning   to obtain a better understanding of ADHD symptoms.

  • 19.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eighteen-month-olds' ability to make gaze predictions following distraction or a long delay2014In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abilities to flexibly allocate attention, select between conflicting stimuli, and make anticipatory gaze movements are important for young children's exploration and learning about their environment. These abilities constitute voluntary control of attention and show marked improvements in the second year of a child's life. Here we investigate the effects of visual distraction and delay on 18-month-olds' ability to predict the location of an occluded target in an experiment that requires switching of attention, and compare their performance to that of adults. Our results demonstrate that by 18 months of age children can readily overcome a previously learned response, even under a condition that involves visual distraction, but have difficulties with correctly updating their prediction when presented with a longer time delay. Further, the experiment shows that, overall, the 18-month-olds' allocation of visual attention is similar to that of adults, the primary difference being that adults demonstrate a superior ability to maintain attention on task and update their predictions over a longer time period. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillman, Carin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England; Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, MRC Social Genet Dev Psychiat Ctr, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents2012In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and ODD behaviors. Method: A sample of 120 adolescents from the general population was assessed on various cognitive tasks. ADHD and ODD behaviors were measured through parental and teacher ratings based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria. Parents and adolescents provided information regarding measures of family risk factors. Results: The results show that only cognitive functioning was associated with ADHD behaviors, and family risk factors were, independent of cognitive functioning, associated with ODD behaviors. Conclusion: These results suggest that cognitive performance bears a specific significance for ADHD behaviors, whereas family risk factors have specific importance for ODD behaviors.

  • 21.
    Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interlinkages between attachment and the Five-Factor Model of personality in middle childhood and young adulthood: a longitudinal approach2013In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 219-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine concurrent and prospective links between attachment and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality from middle childhood to young adulthood (n=66). At age 8.5 years, attachment was measured with the Separation Anxiety Test and at 21 years with the Adult Attachment Interview, whereas the personality dimensions were assessed with questionnaires at both time points. The results showed that attachment and personality dimensions are meaningfully related, concurrently and longitudinally. Attachment security in middle childhood was positively related to extraversion and openness, both concurrently and prospectively. Unresolved/disorganized (U/d) attachment was negatively related to conscientiousness and positively related to openness in young adulthood. U/d attachment showed a unique contribution to openness above the observed temporal stability of openness. As attachment security was also associated with openness, the duality of this factor is discussed together with other theoretical considerations regarding attachment theory in relation to the FFM.

  • 22.
    Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

  • 23.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Temperament, and Inhibition, as Interactive and Independent Predictors of Early ADHD Symptoms2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Viksang Maternal & Paediat Hlth Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation2018In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 277-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10months (n=124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation. Maternal sensitivity and surgency predicted emotion regulation, in that infants of sensitive mothers showed more regulatory behaviours and a longer latency to distress, whereas high levels of surgency predicted low emotion regulation, suggesting both the caregiving environment and temperament as important in the development of self-regulation. Interaction effects suggested high sustained attention to be a protective factor for children of insensitive mothers, in relation to emotion regulation. In addition, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of emotion regulation among children with low to medium levels of sustained attention and/or surgency. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant development of self-regulation.

  • 25.
    Frick, Matilda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Early Aspects of Self-Regulation as Predictors of Adolescent ADHD Symptoms2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Hesse, Erik
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Main, Mary
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Prior participation in the strange situation and overstress jointly facilitate disorganized behaviours: implications for theory, research and practice2016In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We seek to understand why a relatively high percentage (39%; vs the meta-analytic average, 15-18%) of disorganized/disoriented (D) classifications has accrued in the low-risk Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS) study, using experienced D coders. Prior research indicates that D behaviours do not always indicate attachment disorganization stemming from a history of frightening caregiving. We examined the role of two other presumed factors: participation in a previous strange situation and overstress. Our findings indicate that both factors were highly prevalent in the ULS sample and that they jointly predicted higher rates of D. First, participation in a previous strange situation was associated with significantly higher distress displays during the second visit than occurred among previously untested children, suggesting that prior participation in the strange situation had a sensitizing effect on child distress during the second visit. Second, unless separations were cut short in lieu of high distress during the second visit, re-tested children were disproportionately likely (ca 60%) to be classified D. We argue that these findings have important implications for theory, research, and practice. In particular, we conclude that practitioners must refrain from misattributing the appearance of any D behaviors observed to a history of maltreatment.

  • 27.
    Hagekull, Berit
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Early temperament and attachment as predictors of the Five Factor Model of personality2003In: Attachment & Human Development, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 2-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Hagekull, Berit
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictors of middle childhood psychosomatic problems: An emotion regulation approach2004In: Infant and Child Development, Vol. 13, p. 389-405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hagekull, Berit
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tidiga temperamentsdrag - utveckling och betydelse1999In: Spädbarnets psykologi, Natur och Kultur , 1999, p. 159-178Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 30.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forssman, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual differences in 10-month-olds' performance on the A-not-B task2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 130-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used the classical A-not-B task (Piaget, ) to explore individual differences in cognitive flexibility in 10-month-old infants by: (1) examining how differences in search performance during A trials relate to search performance during B trials; (2) studying the relation between temperamental dimensions and A-not-B performance; and (3) investigating differences in search performance between looking and reaching responses within the same task. Forty infants were tested on a fixed-design-version of the A-not-B task, not allowing for training or individual adjustment, but instead eliciting additional search behaviors than the common correct responses in A trials and perseverative errors in B trials. Infants were also rated by their parents on the temperamental scales Activity level and Attention span. The main findings were: (1) performance on A trials affected B trial performance, with infants being more correct on A trials having more incorrect and less 'no search' responses on B trials; (2) activity level, but not attention span, was related to performance on the A-not-B task, with infants performing better on A trials having a lower activity level; and (3) there were a few differences in performance with regard to modality, indicating that responding correctly by looking may be less cognitively demanding than doing so by reaching. This study demonstrated that 10-month-olds show a wide variation of search behaviors on this A-not-B task, resulting in individual differences in performance. These differences are suggested to reflect variation in temperamental activity level as well as maturity of short term/working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility.

  • 31.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sustained attention and the development of inhibitory control2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, K. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual differences in early executive functions: A longitudinal study from 12 to 36 months2016In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 533-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that executive functions develop in a hierarchical fashion, such that early, simple abilities seen already during the first year of life become increasingly coordinated with development, thereby enabling the emergence of more complex abilities. Although this hierarchical model has received support from empirical studies comparing executive function task performance across age groups, necessary support from longitudinal studies taking an individual differences perspective on development is missing. In addition, the model stresses the importance of attention in executive function development, but we do not know in what way attention contributes to the continued development once the earliest forms of simple functions have emerged. Using a longitudinal design, the present study investigated the relations between individual differences in simpler forms of executive functions as well as sustained attention at age 12months and more complex executive functions at 24 and 36months. The results indicated partial support for the hierarchical model, with infant inhibition being predictive of working memory in toddlerhood. In addition, at 12months, sustained attention contributed to the development of toddler executive functions via the simple executive functions. This suggests that by this age, sustained attention has become an integrated part of early, simple executive functions.

  • 33.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions2015In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 41, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that attention processes such as sustained attention would con-stitute a developmental foundation for the self-regulatory functions executive functioningand effortful control (e.g., Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008; Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner,1994). Our main aim was to test this hypothesis by studying whether sustained attentionat age 1 year can predict individual differences in self-regulatory functions at age 2 years.Longitudinal data from 66 infants and their parents were included in the study. Sustainedattention was assessed during free play at age 1 year; executive functioning, measured usingan eye-tracking version of the A-not-B task, and effortful control, measured using parentalratings, were assessed at both age 1 and age 2 years. The results did support a longitudinalprediction of individual differences in 2-year-olds’ self-regulatory functions as a function ofsustained attention at age 1 year. We also found significant improvement in both executivefunctioning and effortful control over time, and the two self-regulatory constructs wererelated in toddlerhood but not in infancy. The study helps increase our understanding ofthe early development of self-regulatory functions necessary for identifying developmentalrisks and, in the future, for developing new interventions.

  • 34. Lindström, Björn R.
    et al.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotion processing facilitates working memory performance2011In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1196-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.

  • 35. Lindström, Björn R.
    et al.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Threat-Relevance Impairs Executive Functions: Negative Impact on Working Memory and Response Inhibition2012In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 384-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of emotional stimulus content on attention are well-known. In contrast, the impact of emotional information on higher executive control functions is undetermined. To elucidate the role of negative emotion in cognitive control, 56 adult female participants performed a combined working memory and response inhibition task, with threat-relevant (spider and snake) and neutral (flower and mushroom) stimuli. Threat-relevant stimuli impaired performance, by causing prolonged response times to working memory items and increased response inhibition error rate relative to neutral stimuli. The impaired response inhibition was only evident when threat-relevant stimuli co-occurred with working memory matches, in line with a common resource pool view of executive functions and emotion processing. Individual differences in reported fear of spiders were associated with differences of inhibitory control, while fear of snakes was associated with impaired overall accuracy on working memory trials. The results are discussed in relation to the dual-competition framework for interaction between executive functions and emotion (Pessoa, 2009).

  • 36.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Differentiating Type A behaviour and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a reaction time task2003In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 145-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the previously found overlap between Type A behaviour as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) and hyperactivity scales, the overall aim of this study was to clarify the standing of MYTH‐defined Type A behaviour relative to hyperactivity and Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), using observed task motivation and performance on a choice reaction‐time task, the Complex Reaction Time (CRT) measure. This study included 21 boys exhibiting Type A behaviour, 22 ADHD boys, 20 non‐clinically hyperactive boys, and 20 non‐hyperactive boys, between the ages of 6 and 13 years. It was proposed that a differentiation of constructs would be possible using observed task motivation if the MYTH were a discriminantly valid measure of Type A behaviour. Results showed that the MYTH‐defined Type A group differed from the clinically diagnosed ADHD group, although it was markedly similar to the non‐clinical hyperactive group, displaying comparable CRT performance and low level of task motivation. Type A behaviour correlated to CRT performance and task motivation in a way which was conceptually more indicative of hyperactivity than of Type A behaviour, which questions the validity of the MYTH as a measure of the Type A construct. The MYTH Impatience subscale was found to be particularly impure with regard to hyperactivity.

  • 37.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Inhibition and executive functioning in Type A and ADHD boys.2003In: Nord J Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 437-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was aimed at clarifying the standing of Type A behavior, as measured by behavioral observations, relative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), using measures of inhibitory control and executive functioning. The study sampl

  • 38.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Janols, Lars-Olov
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Differentiating type A behavior and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a teaction time task2003In: Infant and Child Development, Vol. 12, p. 145-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assessing Type A behavior in children: a longitudinal exploration of the overlap between Type A behavior and hyperactivity.2004In: Scand J Psychol, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 145-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child Type A behavior and its relation to hyperactivity were investigated developmentally using a longitudinal normal sample of 91 children (46 boys and 45 girls) between the ages of 4 and 8-9. In light of the overlap found in several studies between Type A behavior, as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) questionnaire, and hyperactivity measured by questionnaires, an attempt was made to measure Type A behavior as distinct from hyperactivity using behavioral observations. The MYTH questionnaire and behavioral observations were used to assess Type A behavior and questionnaire-based measures and behavioral observations were used to assess hyperactivity. Predictions were made regarding individual stability in phenomena and in measures. The results indicated considerable stability in the respective Type A and hyperactivity measures over time, and further, that behavioral observations make it possible to measure Global Type A behavior and Type A Competitiveness as distinct from hyperactivity, although the status of Type A Impatience at early ages is not yet settled. The MYTH and the observed Type A behavior showed differential relations to external criteria, such as achievement measures and problem behavior. This has implications for future measurement and perhaps conceptualization of Type A behavior in children, and thereby also for studying the developmental aspects of Type A behavior.

  • 40.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tillman, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The proposed interaction between working memory and inhibition2009In: European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0954-1446, E-ISSN 1464-0635, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 84-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments investigated the determinants of performance on a go/no-go task by studying the interplay of two executive function components, working memory (WM) and inhibition. Systematically varied task demands on WM and inhibition were used in the analysis of performance together with individual capacity measures of both functions, thereby investigating an interactive view of WM and inhibition. Further analyses were conducted with individual differences in general fluid intelligence (gF), in an attempt to study the role of higher order cognition in handling task demands. The results are new in presenting empirical evidence for interactive effects of the task demand variables in concert with individual WM capacity as well as with gF, suggesting that executive processes common to WM and gF are involved in inhibitory performance, whereas gF appears to reflect a broader function in controlling behaviour in relation to task goals, whether it involves active responding or not.

  • 41.
    Rodriguez, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, G
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindmark, G
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Psychosocial predictors of smoking and exercise during pregnancy2000In: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, Vol. 18, p. 203-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Rodriguez, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Comparative Medicine.
    Bohlin, G
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindmark, G
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Symptoms across pregnancy in relation to psychosocial and biomedical factors2001In: ACTA OBSTETRICIA ET GYNECOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0001-6349, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is current interest in symptoms during pregnancy, but yet little is known about their prevalence and how often they are experienced across pregnancy. The reasons why some women experience more symptoms or experience them more often than

  • 43.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD symptoms in Children?2005In: Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, Vol. 46, p. 246-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. METHODS: Nulliparous Scandinavian women were consecutively recruited at their first prenatal health care visit and assessments of smoking and stress were collected at gestational weeks 10, 12, 20, 28, 32, and 36. Children were followed up at 7 years old. We obtained full data for 72% of the sample: ADHD symptoms were rated by 74% of mothers (n=290) and 96% of eligible teachers (n=208). Attrition analyses showed no differences on key variables between participants and non-participants at follow-up. RESULTS: Results of multiple regression analyses showed prenatal exposure to smoking (beta=.16, p<.01) and stress (beta=.18, p<.01) were independently associated with later symptoms of ADHD. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that fulfillment of the diagnostic criteria for ADHD was related to exposure to prenatal stress (beta=.68, p<.01) especially in boys. The results were not confounded by sociodemographic factors or birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that prenatal exposure to stress and smoking is independently associated with later symptoms of ADHD in human children, particularly for boys. Because stress and smoking are relatively common during pregnancy, and yet preventable, these results are of public health significance.

  • 44.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotionality, emotion regulation, and adaptation among 5- to 8-year-old children.2003In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 30-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, L.B
    Representations of attachment to parents and shyness as predictors of children's relationships with teachers and peer competence in preschool2005In: Attachment & Human DevelopmentArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Diamantopoulou, Sofia
    Thorell, Lisa
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hyperactivity, shyness and sex: Development and socio-emotional functioning2009In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 625-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on formulations about the possible consequences for adaptation of gender non-normative behaviour, we investigated predictive and concurrent relations of hyperactivity and shyness to various aspects of adaptation focusing on possible effects of sex. At ages 5-6, parents and preschool teachers rated hyperactivity and shyness for 151 children (50% boys). At age 9, we obtained teacher ratings of hyperactivity, internalizing and externalizing problems, self-ratings of trait anxiety, and peer nominations of shyness, social preference, and aggression. Several effects of sex were found. Hyperactivity ratings were more strongly related across time and raters for boys than for girls. In the predictive analyses, boys' hyperactivity was more strongly related to aggression than was girls' hyperactivity, and in concurrent analyses, girls' hyperactivity was more strongly associated with low social preference than was boys' hyperactivity. There was a protective effect of shyness with regard to aggression that applied only to boys, that is, at high hyperactivity levels, boys with high shyness levels were less aggressive than boys with low shyness levels. There were also main effects of hyperactivity and shyness. In predictive and concurrent analyses, hyperactivity was associated with low social preference, high levels of externalizing problems and with aggression, whereas shyness was associated with high levels of internalizing problems. Finally, there was an interactive effect of hyperactivity and shyness. In the concurrent analyses, an exacerbating effect was demonstrated insofar as high shyness was associated with low social preference at high, but not at low levels of hyperactivity. The different developmental risks of hyperactivity and shyness were discussed.

  • 47.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emotion regulation in relation to social functioning: An investigation of child self-reports2007In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 293-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations between child self-reports of specific aspects of emotion regulation and specific aspects of social functioning in school were studied in two samples (N = 129/135) of 8- to 9-year-old children. The newly developed child self-report measure had significant relations to parent (Sample 1) and teacher (Sample 2) ratings of emotion regulation. In line with expectations (Rydell, Berlin, & Bohlin, 2003), poor regulation of anger and exuberance was associated with externalizing problems in both samples, poor regulation of fear had associations with social anxiety or internalizing problems in the two samples and poor regulation of sadness had marginal relations to internalizing problems in one sample. In both samples, good regulation of all emotions except fear was associated with prosocial behaviour. In Sample 1, several independent effects of child self-reports of emotion regulation on outcomes were demonstrated after controlling for parent reports of emotion regulation.

  • 48.
    Salari, Raziye
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuropsychological functioning and attachment representations in early school age as predictors of ADHD symptoms in late adolescence2017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 370-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more “at-risk” samples, these findings could also suggest that parent–child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  • 49.
    Scholtens, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    ADHD Symptoms and Attachment Representations: Considering the Role of Conduct Problems, Cognitive Deficits and Narrative Responses in Non-Attachment-Related Story Stems2014In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.

  • 50. Sjöwall, Douglas
    et al.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence2017In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 111-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5 – 18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regula- tion of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/ exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated.

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