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  • 1.
    Armstrong, Chelsey
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    McKechnie, Iain
    Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Hakai Institute, Heriot Bay, Quadra Island, British Columbia, Canada.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Szabó, Péter
    Department of Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa .
    McAlvay, Alex C.
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America .
    Boles, Oliver
    Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Walshaw, Sarah
    Department of History, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gibbons, Kevin
    Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.
    Quintana Morales, Erendira
    Department of Anthropology, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America .
    Anderson, Eugene
    Department of Anthropology, University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America .
    Ibragimow, Aleksandra
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Podruczny, Grzegorz
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Vamosi, Jana
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada .
    Marks-Block, Tony
    Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    LeCompte, Joyce
    Independent Scholar, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Awâsis, Sākihitowin
    Department of Geography, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, Atlohsa Native Family Healing Services, Canada, London, Ontario, Canada .
    Nabess, Carly
    Department of Anthropology, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America; Integrated History of Future of People on Earth (IHOPE) Initiative, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.

  • 2.
    Boles, Oliver J. C.
    et al.
    Univ Penn, Dept Anthropol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ York, Dept Environm, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York, N Yorkshire, England;UCL, Inst Archaeol, London, England.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ York, Dept Environm, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York, N Yorkshire, England;Univ Basel, Dept Environm Sci, Geoecol, Basel, Switzerland.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge, England;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect2019In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectre of overgrazing' looms large in historical and political narratives of ecological degradation in savannah ecosystems. While pastoral exploitation is a conspicuous driver of landscape variability and modification, assumptions that such change is inevitable or necessarily negative deserve to be continuously evaluated and challenged. With reference to three case studies from Kenya - the Laikipia Plateau, the Lake Baringo basin, and the Amboseli ecosystem - we argue that the impacts of pastoralism are contingent on the diachronic interactions of locally specific environmental, political, and cultural conditions. The impacts of the compression of rangelands and restrictions on herd mobility driven by misguided conservation and economic policies are emphasised over outdated notions of pastoralist inefficiency. We review the application of overgrazing' in interpretations of the archaeological record and assess its relevance for how we interpret past socio-environmental dynamics. Any discussion of overgrazing, or any form of human-environment interaction, must acknowledge spatio-temporal context and account for historical variability in landscape ontogenies.

  • 3.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Plant Conservat Unit, Bot Dept, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Univ Cambridge, Dept Archaeol, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, England;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa2019In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review the potential of biocultural heritage in biodiversity protection and agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. We begin by defining the concept of biocultural heritage into four interlinked elements that are revealed through integrated landscape analysis. This concerns the transdisciplinary methods whereby biocultural heritage must be explored, and here we emphasise that reconstructing landscape histories and documenting local heritage values needs to be an integral part of the process. Ecosystem memories relate to the structuring of landscape heterogeneity through such activities as agroforestry and fire management. The positive linkages between living practices, biodiversity and soil nutrients examined here are demonstrative of the concept of ecosystem memories. Landscape memories refer to built or enhanced landscapes linked to specific land-use systems and property rights. Place memories signify practices of protection or use related to a specific place. Customary protection of burial sites and/or abandoned settlements, for example, is a common occurrence across Africa with beneficial outcomes for biodiversity and forest protection. Finally, we discuss stewardship and change. Building on local traditions, inclusivity and equity are essential to promoting the continuation and innovation of practices crucial for local sustainability and biodiversity protection, and also offer new avenues for collaboration in landscape management and conservation.

  • 4.
    Githumbi, Esther N.
    et al.
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Kariuki, Rebecca
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Chuhila, Maxmillian
    Department of History, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Richer, Suzi
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.; Department of Archaeology, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Marchant, Rob
    Environment Department, York Institute for Tropical Ecosystems, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Pollen, People and Place: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Ecosystem Change at Amboseli, Kenya2018In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 5, p. 1-26, article id 113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a multidisciplinary perspective for understanding environmental change and emerging socio-ecological interactions across the Amboseli region of southwestern Kenya. We focus on late Holocene (<5,000 cal yr. BP) changes and continuities reconstructed from sedimentary, archeological, historical records and socio-ecological models. We utilize multi-disciplinary approaches to understand environmental-ecosystem-social interactions over the longue durée and use this to simulate different land use scenarios supporting conservation and sustainable livelihoods using a socio-ecological model. Today the semi-arid Amboseli landscape supports a large livestock and wildlife population, sustained by a wide variety of plants and extensive rangelands regulated by seasonal rainfall and human activity. Our data provide insight into how large-scale and long-term interactions of climate, people, livestock, wildlife and external connections have shaped the ecosystems across the Amboseli landscape. Environmental conditions were dry between ~5,000 and 2,000 cal yr. BP, followed by two wet periods at ~2,100–1,500 and 1,400–800 cal yr. BP with short dry periods; the most recent centuries were characterized by variable climate with alternative dry and wet phases with high spatial heterogeneity. Most evident in paleo and historical records is the changing woody to grass cover ratio, driven by changes in climate and fire regimes entwined with fluctuating elephant, cattle and wild ungulate populations moderated by human activity, including elephant ivory trade intensification. Archeological perspectives on the occupation of different groups (hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and farmers) in Amboseli region and the relationships between them are discussed. An overview of the known history of humans and elephants, expanding networks of trade, and the arrival and integration of metallurgy, livestock and domesticated crops in the wider region is provided. In recent decades, increased runoff and flooding have resulted in the expansion of wetlands and a reduction of woody vegetation, compounding problems created by increased enclosure and privatization of these landscapes. However, most of the wetlands outside of the protected area are drying up because of the intensified water extraction by the communities surrounding the National Park and on the adjacent mountains areas, who have increased in numbers, become sedentary and diversified land use around the wetlands.

  • 5.
    Lane, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Precolonial Sub-Saharan African Farming and Herding Communities2017In: Oxford Encyclopedia of African HistoryArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural practices on the African continent are exceptionally diverse and have deep histories spanning at least eight millennia. Over time, farmers and herders have independently domesticated different food crops and a more limited range of animals, and have effectively modified numerous ecological niches to better suit their needs. They have also adopted “exotic” species from other parts of the globe, nurturing these to produce new cross-breeds and varieties better adapted to African conditions. Evidence for the origins of these different approaches to food production and their subsequent entanglement is attested by diverse sources. These include archaeological remains, bio- and geo-archaeological signatures, genetic data, historical linguistics, and processes of landscape domestication.

  • 6.
    Marchant, Rob
    et al.
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Richer, Suzi
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England;Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Boles, Oliver
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Capitani, Claudia
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Courtney Mustaphi, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Geog Archaeol & Environm Studies, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Prendergast, Mary E.
    St Louis Univ, Dept Anthropol, Ave Valle 34, Madrid 28003, Spain.
    Stump, Daryl.
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    De Cort, Gijs
    Royal Museum Cent Africa, Dept Earth Sci, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium;Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    ARVE Res SARL, Pully, Switzerland;Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Phelps, Leanne
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kay, Andrea
    Univ Lausanne, Inst Earth Surface Dynam, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Olago, Dan
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Climate Change & Adaptat, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Platts, Philip J.
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England;Univ York, Dept Biol, York Y010 5DD, N Yorkshire, England.
    Punwong, Paramita
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Environm & Resource Studies, Salaya 73170, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Human Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie
    Univ South Africa, Dept Anthropol & Archaeol, UNISA, POB 392, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Ferro-Vazquez, Cruz
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Benard, Jacquiline
    Kenya Wildlife Serv, Shimba Hills, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Boivin, Nicole
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Crowther, Alison
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Archaeol, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany;Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Deere, Nicolas J.
    Univ Kent, Sch Anthropol & Conservat, DICE, Marlowe Bldg, Canterbury CT2 7NR, Kent, England.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Farmer, Jennifer
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, Scotland;Carbon Fdn East Africa, POB 70480 Lubowa Estate, Kampala, Uganda.
    Finch, Jemma
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Agr Earth & Environm Sci, Discipline Geog, Private Bag X01, ZA-3201 Scottsville, South Africa.
    Fuller, Dorian
    UCL, Inst Archaeol, 31-34 Gordon Sq, London WC1H OPY, England.
    Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-Jose
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Univ Cape Town, Plant Conservat Unit, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Bot Dept, Private Bag X3, ZA-7701 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Githumbi, Esther
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kabora, Tabitha
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kariuki, Rebecca
    Univ York, Environm Dept, York Inst Trop Ecosyst, York YO10 5NG, N Yorkshire, England.
    Kinyanjui, Rahab
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Kyazike, Elizabeth
    Lang, Carol
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    Lejju, Julius
    Mbarara Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, POB 1410, Mbarara, Uganda.
    Morrison, Kathleen D.
    Univ Penn, Dept Anthropol, 3260 South St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Muiruri, Veronica
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Mumbi, Cassian
    Tanzania Wildlife Res Inst TAWIRI, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Muthoni, Rebecca
    Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Muzuka, Alfred
    Nelson Mandela African Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Water Resources & Environm Sci & Engn, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Ndiema, Emmanuel
    Natl Museums Kenya, Archaeol Sect, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Nzabandora, Chantal Kabonyi
    Univ Officielle Bukavu, Bukavu, DEM REP CONGO.
    Onjala, Isaya
    Kyambogo Univ, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Kampala, Uganda.
    Schrijver, Annemiek Pas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Human Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rucina, Stephen
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England;Natl Museums Kenya, Palynol & Palaeobot Sect, Dept Earth Sci, POB 40658, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Thornton-Barnett, Senna
    Univ York, Dept Archaeol, Kings Manor, York YO1 7EP, N Yorkshire, England.
    van der Plas, Geert
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Limnol Unit, KL Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Watson, Elizabeth E.
    Kyambogo Univ, Dept Hist & Archaeol, Kampala, Uganda;Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Downing Pl, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England.
    Williamson, David
    IRD, United Nations Ave,POB 30677, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Wright, David
    Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Archaeol & Art Hist, 1 Gwanak Ro, Seoul 08826, South Korea.
    Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present2018In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, p. 322-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region. Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

  • 7.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Location and attribute analysis of ceramics, lithics, and special finds recovered during 2015 surveys and excavations in Olgulului/Olarashi Group Ranch, Kenya: A supplement to the PhD thesis of Anna C. Shoemaker (2018) on the archaeology of Amboseli2018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This data was acquired during the production of a PhD thesis pertaining to the archaeology of Amboseli. The amount of information obtained during ceramic and lithic analysis was often in excess of the immediate aims of this research project. This level of detail was recorded to build a robust dataset that will allow different questions to be asked of the data in the future. To facilitate ongoing analysis, supplementary data relating to the attributes and location of the lithics, ceramics, and special finds encountered during surveys and excavations has been made available here.

  • 8.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Pastoral pasts in the Amboseli landscape: An archaeological exploration of the Amboseli ecosystem from the later Holocene to the colonial period2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Amboseli ecosystem, home of Amboseli National Park, is renowned for its extraordinary biodiversity, and has long drawn the attention of conservationists and ecologists hoping to safeguard the healthy functioning of this Kenyan rangeland and the pastoral traditions that have brought this landscape into being. There is major concern currently however, as present day Amboseli pastoral livelihoods are said to be in decline owing to rangelands being settled, fenced, and converted to farmland. The processes by which pastoral livelihood diversification is occurring in this landscape have historical roots, and appreciating this context is an important component of understanding current trends in socio-economic and environmental adaptability and sustainability. Yet, the human history of Amboseli’s ecosystem tends to be conceptualised and discussed by scholars in terms of a narrow and ahistorical model of subsistence-based pastoralism. The research presented in this thesis provides an alternative history of pastoral pasts in Amboseli.

    In more specific terms, the primary focus of this thesis is detailing and analysing the results of archaeological surveys and the excavation of ten sites located on Olgulului/Ololarashi group ranch, an archaeological terra incognita. These date to varying stages of the last few millennia. Inspired by the interdisciplinary approach of historical ecology, these exploratory archaeological findings are contextualised and integrated with archival, palaeoenvironmental, ecological, linguistic, and local knowledge sources. In doing so, I present a culture history of Amboseli, and an examination of the evidence for livestock herding in this landscape organised into three parts: the mid-Holocene arrival of domestic stock and emergence of specialised pastoralism; the Early to Late Iron Ages; and finally, the 19th century and colonial period. Throughout these chapters, a continuous theme discussed is the multitude of ways in which cultivation and trade have featured in the Amboseli landscape and contributed to the livelihoods of pastoral people inhabiting this ecosystem. In delving into the history of pastoralism in Amboseli, it is apparent that both its occupants’ livelihoods and the landscape itself must be understood as having been shaped by a heterogeneity of economic pursuits and resource use strategies.

  • 9.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Davies, Matthew I. J.
    UCL, Inst Global Prosper, London, England.
    Grinding-stone implements in the eastern African Pastoral Neolithic2019In: Azania, ISSN 0067-270X, E-ISSN 1945-5534, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 203-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding-stone tools are a poorly utilised source of archaeological information in eastern Africa. Their presence is noted in multiple contexts, including both domestic and funerary, yet the inferences drawn from them are often limited. This short review paper presents existing information on grinding-stone tools (and stone bowls) from Pastoral Neolithic (PN) contexts in eastern Africa. Data on the diverse grinding-stone tool assemblages of the Pastoral Neolithic have been compiled with a focus on details of morphology and spatial, temporal and contextual distribution. Summarising what is known (and, perhaps more importantly, what is not known) about grinding-stones in the Pastoral Neolithic, this paper serves as a reminder that the function of grinding-stone tools was neither singular nor their significance simplistic.

  • 10.
    Shoemaker, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Davies, Matthew I.J.
    African Studies Research Center, University College London, UK.
    Moore, Henrietta L.
    Institute for Global Prosperity, University College London, UK.
    Back to the Grindstone?: The Archaeological Potential of Grinding-Stone Studies in Africa with Reference to Contemporary Grinding Practices in Marakwet, Northwest Kenya2017In: African Archaeological Review, ISSN 0263-0338, E-ISSN 1572-9842, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 415-435Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents observations on grinding-stone implements and their uses in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, northwest Kenya. Tool use in Marakwet is contextualized with a select overview of literature on grinding-stones in Africa. Grinding-stones in Marakwet are incorporated not only into quotidian but also into more performative and ritual aspects of life. These tools have distinct local traditions laden with social as well as functional importance. It is argued that regionally and temporally specific studies of grinding-stone tool assemblages can be informative on the processing of various substances. Despite being common occurrences, grinding-stone tools are an under-discussed component of many African archaeological assemblages. Yet the significance of grinding-stones must be reevaluated, as they hold the potential to inform on landscapes of past food and material processing.

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