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  • 1.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas.
    Big Science, Brain Simulation and Neuroethics2016In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We believe that it is valuable to investigate conceptual understandings of the brain andof simulation in order to better grasp the ethical implicationsof simulation technology in particular. Such conceptualexamination is offered by fundamental neuroethics. Inthis commentary we propose a reading of simulationwithin the framework of fundamental neuroethics.

  • 2. Luna, Florencia
    et al.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Moral Incoherence and hidden Battles: Stem Cell Research in Argentina2010In: Developing World Bioethics, ISSN 1471-8731, E-ISSN 1471-8847, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors focus on Argentina's activity in the developing field of regenerative medicine, specifically stem cell research. They take as a starting point a recent article by Shawn Harmon (published in this journal) who argues that attempts to regulate the practice in Argentina are morally incoherent. The authors try to show first, that there is no such 'attempt to legislate' on stem cell research in Argentina and this is due to a number of reasons that they explain. Second, by examining the role played by different values, conflicting legal and moral views, and the influence of various actors, they attempt to show that the legislative silence regarding stem cell research may not necessarily be a manifestation of a legal/moral disconnection but rather a survival strategy for navigating the long and heated battle on the moral status of the embryo and the kind of treatment it deserves.

  • 3. Melo Martin, Inmaculada
    et al.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    On Disgust and Human Dignity2011In: Journal of Value Inquiry, ISSN 0022-5363, E-ISSN 1573-0492, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we critically examine Nussbaum’s claim that moralized disgust necessarily presents a threat to the dignity of human beings. Without calling into question Nussbaum’s account of human dignity and of the emotion of disgust, we have seen that whether dignity can be conceptualized as an inalienable characteristic possessed by all human beings or as a characteristic tied to the development and exercise of the central human capabilities, moralized disgust need not be incompatible with respect for the dignity of human beings. However, the fact that moral disgust need not present a threat to the equal respect and dignity of all human beings does not support the claim that there is wisdom in repugnance. It might well be that disgust is not very reliable and thus not a particularly good moral guide. Also, it might be that, as Nussbaum suggests, the link of disgust with the desire to remain pure can result in a failure to move us to engage socially, to protest against wrongdoing, and to right wrongs. If so, disgust might not be a valuable emotion for social reform. Hence, there might be good reasons to question the value of disgust as a response to moral wrongs, but a concern that disgust inevitably threatens human dignity does not seem to be one of them 

  • 4.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Bioethics, Difference and Rights2004In: Linking Visions: Feminist Bioethics, Human Rights, and the Developing World / [ed] Tong R. Donchin A & Dodds S., Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004, p. 57-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, it has become fashionable to highlight cultural and ethnic issues in bioethics and to argue that they should be clinically and ethically salient. In this essay, I identify two main strategies used to defend this view, and address the issues raised by them by focusing on Hispanic patients. In the first section of this essay, I describe some empirical research on Hispanic patients, some of the assumptions underlying its conclusions, and discuss some ethical issues raised by the prevalence of stereotyping and generalizing about minorities. In the second section, I indicate the limitations of the prevailing essentialist thinking on ethnicity and culture and suggest alternative directions for future research. In the third and final section, I advance the argument that even if stereotyping and essentialist thinking are avoided, respect for cultural and ethnic differences is morally defensible only when it is compatible with the acknowledgment of fundamental rights. 

  • 5.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Brain Imaging and Privacy Concerns2016In: Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication / [ed] Farisco Michele & Evers Kathinka, Routledge, 2016, p. 143-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the author highlights some efforts to approach the issue of functional neuro-imaging and its possible threat to privacy in the neuroethics literature. Two main approaches or strategies are usually used in the discussion: the first strategy consists in a description and discussion of what neuro-imaging can and cannot do with a focus on the technical and methodological problems that bedevil the technology. The second strategy focuses on the metaphysical assumptions about the mind underlying concerns on the subject of neuro-imaging and mental privacy. Sometimes these two strategies are used jointly. There is a third strategy, less common in the neuroethics literature, that brackets technical, methodological, and metaphysical issues to put the focus on the discussion of normative questions. The questions raised are: why would neuroimaging’s impinging on privacy be problematic? What is valuable about mental privacy? Would it be morally undesirable to have less of it? My main aim is to outline the first two strategies clarifying their implications for the privacy debate, and then focus more on the third. I end by proposing to expand the normative discussion to incorporate some of the issues raised by a recent account of privacy as contextual integrity. 

  • 6.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    El cerebro de quien? Algunas reflexiones sobre la neurociencia de las diferencias sexuales2014In: Genero y Bioetica / [ed] Casado M. Luna F. Vazquez R, Editorial Fontamara , 2014, p. 179-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    En este capitulo,  esquematizo algunas de las cuestiones relativas a los estudios sobre las diferencias sexuales y la posibilidad de inclusión de sus resultados en otros tipos de investigación. Considero que el entrecruce de lo empírico con consideraciones morales teóricas enriquece la discusion y no me opongo a que los resultados de ciertos tipos de investigación empírica (por ejemplo, sobre diferencias sexuales) jueguen un papel en otros tipos de investigación empírica (por ejemplo, sobre las bases neurales de la moralidad). Sin embargo, me parece fundamental proceder con much cautela en el uso de los resultados de los estudios neurocientíficos sobre diferencias sexuales, que típicamente se ven infectados de prejuicios problemáticos. 

  • 7.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    La neurociencia y la identidad: un debate abierto2015In: El Mejoramiento Humano / [ed] César Ortega Esquembre Andrés Richart Piqueras Víctor Páramo Valero Christian Ruíz Rubio, Editorial Comares, 2015, p. 57-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Large brain projects worldwide, such as the American BRAIN initiative and the European Human Brain Project, are generating vigorous moral discussions on a number of topics. They range from how responsible research should be carried out and how to ethically use the findings, to critical questions about the impact of neuroscientific findings on human lives in general and subjective human experiences in particular. One important concern that has been voiced is that advances in brain research can potentially threaten human identity either by substantially altering it or by directly undermining it. In this paper, the author identifies and presents some of these identity related concerns. 

  • 8.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Las diferencias sexuales y la discusion neuroetica2014In: Debate Feminista, ISSN 0188-9478, Vol. 25, no 49, p. 94-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    En este capítulo, me propongo indagar este entrecruzamiento conceptual entre el feminismo y la neuroética. En la primera parte, presentaré algunos de los temas mas recurrentes de la neuroética, para luego señalar los matices diferentes introducidos por el feminismo. En la segunda parte me concentro en algunas inquietudes feministas sobre la investigación neurocientífica de las diferencias sexuales, en particular las relacionadas con la manera como se lleva a cabo y las consecuencias de sus resultados. Finalmente, en la tercera parte sugiero que es hora de trascender las etiquetas y nos propongamos hacer una neuroética lo suficientemente crítica e intelectualmente honesta como para que esté atenta a todo tipo de consideración moralmente significativa incluyendo, por supuesto, las de género. 

  • 9.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuroethics in a “Psy” World: the Case of Argentina2014In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 23, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the cultural psychoanalytic tradition that shapes the thought of Argentineans and their current skepticism with regard to the neurosciences when it comes to understanding human behavior, this article addresses the question of whether a healthy neyuroethics can develop in the country.

  • 10.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuroethics in Context: The Development of the Discipline in Argentina2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics / [ed] Johnson S. Rommelfanger K, Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the impact of scientific research and the effects of neurotechnology on human beings not only as biological beings but also as moral beings is increasingly felt in medicine and the humanities. It is reasonable to think that the future will bring even more ways of knowing, modifying, healing, and possibly enhancing the brain thus challenging our intuitions about who we are and how we act - or should act. Neuroethics attempts to both offer a collective response to the ethical issues that rapidly developing science raises, and to find new answers to age-old philosophical questions. This discipline is not as established in Argentina as it is in the United States and some European nations, but the unique historic-cultural and academic landscape of Argentina suggests promises for neuroethics to deliver original results if/when this development occurs. Here, I  briefly explain some of the neuroethical concerns that attract more attention locally and I make explicit some of the salient topics and challenges shaping neuroethics in Argentina. 

  • 11.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    On the Normative Implications of Social Neuroscience2013In: RECERCA: Revista di Pensament I Analisi, Vol. 13, p. 29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.

  • 12.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Proactive Epigenesis and Ethics2017In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1271-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent article by Kathinka Evers and Jean Pierre Changeux offers a new approach to the issue of moral change. They propose proactive epigenesis as a tool to communicate and establish social and ethical norms in education and upbringing so as to build better societies. In this short commentary I explain their view and then identify and explain some of the normative issues raised by their proposal. In particular, I  focus on some moral claims they make that raise deep questions about justification and frameworks and thus require further discussion. Based on my analysis, I propose that the authors themselves further develop their views and elaborate on the specifically moral issues raised by their proposal and hope that their joint work on this issue inspires empirical and theoretical research from disciplines such as moral philosophy, pedagogy, and social science to further examine proactive epigenesis and the possibilities it opens for addressing moral improvement.

  • 13.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Rationality and the moral significance of emotions2015In: Inherent and Instrumental Values: Excursions in Value Inquiry, University Press of America, 2015, p. 89-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional assumption of traditional moral philosophy is that emotions are irrational forces likely to make us act other than on moral principles. One aspect of this tradition that its followers emphasize is the notion that a moral life is a matter of rational self-sufficiency.  Because rationality grounds morality, and emotions are allegedly merely irrational phenomena, they have no positive moral significance. Since the recent renewal of interest in the emotions, however, some philosophers have concerned themselves with morally vindicating the emotions by arguing that under some conditions they can be assessed as rational.  This chapter addresses the connection usually made between the moral significance of the emotions and their rational status. 

  • 14.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Reflexiones sobre la bioetica y la biotecnologia2012In: Perspectivas Bioeticas81, ISSN 1575-8443, Vol. 17, no 32, p. 81-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New biomedical technologies and research have raised a number of ethical issues and created a polarized debate about how to understand and solve them. Here, I present two rival approaches regarding how to look at biotechnology: the neoconservative and the progressive approaches. I explore some of their underlying assumptions and consider the role that similar approaches play in shaping the public perception and discussion of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology in Latin American countries. 

  • 15.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Rodo, Morality and Race2011In: Forging People: Race, Ethnicity and Nationality in Spanish-American Philosophy / [ed] Jorge Gracia, University of Notre Dame Press, 2011, p. 181-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What constitutes an authentic Latin American identity, particularly in the face of European and North American values and their overpowering influence? How should such an identity be understood? These are topics that seem inescapable in any history of ideas in Latin America, and continue to be hotly debated. They were also discussed during the period of state formation, the early 1900s, when several intellectuals felt the need to reaffirm a distinctive collective identity and were instrumental in fueling the valorization of a Latin American consciousness. José Enrique Rodó is taken to be one of the key figures in the movement. Rodó rallied against the pervasive moral and political power of the United States by doing two things: first, he tried to invert common beliefs about the inferiority of the Latin American “race.” Second, he argued for the existence of a united Latin American community with an unquestionable mission: the moral revitalization of humanity. In this chapter I examine Rodo's view and critically examine its assumptions.

     

                                                      

  • 16.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Ctr Invest Filosof, Neuroeth Program, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.; European Human Brain Project, Eth & Soc Subproject, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Salud reproductiva, legislación y opciones de maternidad2017In: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, ISSN 1937-4585, E-ISSN 1937-4577, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 248-251Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Sobre la neuroetica2016In: Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia, ISSN 0325-0725, Vol. 42Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Introduction to a special issue devoted to neuroethics. This article provides an overview of the main issues raised by recent neuroscientific advances and the different approaches used to understand and discuss them. 

  • 18.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Bertomeu, Maria Julia
    Bioethics: Latin American Perspectives2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a unique view of the current state of development of bioethics in Laitn America. Twelve Latin American bioeethicists address a vast range of questions including autonomy, rights, justice and the role of culture and religion in bioethics.

  • 19.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, KathinkaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    La Vida Social del Cerebro2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Social Neuroscience and Neuroethics: A Fruitful Synergy2017In: Neuroscience and Social Science: The Missing Link / [ed] A. Ibáñez et al. (eds.), Springer, 2017, p. 531-546Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social neuroscience is shedding new light on the relationship between the brain and its environments. In the process, and despite criticism from the social sciences, the field is contributing to the discussion of long-standing controversies concerning, for example, the "nature-nurture" distinction and the relationships between social and neurobiological structures.

    In this chapter, we argue that in this endeavor social neuroscience would benefit from partnering with neuroethics insofar as their respective areas and methods of explanation are complementary rather than in competition. We provide a richer account of neuroethics than the one given in social neuroscientists' common descriptions of that field and suggest that, when understood in this richer (and in our view more adequate) fashion, neuroethics may open up productive avenues for research and play a key role in allowing us to determine social neuroscience's contribution to unveiling important epistemological as well as ontological notions. Accordingly, social neuroscience and neuroethics may form a constructive partnership.

  • 21.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Melo Martin, Inmaculada
    Disgust in Bioethics2012In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to advance the dialogue by clarifying the different ways in which disgust is used when dealing with bio- ethical issues, particularly those issues that relate to new biotechnological developments. We argue that discus- sions involving this concept are mud- dled because of a failure to clarify the particular content of the emotion and its manifestations, or because disputants are using disgust in different ways. We identify here four main uses of the concept of disgust. In some cases, dis- gust is used as an example to illustrate the proper role of emotional sensibility in bioethical thinking. In other cases, disgust is discussed as a possible source of moral knowledge that can help us discern the permissibility of biomedical practices or technologies. Disgust is also used as a rhetorical device to bring forth opposition or rejection of such practices or biotechnological advances. Finally, disgust is used in the bioethics literature as a tool that, on grounds of irrationality or ignorance, allows one to dismiss the concerns of those who appeal to disgust when rejecting new biomedical technologies. Of course, the different uses of disgust are interrelated, and sometimes more than one of these uses is found in the same work. We believe however, that these diverse uses have different normative implications, and thus it is impor-tant to clarify what it is that one wants to achieve when using the concept of disgust. 

  • 22.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Melo Martin, Inmaculada
    Moral Bioenhancement: Much Ado about Nothing?2015In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with tradi- tional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution – whether permissible or not – to the serious moral problems that affect human beings is based on several problematic framing assumptions. We evaluate here three of such assumptions: the first rests on a contested understanding of morality, the second consist in a mistaken conception of human moral problems, and the third relates to problematic presuppositions grounding the interpretation of existent scientific evidence presented to defend moral bioenhancement. Once these framing assumptions are iden- tified and critically evaluated, it becomes clear that the moral bioenhancement debate is misguided. 

  • 23.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Millan Zaibert, lizabeth
    The Role of History in Latin American Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early history of Latin American philosophy, the contributions from Latin American thinkers were generally viewed to be mere copies of the work done by Spanish and Portuguese philosophers. Hence, there was not much interest in investigating the contributions from the “colonies,” as the general view was that the intellectual tradition, like the political one, was dominated by the colonizers. Nowadays, the lack of general knowledge regarding Latin American philosophy can be attributed to many factors, one of which is a language barrier. Few major philosophical texts from Latin America have been translated into English, and this is in part due to the fact that while English, French, and German are recognized as important philosophical languages, Spanish is relegated to the realm of magical realism or of immigrant fruit pickers. We believe that the contribu- tions included in this volume demonstrate that there are original positions to be found in the work of Latin American philosophers and so that at least some philosophical work from Latin America offers new insights and solutions to problems, hence making it relevant to philosophers from other regions of the world. One goal we have in presenting this collection is to introduce some important, contemporary philosophical voices of the Latin American philosophical tradition. 

1 - 23 of 23
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