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  • 1.
    Dalbauer, V
    et al.
    TU Wien, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Vienna, Austria.
    Ramm, J.
    Oerlikon Surface Solut AG, Oerlikon Balzers, Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Kolozsvari, S.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, Lechbruck Am See, Germany.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Koller, C. M.
    TU Wien, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Vienna, Austria;TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Vienna, Austria.
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Vienna, Austria;TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Vienna, Austria.
    On the phase formation of cathodic arc evaporated Al1-xCrx-based intermetallic coatings and substoichiometric oxides2018In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 352, p. 392-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase evolution of Al1-xCrx-based intermetallic coatings and corresponding substoichiometric oxides grown by cathodic arc evaporation was investigated in order to obtain a better understanding of the relation between oxygen flow rate, Al and Cr content, and structural evolution of the coatings deposited. When using 20 sccm Ar, or 50 sccm O-2, or 100 sccm O-2 per active source (p.a.s.) the cathode reaction zone consists of various intermetallic Al-Cr-compounds, which are in good agreement with the binary Al-Cr phase diagram. This is generally also reflected in the phase composition of the metallic and substoichiometric oxide coatings. The Al-rich compositions, Al0.75Cr0.25 and Al0.70Cr0.30, show a strong tendency for the formation of gamma(1)-Al8Cr5 phases. Mostly, the coating compositions of the metallic constituents of the synthesised intermetallic and substoichiometric oxide coatings deviate from the elemental compositions of the cathode, show enrichment in Cr. This deviation is more pronounced for Cr-rich cathodes using low O-2 flow rates during deposition. The dense columnar structure of the intermetallic coatings (hardness values between 2.5 and 10.2 GPa) turns into a nano-composite-like morphology for depositions with 50 and 100 sccm O-2 p.a.s., which in turn leads to a significant hardness increase up to similar to 24 GPa. Among all coatings investigated, the Cr-rich compositions have higher hardness and denser morphology than the Al-rich layers.

  • 2.
    Englund, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Grini, Sigbjorn
    Univ Oslo, Ctr Mat Sci & Nanotechnol, Dept Phys, Gaustdalleen 23 A, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Kosyak, Volodymyr
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    TiN Interlayers with Varied Thickness in Cu2ZnSnS(e)(4) Thin Film Solar Cells: Effect on Na Diffusion, Back Contact Stability, and Performance2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 23, article id 1800491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, interlayers with varied thickness of TiN between Cu2ZnSnS(e)(4) (CZTS(e)) absorbers and Mo on soda-lime glass substrates are investigated for CZTS(e) thin film solar cells. Na diffusion is analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and it is found that the use of thick TiN interlayers facilitates Na diffusion into the absorbers. The CZTS(e)/TiN/Mo interfaces are scrutinized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). It is found that diffusion of chalcogens present in the precursor occurs through openings, resulting from surface roughness in the Mo, in the otherwise chemically stable TiN interlayers, forming point contacts of MoS(e)(2). It is further established that both chalcogens and Mo diffuse along the TiN interlayer grain boundaries. Solar cell performance for sulfur-annealed samples improved with increased thickness of TiN, and with a 200 nm TiN interlayer, the solar cell performance is comparable to a typical Mo reference. Pure TiN bulk contacts are investigated and shown to work, but the performance is still inferior to the TiN interlayer back contacts. The use of thick TiN interlayers offers a pathway to achieve high efficiency CZTS(e) solar cells on highly inert back contacts.

  • 3.
    Englund, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Uppsala universitet.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ren, Yi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Donzel-Gargand, Olivier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Larsen, Jes K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Characterization of TiN back contact interlayers with varied thickness for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film solar cells2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 639, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiN thin films have previously been used as intermediate barrier layers on Mo back contacts in CZTS(e) solar cells to suppress excessive reaction of the Mo in the annealing step. In this work, TiN films with various thickness (20, 50 and 200 nm) were prepared with reactive DC magnetron sputtering on Mo/SLG substrates and annealed, without CZTS(e) layers, in either S or Se atmospheres. The as-deposited references and the annealed samples were characterized with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Time-of-Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Time-of-Flight-Medium-Energy Ion Scattering, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy – Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy. It was found that the as-deposited TiN layers below 50 nm show discontinuities, which could be related to the surface roughness of the Mo. Upon annealing, TiN layers dramatically reduced the formation of MoS(e)2, but did not prevent the sulfurization or selenization of Mo. The MoS(e)2 had formed near the discontinuities, both below and above the TiN layers. Another unexpected finding was that the thicker TiN layer increased the amount of Na diffused to the surface after anneal, and we suggest that this effect is related to the Na affinity of the TiN layers and the MoS(e)2 thickness.

  • 4.
    Fluch, Ulrike
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Uniform distribution of post-synthetic linker exchange in metal-organic frameworks revealed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry2017In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 53, no 48, p. 6516-6519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used for the first time to study post-synthetic linker exchange (PSE) in metal-organic frameworks. RBS is a non-invasive method to quantify the amount of introduced linker, as well as providing a means for depth profiling in order to identify the preferred localization of the introduced linker. The exchange of benzenedicarboxylate (bdc) by similarly sized 2-iodobenzenedicarboxylate (I-bdc) proceeds considerably slower than migration of I-dbc through the UiO-66 crystal. Consequently, the I-bdc is found evenly distributed throughout the UiO-66 samples, even at very short PSE exposure times.

  • 5.
    Glechner, T.
    et al.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Holec, D.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Mat Sci, A-8700 Leoben, Austria.
    Fritze, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lewin, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Kolozsvari, S.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, D-86983 Lechbruck, Germany.
    Riedl, H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Tuning structure and mechanical properties of Ta-C coatings by N-alloying and vacancy population2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 17669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailoring mechanical properties of transition metal carbides by substituting carbon with nitrogen atoms is a highly interesting approach, as thereby the bonding state changes towards a more metallic like character and thus ductility can be increased. Based on ab initio calculations we could prove experimentally, that up to a nitrogen content of about 68% on the non-metallic sublattice, Ta-C-N crystals prevail a face centered cubic structure for sputter deposited thin films. The cubic structure is partly stabilized by non-metallic as well as Ta vacancies-the latter are decisive for nitrogen rich compositions. With increasing nitrogen content, the originally super-hard fcc-TaC0.71 thin films soften from 40 GPa to 26 GPa for TaC0.33N0.67, accompanied by a decrease of the indentation modulus. With increasing nitrogen on the non-metallic sublattice (hence, decreasing C) the damage tolerance of Ta-C based coatings increases, when characterized after the Pugh and Pettifor criteria. Consequently, varying the non-metallic sublattice population allows for an effective tuning and designing of intrinsic coating properties.

  • 6.
    Kalamara, A.
    et al.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Patronis, N.
    Univ Ioannina, Dept Phys, GR-45110 Ioannina, Greece.
    Vlastou, R.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Kokkoris, M.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Chasapoglou, S.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Stamatopoulos, A.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Serris, M.
    Univ West Att, Dept Naval Architecture, Athens 12210, Greece.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Axiotis, M.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl & Particle Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece.
    Lagoyannis, A.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl & Particle Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece.
    Harissopulos, S.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl & Particle Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece.
    Stamatelatos, I. E.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl & Radiol Sci, Energy Technol & Safety, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece.
    Determination of the Ir-193(n, 2n) reaction cross section and correction methodology for the Ir-191(n, gamma) contamination2019In: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601X, Vol. 55, no 10, article id 187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross section of the Ir-193(n, 2n)Ir-192 reaction has been determined by means of the activation technique, relative to the Al-27(n, alpha) and Au-197(n, 2n) reference reactions cross sections, at neutron beam energies ranging from 10 to 21 MeV. The quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced at the 5.5 MV Tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos" via the H-2(d, n) and H-3(d, n) reactions. The induced gamma-ray activity of the irradiated target and reference foils was measured with high resolution HPGe detectors. In order to correct for the contribution of the Ir-191(n, gamma)Ir-192 reaction, which is open to low energy parasitic neutrons, a recently developed analysis method was implemented and it is presented in great detail. Furthermore, cross section theoretical calculations were carried out using the EMPIRE and TALYS codes over a wide energy range.

  • 7.
    Kantre, Karim-Alexandros
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Investigation of the energy loss of I in Au at energies below the Bragg peak2019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 450, p. 37-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy loss of iodine in gold was investigated at energies below the Bragg peak. With the present work, the range of the available experimental data is extended to significantly lower energies, while the nuclear stopping power contribution is taken into account. Experiments were performed on thin film targets in reflection geometry. Electronic stopping cross sections were extracted by different approaches from experimental spectra. The obtained results have been compared to tabulated values from SRIM and previously published experimental data, where available. For all energies the obtained values are consistently higher than predicted by SRIM. Monte Carlo simulations (TRIM) have been performed to study path length distributions and the influence of nuclear stopping on the total energy loss. The results from the calculations indicate that the experimental geometry might be an important factor affecting the observed energy loss due to a selection of specific trajectories.

  • 8.
    Kokkoris, M.
    et al.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Androulakaki, E. G.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780, Greece.
    Czyzycki, M.
    Int Atom Energy Agcy IAEA Labs, Nucl Sci & Instrumentat Lab, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria;AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Phys & Appl Comp Sci, Al A Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland.
    Erich, M.
    Univ Belgrade, Vinca Inst Nucl Sci, Lab Phys, POB 552, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Karydas, A. G.
    Int Atom Energy Agcy IAEA Labs, Nucl Sci & Instrumentat Lab, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria;NCSR Demokritos, Xray Fluorescence Anal Lab, Inst Nucl & Particle Phys, Athens 15341, Greece.
    Leani, J. J.
    Int Atom Energy Agcy IAEA Labs, Nucl Sci & Instrumentat Lab, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria;Natl Sci & Tech Res Council CONICET, IFEG, X5000HUA, Cordoba, Argentina.
    Mighori, A.
    Int Atom Energy Agcy IAEA Labs, Nucl Sci & Instrumentat Lab, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria.
    Ntemou, E.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780, Greece;NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl & Particle Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Athens 15341, Greece.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Petrovic, S.
    Univ Belgrade, Vinca Inst Nucl Sci, Lab Phys, POB 552, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Argon ions deeply implanted in silicon studied by Rutherford/Elastic Backscattering and Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy2019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 450, p. 144-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrotron-radiation based techniques have recently emerged as serious competitors to traditional nuclear analytical ones, not only in the characterization of various materials, but also when the depth profiling of ultra thin surface layers is concerned. The main goal of the present work was to investigate the applicability of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Fluorescence (GIXRF) and Rutherford/Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS/EBS) techniques with respect to the accurate quantitative determination of the retained doses of Ar ions deep implanted in random direction of Si [1 1 1] polished crystalline wafers. RBS/EBS measurements with protons and deuterons were taken along with GIXRF ones, the results were compared and an attempt was made to explain the occurring similarities and differences, along with the advantages and weaknesses of each applied analytical technique.

  • 9.
    Kokkoris, M.
    et al.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, GR-15773 Athens, Greece.
    Dede, S.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Kantre, Karim-Alexandros
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Lagoyannis, A.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Athens 15310, Greece.
    Ntemou, E.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, GR-15773 Athens, Greece.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Preketes-Sigalas, K.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Athens 15310, Greece;Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, GR-15773 Athens, Greece.
    Provatas, G.
    NCSR Demokritos, Inst Nucl Phys, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Athens 15310, Greece.
    Vlastou, R.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, GR-15773 Athens, Greece.
    Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.
    Inst Ruder Boskovic, Dept Expt Phys, Lab Ion Beam Interact, Bijenicka Cesta 54, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
    Siketic, Z.
    Inst Ruder Boskovic, Dept Expt Phys, Lab Ion Beam Interact, Bijenicka Cesta 54, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
    Obajdin, N.
    KBC Rijeka, Ctr Med Phys & Radiat Protect, Kresimirova 42, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
    Benchmarking the evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the EBS analysis of natSi and 16O2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 405, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy (EBS) analysis of Si-nat and O-16, as obtained from SigmaCalc 2.0, have been benchmarked over a wide energy and angular range at two different accelerator laboratories, namely at N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Athens, Greece and at Ruder Boskovic Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, using a variety of high-purity thick targets of known stoichiometry. The results are presented in graphical and tabular forms, while the observed discrepancies, as well as, the limits in accuracy of the benchmarking procedure, along with target related effects, are thoroughly discussed and analysed. In the case of oxygen the agreement between simulated and experimental spectra was generally good, while for silicon serious discrepancies were observed above E-p,E-lab = 2.5 MeV, suggesting that a further tuning of the appropriate nuclear model parameters in the evaluated differential cross-section datasets is required.

  • 10.
    Lasfargues, H.
    et al.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria..
    Glechner, T.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria..
    Koller, C. M.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria..
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Kolozsvari, S.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, D-86983 Lechbruck, Germany..
    Holec, D.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Phys Met & Mat Testing, A-8700 Leoben, Austria..
    Riedl, H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria..
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria..
    Non-reactively sputtered ultra-high temperature Hf-C and Ta-C coatings2017In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 309, p. 436-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal carbides are known for their exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties, notably governed by the carbon content and the prevalent vacancies on the non-metallic sublattice. However, when using reactive deposition techniques, the formation of amorphous C-containing phases is often observed. Here, we show that non-reactive magnetron sputtering of HfC0.89 or TaC0.92 targets lead to fully crystalline coatings. Their C content depends on the target-to-substrate alignment and globally increases from HfC0.66 to HfC0.76 and from TaC0.69 to TaC0.75 with increasing bias potential from floating to - 100 V, respectively, when using a substrate temperature T-sub of 500 degrees C. Increasing T-sub to 700 degrees C leads to variations from TaC0.71 to TaC0.81. All HfCy films are single-phase face-centered cubic, whereas the TaCy films also contain small fractions of the hexagonal Ta2C phase. The highest hardness and indentation modulus among all coatings studied is obtained for TaC0.75 with H = 41.9 +/- 03 GPa and E = 466.8 +/- 15 GPa. Ab initio calculations predict an easy formation of vacancies on the C-sublattice, especially in the Ta-C system, and a temperature driven stabilization of defected structures at high temperatures, with fewer vacancies on the C sublattice for Hf-C than for Ta-C The predicted phase stability is proven up to 2400 C for both systems by annealing experiments in vacuum.

  • 11.
    Lohmann, Svenja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Analysis of photon emission induced by light and heavy ions in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 417, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a systematic analysis of the photon emission observed due to impact of pulsed keV ion beams in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (ToF-MEIS) experiments. Hereby, hydrogen, helium and neon ions served as projectiles and thin gold and titanium nitride films on different substrates were employed as target materials. The present experimental evidence indicates that a significant fraction of the photons has energies of around 10 eV, i.e. on the order of typical valence and conduction band transitions in solids. Furthermore, the scaling properties of the photon emission with respect to several experimental parameters were studied. A dependence of the photon yield on the projectile velocity was observed in all experiments. The photon yield exhibits a dependence on the film thickness and the scattering angle, which can be explained by photon production along the path of the incident ion through the material. Additionally, a strong dependence on the projectile type was found with the photon emission being higher for heavier projectiles. This difference is larger than the respective difference in electronic stopping cross section. The photon yield shows a strong material dependence, and according to a comparison of SiO2 and Si seems to be subject to matrix effects. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Moraes, V.
    et al.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Fuger, C.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Polcik, P.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, D-86983 Lechbruck, Germany.
    Bolvardi, H.
    Oerlikon Balzers Surface Solut AG, Oerlikon Balzers, FL-9496 Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Arndt, M.
    Oerlikon Balzers Surface Solut AG, Oerlikon Balzers, FL-9496 Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Riedl, H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, A-1060 Vienna, Austria;TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, Christian Doppler Lab Applicat Oriented Coating D, A-1060 Vienna, Austria;TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Substoichiometry and tantalum dependent thermal stability of alpha-structured W-Ta-B thin films2018In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 155, p. 5-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical vapor deposited (PVD) WB2 thin films crystallize in the alpha-AIB(2)-prototype structure rather than in their thermodynamically stable (omega-W2B5-z-prototype structure. Contrary to the majority of alpha-AlB2-type transition metal diborides (TMB2), alpha-WB2 exhibits a more ductile character. Combining density functional theory and sophisticated experiments, we show that the stability of alpha-WB2 thin films is basically influenced by point defects such as vacancies present in PVD materials. With the help of alpha-TaB2 (one of the most ductile TMB2 with high preference for alpha-AlB2-type), the thermally driven decomposition and phase transformation of alpha-W1-xTaxB2-z to the omega-W2B5-z-type can be shifted to temperatures above 1200 degrees C.

  • 13.
    Paneta, Valentina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Englund, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Scragg, Jonathan J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ion-beam based characterization of TiN back contact interlayers for CZTS(e), thin film solar cells2019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 450, p. 262-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ToF-ERDA) and Time-of-Flight Medium-Energy Ion Scattering (ToF-MEIS) have been employed to investigate the potential of TiN thin films as intermediate layers on Mo back contact in CZTS(e) solar cells. TiN films of various thicknesses (20, 50 and 200 nm) were prepared with reactive DC magnetron sputtering and atomic layer deposition on Mo/SLG (soda-lime glass) substrates and annealed ex situ in either S or Se atmosphere. In situ annealing of the samples to different temperatures was also performed in the MEIS setup together with subsequent ToF-MEIS and ERDA analysis. The results of the sample and interlayer composition profiles, layer quality and thickness distributions are discussed in context with complementary experimental findings partially obtained previously by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy- Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM - EELS).

  • 14.
    Paneta, Valentina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Fluch, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Dept Fus Plasma Phys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Phys Appl Nucl Phys, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Characterization of compositional modifications in metal-organic frameworks using carbon and alpha particle microbeams2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 404, p. 198-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium-oxide based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were grown on p-type Si wafers. A modified linker molecule containing iodine was introduced by post synthetic exchange (PSE). Samples have been studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques, employing the 5 MV 15SDH-2 Pelletron Tandem accelerator at the Angstrom laboratory. The degree of post synthetic uptake of the iodine-containing linker has been investigated with both a broad beam and a focused beam of carbon and alpha particles targeting different kind of MOF crystals which were of similar to 1-10 mu m in size, depending on the linker used. Iodine concentrations in MOF crystallites were also measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) and are compared to the RBS results. In parallel to the ion beam studies, samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify possible crystallite clustering, develop optimum sample preparation routines and to characterize the potential ion beam induced sample damage and its dependence on different parameters. Based on these results the reliability and accuracy of ion beam data is assessed.

  • 15.
    Paneta, Valentina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Kokkoris, M.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780, Greece..
    Lagoyannis, A.
    NCSR Demokritos, INPP, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Athens 15310, Greece..
    Preketes-Sigalas, K.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Dept Phys, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780, Greece.;NCSR Demokritos, INPP, Tandem Accelerator Lab, Athens 15310, Greece..
    Accurate accelerator energy calibration using selected resonances in proton elastic scattering and in (p,gamma) and (p,p'gamma) reactions2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 406, p. 108-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work aims at contributing to the field of Ion Beam Analysis by providing a set of standard, high-accuracy nuclear resonance reaction data points to be used for accelerator energy calibration up to 4.6 MeV, more specifically with the use of the Al-27(p,gamma),C-13(p,gamma), C-12(p,p(0)) and S-32(p,p'gamma) resonant reactions, as a result of a comprehensive investigation in two different laboratories. The use of resonances at higher energies, namely up to 6 MeV, is also discussed. The measurements have been performed at two different electrostatic accelerators, namely at the 5.5 MV HV TN-11 of NCSR "Demokritos", Greece, and at the 5 MV 15SDH-2 Pelletron Tandem accelerator at Uppsala University in Uppsala, Sweden. Common points were used to normalize and validate the data. The possible use of the O-16(p,p(o)) resonance at 3.47 MeV is also discussed and analyzed. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Riedl, H.
    et al.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Glechner, T.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Wojcik, T.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Koutna, N.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Kolozsvari, S.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, D-86983 Lechbruck, Germany.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Holec, D.
    Univ Leoben, Dept Phys Met & Mat Testing, A-8700 Leoben, Austria.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Inst Mat Sci & Technol, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Influence of carbon deficiency on phase formation of super-hard TaCy thin films2018In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 149, p. 150-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using nonreactive sputter deposition allows the preparation of single-phase fcc structured TaCy thin films over a wide compositional range with y between 0.63 and 1.04. Among this composition range, the C-deficient TaC0.78 exhibits the highest as deposited hardness of 43.4 +/- 0.65 GPa combined with the highest thermal stability. Even after vacuum annealing to 2400 degrees C, no vacancy-ordered or faulted Ta-C based phases can be detected. The stabilization of carbon deficient fcc structured TaCy near y of about 0.75, revealed the decisive character of vacancy engineered thin films materials for ultra-high temperature applications. (C) 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Roth, D.
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Bruckner, B.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Undeutsch, G.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Mardare, A. I.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Inst Chem Technol Anorgan Stoffe, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    McGahan, C. L.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Dosmailov, M.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Inst Angew Phys, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Juaristi, J. I.
    DIPC, P Manuel de Lardizabal 4, Donostia San Sebastian 20018, Spain.;Ctr Fis Mat CFM MPC CSIC UPV EHU, P Manuel de Lardizabal 5, Donostia San Sebastian 20018, Spain.;Univ Pais Vasco UPV EHU, Dept Fis Mat, Fac Quim, Apartado 1072, Donostia San Sebastian 20018, Spain..
    Alducin, M.
    DIPC, P Manuel de Lardizabal 4, Donostia San Sebastian 20018, Spain.;Ctr Fis Mat CFM MPC CSIC UPV EHU, P Manuel de Lardizabal 5, Donostia San Sebastian 20018, Spain..
    Pedarnig, J. D.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Inst Angew Phys, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Haglund, R. F., Jr.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Bauer, P.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, IEP AOP, Altenbergerstr 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria.;DIPC, P Manuel de Lardizabal 4, Donostia San Sebastian 20018, Spain..
    Electronic Stopping of Slow Protons in Oxides: Scaling Properties2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 16, article id 163401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic stopping of slow protons in ZnO, VO2 (metal and semiconductor phases), HfO2, and Ta2O5 was investigated experimentally. As a comparison of the resulting stopping cross sections (SCS) to data for Al2O3 and SiO2 reveals, electronic stopping of slow protons does not correlate with electronic properties of the specific material such as band gap energies. Instead, the oxygen 2p states are decisive, as corroborated by density functional theory calculations of the electronic densities of states. Hence, at low ion velocities the SCS of an oxide primarily scales with its oxygen density.

  • 18.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Bruckner, Barbara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface Sci, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Lohmann, Svenja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hans, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bauer, P.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface Sci, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Electronic energy-loss mechanisms for H, He, and Ne in TiN2017In: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information, ISSN 2469-9926, E-ISSN 2469-9934, Vol. 96, no 3, article id 032703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific energy loss of medium-energy hydrogen, helium, and neon ions in titanium nitride is studied. Electronic stopping cross sections of ions in the energy range of 3-140 keV/amu weremeasured in backscattering geometry using time-of-flight medium-energy ion scattering, from the energy loss experienced in TiN thin films on Si. For the lowest energies, data for H show a strong deviation from Bragg's rule. For hydrogen and Ne ions, electronic stopping exhibits velocity proportionality at ion velocities below 1 a.u. Comparison to density functional theory calculations of the stopping power yields very good agreement for H, while for He and Ne, the experimentally observed electronic stopping power is considerably higher than predicted. For He the extrapolation of the stopping power at low energies points to a nonvanishing energy loss at vanishing ion velocity. The present data can thus be taken as an indication of additional energy- loss processes different from direct electron-hole pair excitation. Furthermore, the results provide reference values for ion-beam-based analysis of TiN, a material with huge technological relevance.

  • 19.
    Sortica, Mauricio A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Bruckner, Barbara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Lohmann, Svenja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bauer, Peter
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Atom Phys & Surface, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    On the Z(1)-dependence of electronic stopping in TiN2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a thorough experimental study of electronic stopping of H, He, B, N, Ne and Al ions in TiN with the aim to learn about the energy loss mechanisms of slow ions. The energy loss was measured by means of time-of-flight medium-energy ion scattering. Thin films of TiN on silicon with a delta-layer of W at the TiN/Si interface were used as targets. We compare our results to non-linear density functional theory calculations, examining electron-hole pair excitations by screened ions in a free electron gas in the static limit, with a density equivalent to the expected value for TiN. These calculations predict oscillations in the electronic stopping power for increasing atomic number Z(1) of the projectile. An increasing discrepancy between our experimental results and predictions by theory for increasing Z(1) was observed. This observation can be attributed to contributions from energy loss channels different from electron-hole pair excitation in binary Coulomb collisions.

  • 20.
    Zhou, Y.
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Dept Fus Plasma Phys, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergsåker, H.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Dept Fus Plasma Phys, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bykov, I.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Energy Res Ctr, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
    Petersson, P.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Dept Fus Plasma Phys, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paneta, Valentina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Romanelli, F.
    Micro ion beam analysis for the erosion of beryllium marker tiles in a tokamak limiter2019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 450, p. 200-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beryllium limiter marker tiles were exposed to plasma in the Joint European Torus to diagnose the erosion of main chamber wall materials. A limiter marker tile consists of a beryllium coating layer (7-9 mu m) on the top of bulk beryllium, with a nickel interlayer (2-3 mu m) between them. The thickness variation of the beryllium coating layer, after exposure to plasma, could indicate the erosion measured by ion beam analysis with backscattering spectrometry. However, interpretations from broad beam backscattering spectra were limited by the non-uniform surface structures. Therefore, micro-ion beam analysis (mu-IBA) with 3 MeV proton beam for Elastic back scattering spectrometry (EBS) and PIXE was used to scan samples. The spot size was in the range of 3-10 mu m. Scanned areas were analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well. Combining results from mu-IBA and SEM, we obtained local spectra from carefully chosen areas on which the surface structures were relatively uniform. Local spectra suggested that the scanned area (approximate to 600 mu m x 1200 mu m) contained regions with serious erosion with only 2-3 mu m coating beryllium left, regions with intact marker tile, and droplets with 90% beryllium. The nonuniform erosion, droplets mainly formed by beryllium, and the possible mixture of beryllium and nickel were the major reasons that confused interpretation from broad beam EBS.

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