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  • 1.
    Huang, Jing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Gilbert Gatty, Mélina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Xu, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Etman, Ahmed S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem MMK, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem MMK, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Covalently linking CuInS2 quantum dots with a Re catalyst by click reaction for photocatalytic CO2 reduction2018In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 47, no 31, p. 10775-10783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Covalently linking photosensitizers and catalysts in an inorganic-organic hybrid photocatalytic system is beneficial for efficient electron transfer between these components. However, general and straightforward methods to covalently attach molecular catalysts on the surface of inorganic semiconductors are rare. In this work, a classic rhenium bipyridine complex (Re catalyst) has been successfully covalently linked to the low toxicity CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) by click reaction for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Covalent bonding between the CuInS2 QDs and the Re catalyst in the QD-Re hybrid system is confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray measurements. Time-correlated single photon counting and ultrafast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy provide evidence for rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the QDs to the Re catalyst. Upon photo-excitation of the QDs, the singly reduced Re catalyst is formed within 300 fs. Notably, the amount of reduced Re in the linked hybrid system is more than that in a sample where the QDs and the Re catalyst are simply mixed, suggesting that the covalent linkage between the CuInS2 QDs and the Re catalyst indeed facilitates electron transfer from the QDs to the Re catalyst. Such an ultrafast electron transfer in the covalently linked CuInS2 QD-Re hybrid system leads to enhanced photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction, as compared to the conventional mixture of the QDs and the Re catalyst.

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  • 2.
    Huang, Jing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci, Dept Appl Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Xu, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Etman, Ahmed S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem MMK, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem MMK, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    A heavy metal-free CuInS2 quantum dot sensitized NiO photocathode with a Re molecular catalyst for photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction2019In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 55, no 55, p. 7918-7921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal-free CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were employed as a photosensitizer on a NiO photocathode to drive an immobilized molecular Re catalyst for photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction for the first time. A photocurrent of 25 mu A cm(-2) at -0.87 V vs. NHE was obtained, providing a faradaic efficiency of 32% for CO production.

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  • 3.
    Jia, Donglin
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Jingxuan
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Siyu
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Phuyal, Dibya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Yu, Mei
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Liu, Jianhua
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Karis, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Highly Stabilized Quantum Dot Ink for Efficient Infrared Light Absorbing Solar Cells2019In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 9, no 44, article id 1902809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid-state ligand exchange provides an efficient approach to passivate a quantum dot (QD) surface with small binding species and achieve a QD ink toward scalable QD solar cell (QDSC) production. Herein, experimental studies and theoretical simulations are combined to establish the physical principles of QD surface properties induced charge carrier recombination and collection in QDSCs. Ammonium iodide (AI) is used to thoroughly replace the native oleic acid ligand on the PbS QD surface forming a concentrated QD ink, which has high stability of more than 30 d. The ink can be directly applied for the preparation of a thick QD solid film using a single deposition step method and the QD solid film shows better characteristics compared with that of the film prepared with the traditional PbX2 (X = I or Br) post-treated QD ink. Infrared light-absorbing QDSC devices are fabricated using the PbS-AI QD ink and the devices give a higher photovoltaic performance compared with the devices fabricated with the traditional PbS-PbX2 QD ink. The improved photovoltaic performance in PbS-AI-based QDSC is attributed to diminished charge carrier recombination induced by the sub-bandgap traps in QDs. A theoretical simulation is carried out to atomically link the relationship of QDSC device function with the QD surface properties.

  • 4.
    Liu, Jianhua
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Qisen
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Kyi Thein, Nan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Mandalay Univ, Res Lab, Dept Phys Mat Sci, Mandalay, Myanmar.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Jia, Donglin
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    In situ growth of perovskite stacking layers for high-efficiency carbon-based hole conductor free perovskite solar cells2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 22, p. 13777-13786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfacial properties between a perovskite layer and carbon electrode are critical for the photovoltaic performance of carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a methylammonium lead mixed halide (MAPbIxBr3−x) perovskite layer is in situ grown on the top of a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite layer forming a MAPbI3/MAPbIxBr3−x perovskite stacking structure (PSS) to improve the interfacial properties at the perovskite/carbon electrode interface. The charge carrier dynamics in both the perovskite and the PSC device induced by the MAPbIxBr3−x perovskite stacking layer are studied using extensive characterization. The charge interfacial recombination at the perovskite/carbon electrode interface is significantly diminished using the PSS within the PSC, resulting in largely improved charge extraction and therefore high photovoltaic performance. The PSS-based PSC shows a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.2% (increased by 43% compared with that of a conventional MAPbI3-based PSC), which is among the highest efficiencies of carbon electrode-based hole conductor free PSCs. Meanwhile, the PSS-based PSC also exhibits good stability under both continuous illumination and storage under dark conditions. This work may provide a new avenue to fine tune the interfacial properties of carbon electrode-based PSCs for further improving their photovoltaic performance.

  • 5.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Damas, Giane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Fernandes, Daniel L. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    An experimental and theoretical study of an efficient polymer nano-photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution2017In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1372-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we report a highly efficient organic polymer nano-photocatalyst for light driven proton reduction. The system renders an initial rate of hydrogen evolution up to 50 +/- 0.5 mmol g(-1) h(-1), which is the fastest rate among all other reported organic photocatalysts. We also experimentally and theoretically prove that the nitrogen centre of the benzothiadiazole unit plays a crucial role in the photocatalysis and that the Pdots structure holds a close to ideal geometry to enhance the photocatalysis.

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  • 6.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Fernández-Terán, Ricardo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ahmadi, Sareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Insights into the Mechanism of a Covalently Linked Organic Dye-Cobaloxime Catalyst System for Dye-Sensitized Solar Fuel Devices2017In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 2480-2495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A covalently-linked organic dye-cobaloxime catalyst system is developed by facile click reaction for mechanistic studies and application in a dye sensitized solar fuel device based on mesoporous NiO. This system has been systematically investigated by photophysical measurements, density functional theory, time resolved fluorescence, transient absorption spectroscopy as well as photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that irradiation of the dye-catalyst on NiO leads to ultrafast hole injection into NiO from the excited dye, followed by a fast electron transfer to reduce the catalyst unit. Moreover, they suggest that the dye undergoes structural changes in the excited state and that excitation energy transfer occurs between neighboring molecules. The photoelectrochemical experiments also show the hydrogen production by this system-based NiO photocathode. The axial chloride ligands of the catalyst are released during photocatalysis to create the active sites for proton reduction. A working mechanism of the dye-catalyst on photocathode is eventually proposed on the basis of this study.

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  • 7.
    Tian, Haining
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nemeth, Brigitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Berggren, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hydrogen evolution by a photoelectrochemical cell based on a Cu2O-ZnO-[FeFe] hydrogenase electrode2018In: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, ISSN 1010-6030, E-ISSN 1873-2666, Vol. 366, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Cu2O-ZnO-hydrogenase photocathode possessed enzyme/semiconductor junction has been constructed by immobilizing a biological protein catalyst, hydrogenase-CrHydA1 enzyme on the ZnO protected Cu2O electrode. With light illumination, a photocurrent of 0.8 mA/cm2 at 0.15 V vs. RHE was obtained and hydrogen was successfully detected from the photocathode in photoelectrochemical measurements with Faradaic efficiency of ca. 1%. The construction as well as the stability of the system are also reported. The result shows that this biohybrid photocathode is capable of photocatalytic proton reduction under mild conditions.

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  • 8.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Exploring Dye-Sensitized Mesoporous NiO Photocathodes: from Mechanism to Applications2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention has been paid on solar energy conversion since the abundant solar energy possesses the potential to solve the problems on energy crisis and climate change. Dye-sensitized mesoporous NiO film was developed as one of the attractive photocathodes to fabricate p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs) and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic cells (p-DSPECs) for electricity and chemical fuels generation, respectively. In this thesis, we designed a well-structured NiO-dye-TiO2 configuration by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, with an organic dye PB6 as the photosensitizer. From kinetic studies of charge separation, ultrafast hole injection (< 200 fs) was observed from the excited state of PB6 dye into the valence band of NiO; dye regeneration (electron injection) was in t1/2 ≤ 500 fs, which is the fastest reported in any DSCs. On the basis of NiO-dye-TiO2 configuration, we successfully fabricated solid-state p-type DSCs (p-ssDSCs). Insertion of an Al2O3 layer was adopted to reduce charge recombination, i.e. NiO-dye-Al2O3-TiO2. Theoretically, such a configuration is possible to maintain efficient charge separation and depressed charge recombination. Based on NiO-dye-Al2O3-TiO2 configuration, the open-circuit voltage was improved to 0.48 V. Replacing electron conductor TiO2 with ZnO, short-circuit current density was increased to 680 μA·cm-2. The photocatalytic current density for H2 evolution was improve to 100 μA·cm-2 with a near unity of Faraday efficiency in p-DSPECs.

    However, to further improve the performance of p-DSCs is very challenging. In p-ssDSCs, the limitation was confirmed from the poor electronically connection of the electron conductor (TiO2 or ZnO) inside the NiO-dye films. We further investigated the electronic property of surface states on mesoporous NiO film. We found that the surface sates, not the bulk, on NiO determined the conductivity of the mesoporous NiO films. The dye regeneration in liquid p-DSCs with I-/I3- as redox couples was significantly affected by surface states. A more complete mechanism is suggested to understand a particular hole transport behavior reported in p-DSCs, where hole transport time is independent on light intensity. The independence of charge transport is ascribed to the percolation effect in the hole hopping on the surface states.

     

    List of papers
    1. Ultrafast dye regeneration in a core-shell NiO-dye-TiO2 mesoporous film
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrafast dye regeneration in a core-shell NiO-dye-TiO2 mesoporous film
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    2018 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a core-shell NiO-dye-TiO2 mesoporous film was fabricated for the first time, utilizing atomic layer deposition technique and a newly designed triphenylamine dye. The structure of the film was confirmed by SEM, TEM, and EDX. Excitation of the dye led to efficient and fast charge separation, by hole injection into NiO, followed by an unprecedentedly fast dye regeneration (t1/2 [less-than-or-equal] 500 fs) by electron transfer to TiO2. The resulting charge separated state showed a pronounced transient absorption spectrum caused by the Stark effect, and no significant decay was found within 1.9 ns. This indicates that charge recombination between NiO and TiO2 is much slower than that between the NiO and the reduced dye in the absence of the TiO2 layer (t1/2 [approximate] 100 ps).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335974 (URN)10.1039/C7CP07088H (DOI)000418374800002 ()
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2011.0067Swedish Energy Agency, 43599-1
    Note

    Correction in: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Volume: 20, Issue: 46, Pages: 29566-29566, DOI: 10.1039/c8cp91912g

    Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Solid state p-type dye sensitized NiO-dye-TiO2 core-shell solar cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid state p-type dye sensitized NiO-dye-TiO2 core-shell solar cells
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    2018 (English)In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 30, p. 3739-3742Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state p-type dye sensitized NiO-dye-TiO2 core-shell solar cells with an organic dye PB6 were successfully fabricated for the first time. With Al2O3 as an inner barrier layer, the recombination process between injected holes in NiO and injected electrons in TiO2 was significantly suppressed and the charge transport time was also improved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2018
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352467 (URN)10.1039/c8cc00505b (DOI)000429592700013 ()29589009 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 43599-1
    Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Solution-processed nanoporous NiO-dye-ZnO photocathodes: Toward efficient and stable solid-state p-type dye-sensitized solar cells and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solution-processed nanoporous NiO-dye-ZnO photocathodes: Toward efficient and stable solid-state p-type dye-sensitized solar cells and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells
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    2019 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 55, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A solution-processed NiO-dye-ZnO photocathode was developed for applications in both solid-state p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-ssDSCs) and p-type dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells (p-DSPECs). In p-ssDSCs, the solar cell using ZnO as electron transport material showed a short circuit current, up to 680 mu A cm(-2), which is 60-fold larger than that previously reported device using TiO2 as electron transport material with similar architecture. In the p-DSPECs, a remarkable photocurrent of 100 mu A cm(-2) was achieved in a pH = 5.0 acetate buffer solution under a bias potential at 0.05 V vs RHE with platinum as the proton reduction catalyst. A Faradaic efficiency approaching 100% for the H-2 evolution reaction was obtained after photoelectrolysis for 9 h. Importantly, the solution-processed NiO-dye-ZnO photocathode exhibited excellent long-term stability in both p-ssDSCs and p-DSPECs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where a solution-processable, nanoporous NiO-dye-ZnO photocathode is used for both p-ssDSCs and p-DSPECs having both excellent device performance and stability.

    Keywords
    Dye-sensitized photocathode, P-type, Solution-processed, Solid-state, Solar cell, Solar fuel
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-374114 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.10.054 (DOI)000454636200007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 43599-1Swedish Energy Agency, 11674-8
    Note

    Bo Xu and Lei Tian contributed equally to this work.

    Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Mechanistic Insights into Solid-State p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic Insights into Solid-State p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
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    2019 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 43, p. 26151-26160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study of p-type dye sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs) is appealing but challenging. Although the devices have been studied for 20 years, the light conversion efficiency lags far behind those of n-DSCs. Very recently, on the basis of a core-shell structure, a novel solid-state p-DSC (p-ssDSCs) has been fabricated, which showed great enhancement in open-circuit voltage and dye regeneration rate. To further improve the performance of such devices, charge diffusion, recombination process, and the main limiting factors have to be understood. In the present paper, core-shell p-ssDSCs with ZnO as an electron conductor were fabricated by atomic layer deposition. The charge transport time was determined to be ca. 0.1 ms, which is about 2 orders of magnitude faster than those of typical liquid devices with I-/I-3(-) as a redox mediator. As a consequence, the devices exhibit the highest reported charge diffusion coefficient (D-d)' among p-DSCs. It is ascribed to an electron-limiting diffusion process by the ambipolar diffusion model, suggesting a different charge-transport-determining mechanism in contrast to liquid p-DSCs. The charge recombination rate is 1-2 orders of magnitude slower than its charge transport time, mandating that the estimated charge collection efficiency is near unity. Detailed analysis of the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency suggests that the energy conversion efficiency in these p-ssDSCs is currently limited by a large fraction of dyes that is not fully electrically connected in the device.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397591 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b08251 (DOI)000493865700013 ()
    Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
    5. Rethinking the function of surface states on mesoporous NiO films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking the function of surface states on mesoporous NiO films
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-402255 (URN)
    Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2020-01-22
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  • 9.
    Tian, Lei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Föhlinger, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lin, Junzhong
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Wenxing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ultrafast dye regeneration in a core-shell NiO-dye-TiO2 mesoporous film2018In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a core-shell NiO-dye-TiO2 mesoporous film was fabricated for the first time, utilizing atomic layer deposition technique and a newly designed triphenylamine dye. The structure of the film was confirmed by SEM, TEM, and EDX. Excitation of the dye led to efficient and fast charge separation, by hole injection into NiO, followed by an unprecedentedly fast dye regeneration (t1/2 [less-than-or-equal] 500 fs) by electron transfer to TiO2. The resulting charge separated state showed a pronounced transient absorption spectrum caused by the Stark effect, and no significant decay was found within 1.9 ns. This indicates that charge recombination between NiO and TiO2 is much slower than that between the NiO and the reduced dye in the absence of the TiO2 layer (t1/2 [approximate] 100 ps).

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  • 10.
    Tian, Lei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Föhlinger, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lin, Junzhong
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hua, Yong
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Solid state p-type dye sensitized NiO-dye-TiO2 core-shell solar cells2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 30, p. 3739-3742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state p-type dye sensitized NiO-dye-TiO2 core-shell solar cells with an organic dye PB6 were successfully fabricated for the first time. With Al2O3 as an inner barrier layer, the recombination process between injected holes in NiO and injected electrons in TiO2 was significantly suppressed and the charge transport time was also improved.

  • 11.
    Tian, Lei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tyburski, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Wen, Chenyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Solid-State Electronics.
    Sun, Rui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Huang, Jing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    D'Amario, Luca
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rethinking the function of surface states on mesoporous NiO filmsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Tian, Lei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ling, Junzhong
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Mechanistic Insights into Solid-State p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 43, p. 26151-26160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of p-type dye sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs) is appealing but challenging. Although the devices have been studied for 20 years, the light conversion efficiency lags far behind those of n-DSCs. Very recently, on the basis of a core-shell structure, a novel solid-state p-DSC (p-ssDSCs) has been fabricated, which showed great enhancement in open-circuit voltage and dye regeneration rate. To further improve the performance of such devices, charge diffusion, recombination process, and the main limiting factors have to be understood. In the present paper, core-shell p-ssDSCs with ZnO as an electron conductor were fabricated by atomic layer deposition. The charge transport time was determined to be ca. 0.1 ms, which is about 2 orders of magnitude faster than those of typical liquid devices with I-/I-3(-) as a redox mediator. As a consequence, the devices exhibit the highest reported charge diffusion coefficient (D-d)' among p-DSCs. It is ascribed to an electron-limiting diffusion process by the ambipolar diffusion model, suggesting a different charge-transport-determining mechanism in contrast to liquid p-DSCs. The charge recombination rate is 1-2 orders of magnitude slower than its charge transport time, mandating that the estimated charge collection efficiency is near unity. Detailed analysis of the incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency suggests that the energy conversion efficiency in these p-ssDSCs is currently limited by a large fraction of dyes that is not fully electrically connected in the device.

  • 13.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Etman, Ahmed S.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, Junliang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Peking Univ, Beijing Natl Lab Mol Sci, Coll Chem & Mol Engn, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Solution-processed nanoporous NiO-dye-ZnO photocathodes: Toward efficient and stable solid-state p-type dye-sensitized solar cells and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 55, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solution-processed NiO-dye-ZnO photocathode was developed for applications in both solid-state p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-ssDSCs) and p-type dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells (p-DSPECs). In p-ssDSCs, the solar cell using ZnO as electron transport material showed a short circuit current, up to 680 mu A cm(-2), which is 60-fold larger than that previously reported device using TiO2 as electron transport material with similar architecture. In the p-DSPECs, a remarkable photocurrent of 100 mu A cm(-2) was achieved in a pH = 5.0 acetate buffer solution under a bias potential at 0.05 V vs RHE with platinum as the proton reduction catalyst. A Faradaic efficiency approaching 100% for the H-2 evolution reaction was obtained after photoelectrolysis for 9 h. Importantly, the solution-processed NiO-dye-ZnO photocathode exhibited excellent long-term stability in both p-ssDSCs and p-DSPECs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where a solution-processable, nanoporous NiO-dye-ZnO photocathode is used for both p-ssDSCs and p-DSPECs having both excellent device performance and stability.

  • 14.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Wrede, Sina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Curtze, Allison
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, 100 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pati, Palas Baran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wu, Yiying
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, 100 West 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    An Indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-Based Organic Dye for Solid-State p-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2019In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 3243-3248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (IDTT) unit is used as a linker moiety to design a new p-type dye-TIP-for solid-state p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar cells based on the TIP dye offered an efficiency of 0.18 % with an open-circuit photovoltage of 550 mV and a short-circuit photocurrent density of 0.86 mA cm(-2), which is better than those of two reference dyes, PB6 and BH4. Charge lifetime experiments reveal that the IDTT linker-based TIP dye significantly suppresses charge recombination losses in the devices.

  • 15.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Santra, Pralay Kanti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Johansson, Erik M.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Highly Efficient Flexible Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Improved Electron Extraction Using MgZnO Nanocrystals2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8478-8487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have high potential for realizing an efficient and lightweight energy supply for flexible or wearable electronic devices. To achieve highly efficient and flexible CQD solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL), extracting electrons from the CQD solid layer, needs to be processed at a low-temperature and should also suppress interfacial recombination. Herein, a highly stable MgZnO nanocrystal (MZO-NC) layer is reported for efficient flexible PbS CQD solar cells. Solar cells fabricated with MZONC ETL give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.4% and 9.4%, on glass and flexible plastic substrates, respectively. The reported flexible CQD solar cell has the record efficiency to date of flexible CQD solar cells. Detailed theoretical simulations and extensive characterizations reveal that the MZO-NCs significantly enhance charge extraction from CQD solids and diminish the charge accumulation at the ETL/CQD interface, suppressing charge interfacial recombination. These important results suggest that the low-temperature processed MZO-NCs are very promising for use in efficient flexible solar cells or other flexible optoelectronic devices.

  • 16.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Häggman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Liu, Jianhua
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Johansson, Erik MJ
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Enhanced charge carrier extraction by a highly ordered wrinkled MgZnO thin film for colloidal quantum dot solar cells2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, no 42, p. 11111-11120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient charge carrier extraction from a colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solid is crucial for highperformance of CQD solar cells (CQDSCs). Herein, highly ordered wrinkled MgZnO (MZO) thin films aredemonstrated to improve the charge carrier extraction of PbS CQDSCs. The highly ordered wrinkledMZO thin films are prepared using a low-temperature combustion method. The photovoltaicperformances of CQDSCs with a combustion-processed MZO (CP-MZO) thin film as an electrontransport material (ETM) are compared to those of CQDSCs with a conventional sol–gel processed MZO(SGP-MZO) thin film as an ETM. We performed photoluminescence quenching measurements of thecolloidal quantum dot (CQD) solid and charge carrier dynamic analysis of full solar cell devices. Theresults show that the highly ordered wrinkled CP-MZO thin film significantly increases the chargecarrier extraction from the CQD solid and therefore diminishes the charge interfacial recombination atthe CQD/ETM junction, leading to a 15.5% increase in power conversion efficiency. The improvedefficiency in the CP-MZO based CQDSC is also attributed to the compact and pin-hole free CP-MZOthin film.

  • 17.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jindan
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Phuyal, Dibya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Du, Juan
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Tian, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Öberg, Viktor A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Karis, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Uppsala Univ, Mol & Condensed Matter Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Liu, Jianhua
    Beihang Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Inorganic CsPbI3 Perovskite Coating on PbS Quantum Dot for Highly Efficient and Stable Infrared Light Converting Solar Cells2018In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 1702049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells harvesting the infrared part of the solar spectrum are especially interesting for future use in semitransparent windows or multilayer solar cells. To improve the device power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of the solar cells, surface passivation of the quantum dots is vital in the research of CQD solar cells. Herein, inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite (CsPbI3-P) coating on PbS CQDs with a low-temperature, solution-processed approach is reported. The PbS CQD solar cell with CsPbI3-P coating gives a high PCE of 10.5% and exhibits remarkable stability both under long-term constant illumination and storage under ambient conditions. Detailed characterization and analysis reveal improved passivation of the PbS CQDs with the CsPbI3-P coating, and the results suggest that the lattice coherence between CsPbI3-P and PbS results in epitaxial induced growth of the CsPbI3-P coating. The improved passivation significantly diminishes the sub-bandgap trap-state assisted recombination, leading to improved charge collection and therefore higher photovoltaic performance. This work therefore provides important insight to improve the CQD passivation by coating with an inorganic perovskite ligand for photovoltaics or other optoelectronic applications.

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