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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Sara
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Univ Helsinki, Dept Food & Environm Sci, POB 66, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Kiarie, Gideon
    Mt Kenya Univ, POB 342, Thika 01000, Kenya.
    Kirino, Yumi
    Univ Miyazaki, Dept Vet Sci, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai Nishi, Miyazaki 8892192, Japan.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    A Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Exposure in Low and Mid-Income Dairy Consumers in Kenya2018In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk of cancer and stunting as a result of AFM(1) consumption in Nairobi, Kenya, using worst case assumptions of toxicity and data from previous studies. Almost all (99.5%) milk was contaminated with AFM(1). Cancer risk caused by AFM(1) was lower among consumers purchasing from formal markets (0.003 cases per 100,000) than for low-income consumers (0.006 cases per 100,000) purchasing from informal markets. Overall cancer risk (0.004 cases per 100,000) from AFM(1) alone was low. Stunting is multifactorial, but assuming only AFM(1) consumption was the determinant, consumption of milk contaminated with AFM(1) levels found in this study could contribute to 2.1% of children below three years in middle-income families, and 2.4% in low-income families, being stunted. Overall, 2.7% of children could hypothetically be stunted due to AFM(1) exposure from milk. Based on our results AFM(1) levels found in milk could contribute to an average of -0.340 height for age z-score reduction in growth. The exposure to AFM(1) from milk is 46 ng/day on average, but children bear higher exposure of 3.5 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day compared to adults, at 0.8 ng/kg bw/day. Our paper shows that concern over aflatoxins in milk in Nairobi is disproportionate if only risk of cancer is considered, but that the effect on stunting children might be much more significant from a public health perspective; however, there is still insufficient data on the health effects of AFM(1).

  • 2.
    Ahlberg, Sara
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Univ Helsinki, Dept Food & Environm Sci, POB 66, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Randolph, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Okoth, Sheila
    Univ Nairobi, Sch Biol Sci, POB 30197, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, 298 Kim Ma St, Hanoi, Vietnam;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aflatoxin Binders in Foods for Human Consumption-Can This be Promoted Safely and Ethically?2019In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an attempt to control aflatoxins. However, these efforts have not substantially decreased the prevalence nor the dietary exposure to aflatoxins in developing countries. One approach to aflatoxin control is the use of binding agents in foods, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been studied extensively for this purpose. However, when assessing the results comprehensively and reviewing the practicality and ethics of use, risks are evident, and concerns arise. In conclusion, our review suggests that there are too many issues with using LAB for aflatoxin binding for it to be safely promoted. Arguably, using binders in human food might even worsen food safety in the longer term.

  • 3.
    Bett, B
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sang, R
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wainaina, M
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kairu-Wanyoike, S
    Minist Agr Livestock & Fisheries, Dept Vet Serv, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Bukachi, S
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Anthropol Gender & African Studies, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Njeru, I
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Hlth, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Karanja, J
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Hlth, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ontiri, E
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kariuki Njenga, M
    Washington State Univ, Paui Men Sch Global Anim Hlth, Pullman, WA 99164 USA.
    Wright, D
    Univ Oxford, Jenner Inst, Oxford, England.
    Warimwe, G M
    KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya; Univ Oxford, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Grace, D
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Association between Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalences in livestock and humans and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients, Tana River County, Kenya2019In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 147, article id e67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We implemented a cross-sectional study in Tana River County, Kenya, a Rift Valley fever (RVF)-endemic area, to quantify the strength of association between RVF virus (RVFv) seroprevalences in livestock and humans, and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs). The study involved 1932 livestock from 152 households and 552 humans from 170 households. Serum samples were collected and screened for anti-RVFv immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using inhibition IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data collected were analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models, with herd/household and village being fitted as random variables. The overall RVFv seroprevalences in livestock and humans were 25.41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23.49-27.42%) and 21.20% (17.86-24.85%), respectively. The presence of at least one seropositive animal in a household was associated with an increased odds of exposure in people of 2.23 (95% CI 1.03-4.84). The ICCs associated with RVF virus seroprevalence in livestock were 0.30 (95% CI 0.19-0.44) and 0.22 (95% CI 0.12-0.38) within and between herds, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a greater variability of RVF virus exposure between than within herds. We discuss ways of using these ICC estimates in observational surveys for RVF in endemic areas and postulate that the design of the sentinel herd surveillance should consider patterns of RVF clustering to enhance its effectiveness as an early warning system for RVF epidemics.

  • 4. Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Grace, Delia
    Lee, Hu Suk
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Nguyen-Viet, Hung
    Phuc, Pham-Duc
    Quyen, Nguyen Huu
    Tu, Tran Anh
    Phu, Tran Dac
    Tan, Dang Quang
    Nam, Vu Sinh
    Spatiotemporal analysis of historical records (2001-2012) on dengue fever in Vietnam and development of a statistical model for forecasting risk.2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 11, article id e0224353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is the most widespread infectious disease of humans transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children in the Southeast Asia and western Pacific regions. We analyzed surveillance records from health centers in Vietnam collected between 2001-2012 to determine seasonal trends, develop risk maps and an incidence forecasting model.

    METHODS: The data were analyzed using a hierarchical spatial Bayesian model that approximates its posterior parameter distributions using the integrated Laplace approximation algorithm (INLA). Meteorological, altitude and land cover (LC) data were used as predictors. The data were grouped by province (n = 63) and month (n = 144) and divided into training (2001-2009) and validation (2010-2012) sets. Thirteen meteorological variables, 7 land cover data and altitude were considered as predictors. Only significant predictors were kept in the final multivariable model. Eleven dummy variables representing month were also fitted to account for seasonal effects. Spatial and temporal effects were accounted for using Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) and autoregressive (1) models. Their levels of significance were analyzed using deviance information criterion (DIC). The model was validated based on the Theil's coefficient which compared predicted and observed incidence estimated using the validation data. Dengue incidence predictions for 2010-2012 were also used to generate risk maps.

    RESULTS: The mean monthly dengue incidence during the period was 6.94 cases (SD 14.49) per 100,000 people. Analyses on the temporal trends of the disease showed regular seasonal epidemics that were interrupted every 3 years (specifically in July 2004, July 2007 and September 2010) by major fluctuations in incidence. Monthly mean minimum temperature, rainfall, area under urban settlement/build-up areas and altitude were significant in the final model. Minimum temperature and rainfall had non-linear effects and lagging them by two months provided a better fitting model compared to using unlagged variables. Forecasts for the validation period closely mirrored the observed data and accurately captured the troughs and peaks of dengue incidence trajectories. A favorable Theil's coefficient of inequality of 0.22 was generated.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study identified temperature, rainfall, altitude and area under urban settlement as being significant predictors of dengue incidence. The statistical model fitted the data well based on Theil's coefficient of inequality, and risk maps generated from its predictions identified most of the high-risk provinces throughout the country.

  • 5. Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Delia, Grace
    Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases: The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases2019In: The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers: Investigating the Business of a Productive, Resilient and Low Emission Future / [ed] Todd S. Rosenstock, Andreea Nowak & Evan Girvetz, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 29-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change influences the occurrence and transmission of a wide range of livestock diseases through multiple pathways. Diseases caused by pathogens that spent part of their life cycle outside the host (e.g. in vectors or the environment) are more sensitive in this regard, compared to those caused by obligate pathogens. In this chapter, we use two well-studied vector-borne diseases—Rift Valley fever (RVF) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs)—as case studies to describe direct pathways through which climate change influences infectious disease-risk in East and southern Africa. The first case study demonstrates that changes in the distribution and frequency of above-normal precipitation increases the frequency of RVF epidemics. The second case study suggests that an increase in temperature would cause shifts in the spatial distribution of TBDs, with cooler and wetter areas expected to experience heightened risk with climate change. These diseases already cause severe losses in agricultural productivity, food security and socio-economic development wherever they occur, and an increase in their incidence or geographical coverage would intensify these losses. We further illustrate some of the control measures that can be used to manage these diseases and recommend that more research should be done to better understand the impacts of climate change on livestock diseases as well as on the effectiveness of the available intervention measures.

  • 6.
    Bett, Bernard
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Said, Mohammed Y.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Sang, Rosemary
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Bukachi, Salome
    Univ Nairobi, Inst Anthropol Gender & African Studies, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Wanyoike, Salome
    Minist Agr, Dept Vet Serv, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kifugo, Shem C.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Otieno, Fredrick
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Ontiri, Enoch
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Njeru, Ian
    Kenyatta Natl Hosp, Minist Publ Hlth & Sanitat, Div Dis Surveillance & Response, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Effects of flood irrigation on the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens in an arid and semi-arid area in the eastern Kenya2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0172626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. Results demonstrate a drastic decline in vegetation cover over R approximate to 25 years particularly in the irrigated areas where cropland increased by about 1,400% and non-farm land (under closed trees, open to closed herbaceous vegetation, bushlands and open trees) reduced by 30-100%. The irrigated areas had high densities of Aedes mcintoshi, Culexspp. and Mansonia spp. (important vectors for multiple arboviruses) during the wet and dry season while pastoral areas had high densities of Ae. tricholabis specifically in the wet season. The seroprevalences of RVFV, WNV and DFV were higher in the irrigated compared to the pastoral areas while those for Leptospira spp and Brucella spp. were higher in the pastoral compared to the irrigated areas. It is likely that people in the pastoral areas get exposed to Leptospira spp by using water fetched from reservoirs that are shared with livestock and wildlife, and to Brucella spp. by consuming raw or partially cooked animal source foods such as milk and meat. This study suggests that irrigation increases the risk of mosquito-borne infections while at the same time providing a protective effect against zoonotic pathogens that thrive in areas with high livestock population densities.

  • 7.
    Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh
    et al.
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Plot 47,Sect 44, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India;Univ Liege, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Hosp Dist, Hippocrates Ave 13,Bldg 234000, Liege, Belgium.
    George, Mathew Sunil
    Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India;Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth CeRAPH, Bldg 22,Floor B,Univ Dr, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia.
    Chatterjee, Pranab
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Plot 47,Sect 44, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India;Natl Inst Cholera & Enter Dis, Indian Council Med Res, Div Epidemiol, Kolkata 700010, India.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya and Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi 3070900100, Kenya.
    Kakkar, Manish
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Plot 47,Sect 44, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India.
    The social biography of antibiotic use in smallholder dairy farms in India2018In: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, ISSN 2047-2994, E-ISSN 2047-2994, Vol. 7, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the major threats to global health, food security and development today. While there has been considerable attention about the use and misuse of antibiotics amongst human populations in both research and policy environments, there is no definitive estimate of the extent of misuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector and its contribution to AMR in humans. In this study, we explored the drivers of irrational usage of verterinary antibiotics in the dairy farming sector in peri-urban India.

    Methods and materials: The study was conducted in the peri-urban belts of Ludhiana, Guwahati and Bangalore. A total of 54 interviews (formal and non-formal) were carried out across these three sites. Theme guides were developed to explore different drivers of veterinary antimicrobial use. Data was audio recorded and transcribed. Analysis of the coded data set was carried out using AtlasTi. Version 7. Themes emerged inductively from the set of codes.

    Results: Findings were presented based on concept of 'levels of analyses'. Emergent themes were categorised as individual, health systems, and policy level drivers. Low level of knowledge related to antibiotics among farmers, active informal service providers, direct marketing of drugs to the farmers and easily available antibiotics, dispensed without appropriate prescriptions contributed to easy access to antibiotics, and were identified to be the possible drivers contributing to the non-prescribed and self-administered use of antibiotics in the dairy farms.

    Conclusions: Smallholding dairy farmers operated within very small margins of profits. The paucity of formal veterinary services at the community level, coupled with easy availability of antibiotics and the need to ensure profits and minimise losses, promoted non-prescribed antibiotic consumption. It is essential that these local drivers of irrational antibiotic use are understood in order to develop interventions and policies that seek to reduce antibiotic misuse.

  • 8.
    Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh
    et al.
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Plot 47,Sect 44, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India;Univ Liege, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Fac Med, Hosp Dist, Hippocrates Ave 13,Bldg 23, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    George, Mathew Sunil
    Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India;Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth CeRAPH, Bldg 22,Floor B,Univ Dr, Bruce, ACT 261, Australia.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi 3070900100, Kenya.
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi 3070900100, Kenya.
    Kakkar, Manish
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Plot 47,Sect 44, Gurgaon 122002, Haryana, India.
    Community, system and policy level drivers of bovine tuberculosis in smallholder periurban dairy farms in India: a qualitative enquiry2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Rapid urbanization has led to expansion of peri-urban fringes, where intensive, industry-style livestock rearing has led to emerging vulnerabilities at the human-animal-environment interface. This study was undertaken to understand the health system and farm-level factors that influenced the risk of transmission of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in animals and humans in peri-urban smallholder dairy farms of India.

    Methods

    Thematic guides were developing through literature review and expert consultation. In-depth interviews were conducted till attainment of saturation. Identification of core themes was followed by etiological enquiry and generation of a conceptual model.

    Results

    Veterinarians were consulted as a last resort after home-remedies and quacks had failed. Damage control measures, especially with respect to- selling or abandoning sick animals, added to the risk of disease transmission. Although civic authorities believed in the adequacy of a functioning laboratory network, end users were aggrieved at the lack of services. Despite the presence of extension services, knowledge and awareness was limited, promoting risky behaviour. The absence of cogent policies in dealing with bTB was a significant barrier. Stakeholders did not consider bTB to be a major concern. It is possible that they underestimate the problem.

    Conclusion

    The current study helps to identify gaps which need to be addressed through collaborative research, and OneHealth interventions to build community awareness.

  • 9. Enström, Sofie
    et al.
    Nthiwa, Daniel
    Bett, Bernard
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Alonso, Silvia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Brucella seroprevalence in cattle near a wildlife reserve in Kenya.2017In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis is caused by bacteria from the genus Brucella which infect human and domestic animals as well as wildlife. The Maasai Mara National Reserve has vast populations of wild ruminants such as buffaloes and wildebeest which could contribute to the risk of brucellosis in livestock, and the surrounding pastoralist communities grazing cattle in and around the reserve may be exposed to a higher risk of zoonotic diseases like brucellosis due to the close contact with livestock. In this study, cattle from three villages at varying distance from the reserve, were screened for antibodies against Brucella abortus.

    RESULTS: In total, 12.44% of 225 sampled animals were seropositive, with more females (15%) infected than males (5%). Seroprevalence was higher in livestock closer to Maasai Mara with the cattle in the village Mara Rianta having an odds ratio of 7.03 compared to Endoinyo Narasha further away (95% CI 1.4-11.1, p = 0.003), suggesting that a closer contact with wildlife may increase the circulation of infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife. Symptoms consistent with brucellosis were reported to occur in both humans and animals, and we thus conclude that brucellosis may be an important problem, both for the health and the economy.

  • 10.
    Grace, Delia
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Wanyoike, Francis
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Bett, Bernard
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Randolph, Tom
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Rich, Karl M.
    Lincoln Univ, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand..
    Poor livestock keepers: ecosystem – poverty – health interactions2017In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, no 1725, article id 20160166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have never been healthier, wealthier or more numerous. Yet, present success may be at the cost of future prosperity and in some places, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty persists. Livestock keepers, especially pastoralists, are over-represented among the poor. Poverty has been mainly attributed to a lack of access, whether to goods, education or enabling institutions. More recent insights suggest ecosystems may influence poverty and the self-reinforcing mechanisms that constitute poverty traps in more subtle ways. The plausibility of zoonoses as poverty traps is strengthened by landmark studies on disease burden in recent years. While in theory, endemic zoonoses are best controlled in the animal host, in practice, communities are often left to manage disease themselves, with the focus on treatment rather than prevention. We illustrate this with results from a survey on health costs in a pastoral ecosystem. Epidemic zoonoses are more likely to elicit official responses, but these can have unintended consequences that deepen poverty traps. In this context, a systems understanding of disease control can lead to more effective and pro-poor disease management. We illustrate this with an example of how a system dynamics model can help optimize responses to Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Kenya by giving decision makers real-time access to the costs of the delay in vaccinating. In conclusion, a broader, more ecological understanding of poverty and of the appropriate responses to the diseases of poverty can contribute to improved livelihoods for livestock keepers in Africa.

    This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'.

  • 11.
    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E
    et al.
    Department of Animal Science, AU-Foulum, Aarhus University, 8830, Tjele, Denmark.
    Nally, Jarlath E
    Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    ILRI - International Livestock Research Institute, SE Asia Branch, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Wanapat, Metha
    Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.
    Alhidary, Ibrahim A
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Fangueiro, David
    LEAF, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Grace, Delia
    ILRI - International Livestock Research Institute, SE Asia Branch, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ratto, Marcelo
    Department of Animal Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.
    Bambou, Jean Christophe
    INRA – Unité de Recherches Zootechniques, Domaine de Duclos, Prise d’eau, Guadeloupe.
    de Almeida, André M
    LEAF, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Dairy science and health in the tropics: challenges and opportunities for the next decades2019In: Tropical Animal Health and Production, ISSN 0049-4747, E-ISSN 1573-7438, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1009-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the next two decades, the world population will increase significantly; the majority in the developing countries located in the tropics of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. To feed such a population, it is necessary to increase the availability of food, particularly high-value animal protein foods produced locally, namely meat and dairy products. Dairy production in tropical regions has a lot of growth potential, but also poses a series of problems, particularly as dairy production systems were developed in temperate countries and in most cases are difficult to implement in the tropics. Drawbacks include hot weather and heat stress, the lack of availability of adequate feeds, poor infrastructure, and cold chain and the competition with cheap imports from temperate countries. This position paper reviews the major drawbacks in dairy production for the five major dairy species: cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, and camel, as well as the future trends in research and development. It also concerns the major trends in reproduction and production systems and health issues as well as environmental concerns, particularly those related to greenhouse gas emissions. Tropical Animal Health and Production now launches a topical collection on Tropical Dairy Science. We aim to publish interesting and significant papers in tropical dairy science. On behalf of the editorial board of the Tropical Animal Health and Production, we would like to invite all authors working in this field to submit their works on this topic to this topical collection in our journal.

  • 12.
    Jakobsen, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Nguyen-Tien, Thang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Pham-Thanh, Long
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Bui, Vuong Nghia
    Nguyen-Viet, Hung
    Tran-Hai, Son
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bui-Ngoc, Anh
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urban livestock-keeping and dengue in urban and peri-urban Hanoi, Vietnam.2019In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0007774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban livestock provides an important source of food and income, but it may increase the risks for disease transmission. Vectors, such as mosquitoes, might increase and thereby cause an enhanced transmission of infectious diseases, such as dengue fever; considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease globally. This cross-sectional study evaluated the awareness of dengue fever and investigated how the presence of dengue vectors is affected by the keeping of livestock in urban households in the city of Hanoi, Vietnam. From February to March 2018, during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue in Hanoi, 140 households were interviewed, of which 69 kept livestock. A general trend was observed; respondents living in the Dan Phuong district, a peri-urban district, had better knowledge and practice regarding dengue as compared to the urban Ha Dong district. In total, 3899 mosquitoes were collected and identified, of which 52 (1.33%) were Aedes species. A significant difference between the two districts was observed, with more households in Ha Dong having Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.02) and a higher incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.001). There was no significant association between livestock-rearing and the presence of Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.955), or between livestock-rearing and the incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.08). In conclusion, this study could not find any indication that households keeping livestock were at higher risk of dengue virus infections in Hanoi during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue, but clearly indicated the need of more information provided to urban inhabitants, particularly on personal protection.

  • 13. Kagera, Irene
    et al.
    Kahenya, Peter
    Mutua, Florence
    Anyango, Gladys
    Kyallo, Florence
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Status of aflatoxin contamination in cow milk produced in smallholder dairy farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Nairobi County: a case study of Kasarani sub county, Kenya.2019In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 1547095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Milk consumption in Kenya supersedes other countries in East Africa. However, milk contamination with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is common, but the magnitude of this exposure and the health risks are poorly understood and need to be monitored routinely. This study aimed at assessing the awareness, knowledge and practices of urban and peri-urban farmers about aflatoxins and determining the levels of aflatoxin contamination in on-farm milk in a selected area within Nairobi County. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess aflatoxin contamination levels of milk in Kasarani sub-county. A total of 84 milk samples were collected from small-holder dairy farms and analyzed for AFM1 using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results and Discussion: Ninety nine percent of the samples (83/84) analysed were contaminated with AFM1. The mean aflatoxin level was 84 ng/kg with 64% of the samples exceeding the EU legal limit of 50 ng/kg. Whereas 80% of the farmers were aware of aflatoxin, there was no correlation between farmers' knowledge and gender with AFM1 prevalence. Conclusion: This study concludes that AFM1 is a frequent contaminant in milk and there is need to enhance farmers awareness on mitigation.

  • 14. Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome
    et al.
    Nyamwaya, Doris
    Wainaina, Martin
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ontiri, Enoch
    Bukachi, Salome
    Njeru, Ian
    Karanja, Joan
    Sang, Rosemary
    Grace, Delia
    Bett, Bernard
    Positive association between Brucella spp. seroprevalences in livestock and humans from a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya.2019In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0007506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Brucella spp. is a zoonotic bacterial agent of high public health and socio-economic importance. It infects many species of animals including wildlife, and people may get exposed through direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of raw or undercooked animal products. A linked livestock-human cross-sectional study to determine seroprevalences and risk factors of brucellosis in livestock and humans was designed. Estimates were made for intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these observations at the household and village levels.

    METHODOLOGY: The study was implemented in Garissa (specifically Ijara and Sangailu areas) and Tana River (Bura and Hola) counties. A household was the unit of analysis and the sample size was derived using the standard procedures. Serum samples were obtained from selected livestock and people from randomly selected households. Humans were sampled in both counties, while livestock could be sampled only in Tana River County. Samples obtained were screened for anti-Brucella IgG antibodies using ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects logistic regression models with the household (herd) and village being used as random effects.

    RESULTS: The overall Brucella spp. seroprevalences were 3.47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.72-4.36%) and 35.81% (95% CI: 32.87-38.84) in livestock and humans, respectively. In livestock, older animals and those sampled in Hola had significantly higher seroprevalences than younger ones or those sampled in Bura. Herd and village random effects were significant and ICC estimates associated with these variables were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22-0.60) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.08-0.52), respectively. In humans, Brucella spp. seroprevalence was significantly higher in older people, males, and people who lived in pastoral areas than younger ones, females or those who lived in irrigated or riverine areas. People from households that had at least one seropositive animal were 3.35 (95% CI: 1.51-7.41) times more likely to be seropositive compared to those that did not. Human exposures significantly clustered at the household level; the ICC estimate obtained was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.52).

    CONCLUSION: The presence of a Brucella spp.-seropositive animal in a household significantly increased the odds of Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in that household. Exposure to Brucella spp. of both livestock and humans clustered significantly at the household level. This suggests that risk-based surveillance measures, guided by locations of primary cases reported, either in humans or livestock, can be used to detect Brucella spp. infections in livestock or humans, respectively.

  • 15. Kakkar, Manish
    et al.
    Chatterjee, Pranab
    Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Beeche, Arlyne
    Jing, Fang
    Chotinan, Suwit
    Antimicrobial resistance in South East Asia: time to ask the right questions2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1483637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few. That makes one-size-fits-all policies, framed with the developed country context in mind, inappropriate for developing countries. Many countries in the South East Asian Region have some policy structures in place to deal with AMR, but most of them lack detailed implementation plans or monitoring structures. In this current debates piece, the authors argue that the principles driving the AMR agenda in the South East Asian countries need to be dealt with using locally relevant policy structures. Strategies, which have successfully reduced the burden of AMR in the developed countries, should be evaluated in the developing country contexts instead of ad hoc implementation. The Global Action Plan on AMR encourages member states to develop locally relevant National Action Plans on AMR. This policy position should be leveraged to develop and deploy locally relevant strategies, which are based on a situation analysis of the local systems, and are likely to meet the needs of the individual member states.

  • 16. Kuboka, Maureen M
    et al.
    Imungi, Jasper K
    Njue, Lucy
    Mutua, Florence
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk traded in peri-urban Nairobi, and the effect of boiling and fermentation.2019In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 1625703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dairy production in Kenya is important and dominated by small-holder farmers who market their produce through small-scale traders in the informal sector. Method: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFM1) in informally marketed milk in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess knowledge of milk traders on aflatoxins using questionnaires. A total of 96 samples were analyzed for AFM1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, boiling and fermentation experiments were carried out in the laboratory. Results: All samples had AFM1 above the limit of detection (5 ng/kg) (mean of 290.3 ± 663.4 ng/kg). Two-thirds of the samples had AFM1 levels above 50 ng/kg and 7.5% of the samples exceeded 500 ng/kg. Most of the traders had low (69.8%) or medium (30.2%) knowledge. Educated (p = 0.01) and female traders (p= 0.04) were more knowledgeable. Experimentally, fermenting milk to lala (a traditional fermented drink) and yogurt significantly reduced AFM1 levels (p< 0.01) (71.8% reduction in lala after incubation at room temperature for 15 h, and 73.6% reduction in yogurt after incubation at 45ºC for 4h). Boiling had no effect. Conclusion: The study concluded that the prevalence of raw milk with AFM1 was high, while knowledge was low. Fermentation reduced the AFM1 levels.

  • 17.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deka, Ram Pratim
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden; Int Livestock Res Inst, Gauhati, Assam, India.
    Melin, David
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lunden, Hanna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lapar, M. Lucila
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Asse, Rainer
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    An inclusive and participatory approach to changing policies and practices for improved milk safety in Assam, northeast India2018In: GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT, ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 17, p. 9-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal products are highly nutritious, but also highly perishable. In India milk is an important source of animal protein, but problems with low quality of the milk, high degrees of adulterated milk on the market, high bacterial loads, and sometimes presence of zoonotic pathogens persist. Most dairy farmers in India are resource-poor small-holders, often with limited knowledge about the importance of food safety and hygiene. Milk quality problems including adulteration and bacterial contamination is common in the country.

    This paper describes a training intervention for improved food safety in Guwahati, Assam, India, conducted in 2009–2013. The training was designed to be short, simple and customized, cheap to deliver, easily accessible, and accompanied by incentives to bring change in knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP). In 2014 three outcomes were assessed: changed KAP; milk production; and, mastitis prevalence. Selected food safety hazards were also assessed, although their management had not been included in training. We found evidence of improved KAP among trained farmers, 14% higher milk production, and a tendency towards less mastitis, but no effects on food safety hazard levels.

    This study shows that a training intervention can have a medium-term impact, while the issue of food safety is more complex and cannot be assumed to automatically follow from even successful training.

  • 18.
    Lindahl, Johanna Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kagera, I. N.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Jomo Kenyatta Univ Agr & Technol, Dept Food Sci & Technol, POB 62, Nairobi 00000200, Kenya.
    Grace, D.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Aflatoxin M-1 levels in different marketed milk products in Nairobi, Kenya2018In: Mycotoxin Research, ISSN 0178-7888, E-ISSN 1867-1632, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 289-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Milk is an important source of energy and nutrients, especially for children, and in Kenya, milk consumption is higher than other countries in the region. One major concern with milk is the risks of chemical contaminants, and reports of high levels of aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)) in milk in Kenya has been causing public health concerns. This study collected marketed milk products every month during 1 year, just as a consumer would purchase them from retailers and traders in a low-income area, and a major supermarket in a middle/high-income area. In total, 291 sampled milk products (raw, pasteurised, UHT milk, yoghurt and lala) were collected and analysed for AFM(1) using a commercial ELISA kit. More than 50% of the samples exceeded 50 ng/kg (the level allowed in the EU), but only three samples exceeded 500 ng/kg (the level allowed in the USA). Geometric mean AFM(1) level was 61.9 ng/kg in the 135 samples from the low-income area while it was 36.1 ng/kg in the 156 from the higher income area (p < 0.001). The levels varied significantly depending on the time of year, with lowest levels of milk in January. There were also differences between manufacturers and products, with UHT milk having lower levels. There was no difference depending on the price for all dairy products, but when only including milk, higher price was associated with lower levels of AFM(1). In conclusion, this study shows that milk purchased by a consumer is likely to contain AFM(1) above 50 ng/kg, and that further research is needed to find ways to mitigate AFM(1) contamination through working with farmers and milk processors both in the formal and informal sectors.

  • 19.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh
    Hazarika, Razibuddin Ahmed
    Fairoze, Nadeem Mohamed
    Bedi, Jasbir S
    Dohoo, Ian
    Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh
    Grace, Delia
    Kakkar, Manish
    Risk Factors for Brucella Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities.2019In: Tropical medicine and infectious disease, ISSN 2414-6366, Vol. 4, no 2, article id E70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. In this cross-sectional study, five Indian cities were selected to represent different geographies and urbanization extent. Around each, we randomly selected 34 peri-urban villages, and in each village three smallholder dairy farms (defined as having a maximum of 10 dairy animals) were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed, and milk samples were taken from up to three animals. These were tested using a commercial ELISA for antibodies against Brucella abortus, and factors associated with herd seroprevalence were identified. In all, 164 out of 1163 cows (14.1%, 95% CI 12.2-16.2%) were seropositive for Brucella. In total, 91 out of 510 farms (17.8%, 95% CI 14.6-21.4%) had at least one positive animal, and out of these, just seven farmers stated that they had vaccinated against brucellosis. In four cities, the farm-level seroprevalence ranged between 1.4-5.2%, while the fifth city had a seroprevalence of 72.5%. This city had larger, zero-grazing herds, used artificial insemination to a much higher degree, replaced their animals by purchasing from their neighbors, were less likely to contact a veterinarian in case of sick animals, and were also judged to be less clean. Within the high-prevalence city, farms were at higher risk of being infected if they had a young owner and if they were judged less clean. In the low-prevalence cities, no risk factors could be identified. In conclusion, this study has identified that a city can have a high burden of infected animals in the peri-urban areas, but that seroprevalence is strongly influenced by the husbandry system. Increased intensification can be associated with increased risk, and thus the practices associated with this, such as artificial insemination, are also associated with increased risk. These results may be important to identify high-risk areas for prioritizing interventions and for policy decisions influencing the structure and development of the dairy industry.

  • 20.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Grace, Delia
    Students' and supervisors' knowledge and attitudes regarding plagiarism and referencing2018In: Research integrity and peer review, ISSN 2058-8615, Vol. 3, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Referencing is an integral part of scientific writing and professional research conduct that requires appropriate acknowledgement of others' work and avoidance of plagiarism. University students should understand and apply this as part of their academic development, but for this, it is essential that supervisors also display proper research integrity and support.

    Methods: This study used an online educative questionnaire to understand the knowledge and attitudes of students and supervisors at two institutes in Europe and Africa. The results were then used to create discussion around education of students and faculty in workshops and lectures.

    Results: Overall, 138 students and 14 supervisors participated: most were Swedish (89) and Kenyan (11). Overall, 98% had heard about plagiarism, and 35% believed it was common. Only 45% had heard about self-plagiarism, and when explained what it was, 44.5% considered it morally wrong. Europeans and North Americans had more knowledge than other nationalities. Most (85%) had received some training on referencing, but there was little consensus about principles, with more than 30% considering it acceptable to cite a reference in a paper they had not read. Discussing these results and the questions in workshops was helpful; it was also clear that there was no consensus among supervisors on what constituted correct behavior.

    Conclusions: This survey shows a need for greater consensus on appropriate referencing, and that there is need for more discussions and training on the topic for both students and faculty.

  • 21.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. International Livestock Research Institute, Department of Biosciences, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grace, Delia
    International Livestock Research Institute, Department of Biosciences, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Urban Livestock Keeping: Leveraging for Food and Nutrition Security2019In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability: Vol. 3 Sustainable food systems and agriculture / [ed] Pasquale Ferranti, Elliot M. Berry and Jock R. Anderson, Elsevier , 2019, p. 322-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the importance of urban livestock keeping in providing the urban populations with livelihoods and nutritious foods, this phenomenon does have both benefits and negative effects. Here we explore the different strengths and weaknesses of urban livestock systems, including the risks for transmission of diseases and contribution to poor sanitation. In addition we look at the opportunities and threats that urban livestock keeping may face in the future, which are often dependent on policies and public attitudes.

  • 22.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. International Livestock Research Institute, Department of Biosciences, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grace, Delia
    International Livestock Research Institute, Department of Biosciences, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Urban Livestock-Keeping: Contributions to Food and Nutrition Security2018In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability: Vol. 3 Sustainable food systems and agriculture, Elsevier , 2018, p. 317-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When more and more people live in cities, there is increased need to produce food close to and within cities. The high value of livestock products and the increasing demand from the growing urban middle classes create a niche for urban livestock keeping, which contribute to the food security and the livelihoods of many different value chain actors. This chapter explores the different kinds of urban livestock keeping in low and middle-income countries and provides a view of the dynamics as well as the importance.

  • 23.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya;Swedish University of Agricultural Research, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ragan, Izabela K
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA;Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
    Rowland, R R
    Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
    Wainaina, Martin
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mbotha, Deborah
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya;Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Wilson, William
    Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Manhattan, KS, USA.
    A multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay for increased understanding of Rift Valley fever immune responses in ruminants in Kenya2019In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 269, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne pathogen with devastating impacts on agriculture and public health. With outbreaks being reported beyond the continent of Africa to the Middle East, there is great concern that RVFV will continue to spread to non-endemic areas such as the Americas and Europe. There is a need for safe and high throughput serological assays for rapid detection of RVFV during outbreaks and for surveillance. We evaluated a multiplexing fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in ruminant sera against the RVFV nucleocapsid Np, glycoprotein Gn, and non-structural protein NSs. Sheep and cattle sera from a region in Kenya with previous outbreaks were tested by FMIA and two commercially available competitive ELISAs (BDSL and IDvet). Our results revealed strong detection of RVFV antibodies against the Np, Gn and NSs antigen targets. Additionally, testing of samples with FMIA Np and Gn had 100% agreement with the IDvet ELISA. The targets developed in the FMIA assay provided a basis for a larger ruminant disease panel that can simultaneously screen several abortive and zoonotic pathogens.

  • 24.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Vrentas, Catherine E
    Deka, Ram P
    Hazarika, Razibuddin A
    Rahman, H
    Bambal, R G
    Bedi, J S
    Bhattacharya, C
    Chaduhuri, Pallab
    Fairoze, Nadeem Mohamed
    Gandhi, R S
    Gill, J P S
    Gupta, N K
    Kumar, M
    Londhe, S
    Rahi, M
    Sharma, P K
    Shome, R
    Singh, R
    Srinivas, K
    Swain, B B
    Brucellosis in India: results of a collaborative workshop to define One Health priorities.2019In: Tropical Animal Health and Production, ISSN 0049-4747, E-ISSN 1573-7438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brucellosis is an important zoonosis worldwide. In livestock, it frequently causes chronic disease with reproductive failures that contribute to production losses, and in humans, it causes an often-chronic febrile illness that is frequently underdiagnosed in many low- and middle-income countries, including India. India has one of the largest ruminant populations in the world, and brucellosis is endemic in the country in both humans and animals. In November 2017, the International Livestock Research Institute invited experts from government, national research institutes, universities, and different international organizations to a one-day meeting to set priorities towards a "One Health" control strategy for brucellosis in India. Using a risk prioritization exercise followed by discussions, the meeting agreed on the following priorities: collaboration (transboundary and transdisciplinary); collection of more epidemiological evidence in humans, cattle, and in small ruminants (which have been neglected in past research); Economic impact studies, including cost effectiveness of control programmes; livestock vaccination, including national facilities for securing vaccines for the cattle population; management of infected animals (with the ban on bovine slaughter, alternatives such as sanctuaries must be explored); laboratory capacities and diagnostics (quality must be assured and better rapid tests developed); and increased awareness, making farmers, health workers, and the general public more aware of risks of brucellosis and zoonoses in general. Overall, the meeting participants agreed that brucellosis control will be challenging in India, but with collaboration to address the priority areas listed here, it could be possible.

  • 25.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. International Livestock Research Institute, PO Box 30709,Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Young, Jarrah
    Wyatt, Amanda
    Young, Mary
    Alders, Robyn
    Bagnol, Brigitte
    Kibaya, Augustino
    Grace, Delia
    Do vaccination interventions have effects?: A study on how poultry vaccination interventions change smallholder farmer knowledge, attitudes, and practice in villages in Kenya and Tanzania2019In: Tropical Animal Health and Production, ISSN 0049-4747, E-ISSN 1573-7438, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poultry are important for many poor households in developing countries, but there are many constraints to poultry production, including disease. One of the most important diseases of chickens is Newcastle disease (ND). Even though there are effective vaccines against this disease available in most countries, uptake by small-scale poultry keepers is often low. In this study, two areas in Kenya and Tanzania were studied, where some villages had received additional support to get vaccination and other villages had not. In Kenya, 320 households from 10 villages were interviewed, of which half of the villages had active promotion of vaccination through village-based advisors. In Tanzania, 457 households were interviewed, of which 241 came from villages that have had active support through either a project or government extension services. Knowledge about vaccines and the attitudes towards vaccinating against ND was evaluated using mixed multivariable logistic models. Results indicate that in Kenya, the most important determinants for understanding the function of a vaccine were having had support in the village and to have knowledge about ND signs, while in Tanzania gender and previous vaccine use were important in addition to having had support. Attitudes towards vaccination were mainly determined by knowledge, where more knowledge about how vaccines work in general or about ND contributed to more positive attitudes. Among Kenyan farmers that had never used the vaccine before, the amount of birds they lost to disease and predators also influenced attitudes. In conclusion, this study supports the notion that knowledge is a very important component of extension support and that simply making vaccines available may not be sufficient for high levels of uptake.

  • 26. Makita, Kohei
    et al.
    Sina, Sylvie Kouamé
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Desissa, Fanta
    Computation of Risk Assessment Modelling2019In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability: Volume 3: Sustainable Food Systems and Agriculture / [ed] David Barling, Jessica Fanzo, Elsevier, 2019, p. 371-380Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for risk assessment to evaluate the safety of foods is increasing in low and middle income countries, but almost no textbook on risk assessment modelling for informal market is available. This chapter introduces practical steps for the risk assessors to tackle with such a situation.

  • 27.
    Mbotha, D.
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Free Univ Berlin, Inst Parasitol & Trop Vet Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Bett, B.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kairu-Wanyoike, S.
    State Dept Vet Serv, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Grace, D.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kihara, A.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Wainaina, M.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Hoppenheit, A.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Parasitol & Trop Vet Med, Berlin, Germany..
    Clausen, P. -H
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Inter-epidemic Rift Valley fever virus seroconversions in an irrigation scheme in Bura, south-east Kenya2018In: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, ISSN 1865-1674, E-ISSN 1865-1682, Vol. 65, no 1, p. e55-e62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute mosquito-borne viral zoonosis whose outbreaks are often associated with prolonged rainfall and flooding, during which large numbers of vectors emerge. Recent studies into the inter-epidemic maintenance of RVF virus (RVFV) suggest that both vertical transmission in vectors and direct transmission between hosts act in combination with predisposing factors for persistence of the virus. A comparative longitudinal survey was carried out in Tana River County, Kenya, in irrigated, riverine and pastoral ecosystems from September 2014-June 2015. The objectives were to investigate the possibility of low-level RVFV transmission in these ecosystems during an inter-epidemic period (IEP), examine variations in RVFV seroprevalence in sheep and goats and determine the risk factors for transmission. Three hundred and sixteen small ruminants were selected and tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against RVFV nucleoprotein using a competitive ELISA during six visits. Data on potential risk factors were also captured. Inter-epidemic RVFV transmission was evidenced by 15 seroconversions within the irrigated and riverine villages. The number of seroconversions was not significantly different (OR=0.66, CI=0.19-2.17, p=.59) between irrigated and riverine areas. No seroconversions were detected in the pastoral ecosystem. This study highlights the increased risk of inter-epidemic RVFV transmission posed by irrigation, through provision of necessary environmental conditions that enable vectors access to more breeding grounds, resting places and shade, which favour their breeding and survival.

  • 28.
    Mutua, Florence
    et al.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Univ Nairobi, Dept Publ Hlth Pharmacol & Toxicol, POB 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 70790, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grace, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Availability and use of mycotoxin binders in selected urban and Peri-urban areas of Kenya2019In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 359-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic, toxic and immunosuppressive substances produced by some species of the fungal genus, Aspergillus. Consumption of aflatoxins can have serious health effects. Widespread in the tropical and sub-tropical world, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is found in many staple foods and feeds; after ingestion it is metabolized to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which transfers to milk. One option for reducing aflatoxin concentration in cow milk is addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feeds, but little is known about this practice in the smallholder dairy systems in developing countries. We undertook a study to investigate the availability and use of mycotoxin binders in selected urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya. Data were collected using key informant interviews with government officials and one-to-one questionnaire-guided interviews with agrovet outlets (shops that sell animal health products (such as antibiotics) and crop inputs (such as fertilizers) and feed processors. Nine different mycotoxin binder types were reported. They were sold by 8% (4/49) of agrovets and 33% (3/9) of feed processors. The binders were purchased by farmers formulating their own feeds and by feed processors. Our review of regulations found that incorporating binders into animal feeds is not mandatory and there are no specific standards governing their use in Kenya. Feed processors are expected to respect the maximum allowable limit of 5g/kg for AFB1 in complete feeds. Gaps in the local feed supplies that may potentially lead to increased risks of aflatoxin exposure through milk are discussed. This study provides key data on the availability and local use of mycotoxin binders, which were previously lacking. However, there is a need for continued research on their effectiveness in the local smallholder context, in order to promote their appropriate use.

  • 29. Mutua, Florence
    et al.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Randolph, Delia
    Possibilities of establishing a smallholder pig identification and traceability system in Kenya.2019In: Tropical Animal Health and Production, ISSN 0049-4747, E-ISSN 1573-7438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers have a right to safer foods, and traceability is one approach to meeting their expectations. Kenya does not have an operational animal traceability system, and while a few initiatives have been piloted, these have only focused on the beef value chain. In this paper, we begin a discussion on traceability in the pig value chain, with an initial focus on smallholder systems of Western Kenya. First, a background to local pig production is given, and a description of animal identification and traceability options applicable to these systems is explained. Based on this, a "butcher-to-farm" traceability system, with health, production and food safety as objectives, is discussed. Requirements for establishing such a system (including actor incentives) are additionally discussed. The proposed approach can be piloted in the field and findings used to inform the design of a larger pilot and possibly pave way for implementation of a national traceability system, in line with the guidelines provided by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Organized systems in the area (including commercial producer and trader groups) would offer a useful starting point.

  • 30. Ngotho-Esilaba, R
    et al.
    Onono, J
    Ombui, J
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Wesonga, H
    Perceptions of Challenges Facing Pastoral Small Ruminant Production in a Changing Climate in Kenya2019In: Handbook of Climate Change Resilience, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31. Nguyen-Tien, Thang
    et al.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Urban transmission of mosquito-borne flaviviruses - a review of the risk for humans in Vietnam.2019In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 1660129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam is a tropical country where mosquito-borne diseases are common. This review explores the transmission of mosquito-borne flaviviruses in urban areas of Vietnam. It concludes that urban transmission has mainly been studied for Dengue virus, and so far, much less for Japanese encephalitis virus. Dengue is the most common flavivirus in Vietnam. Due to fast urbanization and favorable climatic conditions, the viral transmission concentrates mainly to large cities with high population density including Ha Noi, Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh. Human cases of Japanese encephalitis have been controlled by an expanded immunization program. However, this virus is still circulating throughout the country, also in cities due to the pig rearing practices in urban and peri-urban areas. Zika virus is an additional major concern because it has long circulated in the Northern area and is now increasingly diagnosed in urban areas of the Central, Central Highlands and Southern regions using the same mosquito vectors as Dengue virus. There was alarge outbreak of Zika disease from 2016 to early 2017, with most infections observed in Ho Chi Minh city, the largest town in Vietnam. Other flaviviruses circulate in Vietnam but have not been investigated in terms of urban transmission.

  • 32. Paixão, Maria Margarida
    et al.
    Ballouz, Tala
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Effect of Education on Improving Knowledge and Behavior for Arboviral Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2019In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 441-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arboviral diseases are responsible for a high burden of disease in humans, and a significant part of disease risk reduction efforts relies on vector control methods. The elimination of potential breeding sites for the mosquito vectors and a higher level of literacy by the populations at risk could present a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution. This review aims to assess the efficacy of educational interventions for arboviral diseases on knowledge and self-reported behavior. A systematic literature search was performed using Cochrane, EMBASE, Global Health, and PubMed. References of articles retrieved were searched manually for further studies. Critical appraisal of the selected articles was performed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool, and studies with a control group were further assessed through the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. A summary narrative of the results and a meta-analysis was conducted. Fourteen studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Overall, there was an increase in knowledge and in self-reported adoption of protective measures. No effect was found using solely printed material. A meta-analysis was performed separately for the two outcomes measured, which produced a mean standardized difference of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.33-2.39) in knowledge scores compared with the control groups. Regarding the self-reported protective behavior, the results show a summary value of odds ratio of 5.23 (95% CI: 3.09-7.36). Most of the educational interventions had a positive impact on knowledge and self-reported adoption of protective measures. More research producing stronger evidence and evaluating long-term impact is needed.

  • 33. Saltzmann, Janine
    et al.
    Xu, Ya
    Gong, Yun Yun
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kersten, Susanne
    Dänicke, Sven
    Routledge, Michael N
    Preliminary study on the relationship between aflatoxin-bovine serum albumin adducts in blood and aflatoxin M1 levels in milk of dairy cows.2019In: Mycotoxin Research, ISSN 0178-7888, E-ISSN 1867-1632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aflatoxin (AF) albumin adduct is often used as a biomarker for aflatoxin exposure in humans. An ELISA method previously used for aflatoxin serum albumin in human blood was used to analyse bovine serum samples (n = 22) collected from dairy cattle during an aflatoxin mitigation study in Kenya. Albumin adduct data were compared with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in corresponding milk samples from these cows. The concentration ranged from < LOD to 487.9 pg/mL for AFM1 and < LOD and 96.3 pg/mg for aflatoxin-albumin. This study indicates that aflatoxin-albumin adducts could be used as a measure of chronic aflatoxin exposure in dairy cattle.

  • 34. Shome, Rajeswari
    et al.
    Deka, Ram Pratim
    Milesh, Ligi
    Sahay, Swati
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Coxiella seroprevalence and risk factors in large ruminants in Bihar and Assam, India.2019In: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, Vol. 194, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coxiellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous bacteria Coxiella burnetii, which can be spread either through ticks or through body fluids. In humans the infection is characterized by a febrile disease; ruminants may abort and reduce their milk yield, causing serious production losses for the farmer. In India, the disease has been known to be present since the 1970s, but little is known about the epidemiology in most states. In this cross-sectional survey in the two states of Assam and Bihar, 520 households were interviewed for risk factors, and serum samples from 744 dairy animals were analyzed using ELISA as well as PCR. Out of the farms, 17.4% had at least one seropositive animal, with significantly higher seroprevalence in Bihar (27.1%) than Assam (5.8%); and significantly more sero-positive farms in urban areas (23.1%) than rural (12.2%). On an individual animal level, 14.1% were seropositive, with higher prevalence among buffaloes than cows (28.0% versus 13.6%). Out of the seropositive animals, 10.6% had aborted during the last three years, and 37.5% had experienced problems with repeat breeding: both higher than in non-seropositive animals. In conclusion, this study indicates that coxiellosis is potentially an important cause of reproductive failures and production losses in dairy animals. The high prevalence, especially in urban areas, is a public health risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology and identify mitigation options that could work in the different settings of different Indian states.

  • 35. Shome, Rajeswari
    et al.
    Deka, Ram Pratim
    Sahay, Swati
    Grace, Delia
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Seroprevalence of hemorrhagic septicemia in dairy cows in Assam, India.2019In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 1604064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is a highly fatal disease caused by Pasteurella multocida that often cause outbreaks in buffalo and cattle in India, and thus is a major cause of production losses. It is one of the livestock diseases with the highest mortality, and despite available vaccines, outbreaks still occur. To assess the seroprevalence in the state of Assam, Northeast India, 346 serum samples from cows from 224 randomly selected households, from both urban and rural areas of three districts, were tested with a commercial ELISA. In total 88 cows were seropositive (25.4%), and indigenous cattle were significantly more seropositive (33.5%) compared to the crossbred cattle (18.5%) (p = 0.002). Herd prevalence was 35.7%, and more rural farms (47.4%) were positive compared to the urban farms (23.6%) (p < 0.001). No other risk factors were identified in this study. Only one farm had vaccinated against HS, but there were no seropositive animals detected in that herd. This study shows that HS is highly prevalent in Assam. Considering the importance of dairy production in India, and the dependence of the rural Assam population on farming and livestock keeping, more extensive vaccination campaigns would be important.

  • 36.
    Sirma, A. J.
    et al.
    Minist Agr Livestock Fisheries & Irrigat, State Dept Livestock, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Lindahl, Johanna F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya; Swedish Univ Agr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Makita, K.
    Rakuno Gakuen Univ, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.
    Senerwa, D.
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mtimet, N.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kang'ethe, E. K.
    Univ Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Grace, D.
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Nairobi, Kenya.
    The impacts of aflatoxin standards on health and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Of Kenya2018In: Global Food Security-Agriculture Policy Economics And Environment, ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 18, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human food and animal feed can contain many different hazards, which may be biological, chemical, or physical. In most countries, there are regulations that limit the levels of these hazards permitted in food and feed so as to protect consumers. Optimally, the levels specified in the standards should make the food safe enough for everyone to consume, and often this is done by carrying out a risk assessment, based on scientific evidence of the levels that can be considered safe and the amount of contaminated products consumed. However, for some substances, especially carcinogens, it is difficult to calculate how much is safe to consume and some groups of people, such as small children or pregnant women, may be more sensitive than the population at large. While imposition of standards is motivated by health benefits, standards also have costs. These include the costs of compliance and verification, which translate- into increased costs of purchase and reduction of the products available.

    In this paper we summarize current standards in sub-Saharan Africa related to aflatoxins, a priority hazard, and discuss their coherence and evidence-base. Next, using our recent research findings, we estimate the health risks of consuming foods contaminated with aflatoxins in Kenya. We also estimate the negative health and economic effects that would arise from strict application of different standards for aflatoxins. We discuss the results in light of health and nutrition goals.

  • 37.
    Sirma, Anima J.
    et al.
    Minist Agr Livestock Fisheries & Irrigat Kenya, State Dept Livestock, PO Private Bag Kangemi, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Makita, Kohei
    Rakuno Gakuen Univ, Dept Vet Med, Sch Vet Med, 582 Bunkyodai Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 0698501, Japan.
    Grace Randolph, Delia
    Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.
    Senerwa, Daniel
    Univ Nairobi, Dept Publ Hlth & Toxicol, POB 9053, Nairobi 00625, Kenya.
    Lindahl, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Int Livestock Res Inst, Dept Biosci, POB 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Clin Sci, POB 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aflatoxin Exposure from Milk in Rural Kenya and the Contribution to the Risk of Liver Cancer2019In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Milk is an important commodity in Kenya; the country has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. As such, hazards in milk are of concern. Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)) excreted in milk by lactating animals after ingesting AFB(1)-contaminated feeds. This metabolite is injurious to human health, but there is little information on the risk to human health posed by AFM(1) in milk in rural Kenya. To fill this gap, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) applying probabilistic statistical tools to quantify risks was conducted. This assessed the risk of liver cancer posed by AFM(1) in milk, assuming 10-fold lower carcinogenicity than AFB(1). Data from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid) were used. We estimated that people were exposed to between 0.3 and 1 ng AFM(1) per kg body weight per day through the consumption of milk. The annual incidence rates of cancer attributed to the consumption of AFM(1) in milk were 3.5 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 3 x 10(-3)-3.9 x 10(-3)), 2.9 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 2.5 x 10(-3)-3.3 x 10(-3)), 1.4 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 1.2 x 10(-3)-1.5 x 10(-3)) and 2.7 x 10(-3) (95% CI: 2.3 x 10(-3)-3 x 10(-3)) cancers per 100,000 in adult females, adult males, children 6-18 years old, and in children less than five years old, respectively. Our results show that aflatoxin exposure from milk contributes relatively little to the incidence of liver cancer. Nonetheless, risk managers should take action based on cumulative exposure from all sources of aflatoxins.

1 - 37 of 37
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