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  • 1.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Anxious personality traits in pregnant women: Associations with postpartum depression, delivery complications and health care use2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxious personality traits, including those encompassed by negative emotionality (neuroticism) and the tendency to worry about close relationships (attachment anxiety) during pregnancy were the focus of this thesis. The overall aim was to examine perinatal correlates of these characteris-tics in terms of psychiatric and obstetric health as well as antenatal care (ANC).

    Papers I-II were part of a large population-based project on pregnant women in Uppsala in 2009-2012 (n=2160). Papers III-IV adjoined participants from several projects in 2005-2011, on oral contraceptive use, infertility, induced abortion, premenstrual mood disorder, and perina-tal depression (n=2819). The participants reported on the Swedish universities Scales of Per-sonality for neuroticism (papers II-IV) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) for attachment anxiety (papers I-II). The participants also answered the Edinburgh Postnatal De-pression Scale on depressive symptoms (paper II). In paper III, information on obstetric com-plications for primiparous women with singleton pregnancies (n=1969) was extracted from Swedish national health registers. In paper IV, ANC use was derived from medical records of obstetric low-risk women residing in Uppsala (n=1052).

    The ASQ had similar psychometric properties in pregnant women (n=1631) as in previous reports (paper I). In non-depressed pregnant women (n=1431), the combination of neuroticism and attachment anxiety was the best risk indicator of postpartum depressive symptoms (paper II). Whereas high neuroticism was not related to obstetric complications (paper III), it was associated with higher use of ANC (paper IV).

    Summarized, this thesis illustrates how anxious personality traits may predispose for post-partum depression and higher use of ANC in the absence of obstetric complications. Future development of these findings should be to evaluate individual and societal benefits of a greater emphasis on psychological support in ANC.

    List of papers
    1. Psychometric properties of the attachment style questionnaire in Swedish pregnant women: short and full versions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychometric properties of the attachment style questionnaire in Swedish pregnant women: short and full versions
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, ISSN 0264-6838, E-ISSN 1469-672X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 450-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: (i) To evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the Attachment Style Questionnaire – Short Form (ASQ-SF) for use in pregnant women and (ii) to compare the reliability and factor structure of the short- and full version-ASQ among pregnant women. Background: Adult attachment insecurity is currently included as a major risk factor in studies of perinatal health. None of the self-report measures with a Swedish translation have been psychometrically evaluated in a pregnant cohort.

    Methods: A population-based cohort of 1631 pregnant women answered the ASQ in late pregnancy. Internal consistency (item- subscale correlations, Cronbach’s α, and α if item deleted) was evaluated for the seven available subscales. Con rmatory factor analysis (CFA) was run to examine the factor structure of the short form compared with the full-version. Test–retest correlations were assessed in a subgroup (n = 48).

    Results: All mean item-subscale correlations for the ASQ-SF were > 0.30. Cronbach’s α’s for ASQ-SF dimensions were as follows: Avoidance (0.87); Anxiety (0.89); Discomfort with Closeness (0.85); Relationships as Secondary (0.54); Con dence (0.83); Need for Approval (0.76); and Preoccupation with Relationships (0.77). No item removal substantively increased subscale α’s. The CFA demonstrated better model t for the ASQ-SF than for the full-version ASQ, while other reliability measures were similar. Test–retest correlations ranged from 0.65 to 0.84.

    Conclusion: The ASQ-SF showed similar psychometric properties in pregnant women as in the general population and had good reliability, but the optimal factor structure needs to be studied further. Results support the usage of the ASQ-SF in pregnant cohorts. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2017
    Keywords
    adult attachment, attachment style questionnaire, reliability, pregnancy
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Research subject
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342268 (URN)10.1080/02646838.2017.1342786 (DOI)000416753300003 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 521-2013-2339
    Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 222, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Personality traits such as neuroticism can help identify pregnant women at risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS). However, it is unclear whether attachment style could have an additional contribution to this risk elevation. This study aimed to examine the overlap of adult attachment insecurity and neuroticism/trait anxiety as PPDS predictors, taking into account baseline depressive symptoms.

    Methods:

    A Swedish population-based sample of pregnant women reported on adult attachment and either neuroticism (n = 1063) or trait anxiety (n = 555). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and at six weeks and six months postpartum. Correlations between attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were calculated. Generalized linear models of PPDS tested the effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance, adjusting for neuroticism/trait anxiety and baseline depression. Logistic regression models with combined high attachment anxiety and-neuroticism/trait anxiety visualized their value as risk factors beyond antenatal depression.

    Results:

    Attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were highly correlated (r = .55.77). Attachment anxiety exerted a partially independent effect on PPDS at six weeks (p < .05) and at six months (p < .05) adjusting for neuroticism. Among antenatally non-depressed, combined high attachment anxiety and high neuroticism or trait anxiety was predictive of PPDS at both assessment points. Limitations: Low acceptance rate, exclusive use of self-reports.

    Conclusions:

    Beyond personality, attachment anxiety had a small independent effect on the risk of PPDS. Combining items of adult attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety could prove useful in antenatal screening for high risk of PPDS.

    Keywords
    Adult attachment, Neuroticism, Trait anxiety, Personality, Pregnancy, Postpartum depression
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333735 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2017.07.005 (DOI)000407657100027 ()28709025 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
    3. Neuroticism is not independently associated with adverse obstetric or neonatal outcomes: An observational study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism is not independently associated with adverse obstetric or neonatal outcomes: An observational study
    Show others...
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Psychiatry Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Psychiatry; Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361592 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2018-10-24
    4. Neuroticism is associated with higher antenatal care utilization in obstetric low-risk women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism is associated with higher antenatal care utilization in obstetric low-risk women
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Elevated neuroticism is associated with higher health care utilization in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the association between neuroticism and the use of publicly financed antenatal care in obstetric low‐risk women, taking predisposing and need factors for health care utilization into consideration.

    Material and methods

    Participants comprised 1052 obstetric low‐risk women (no chronic diseases or adverse pregnancy conditions) included in several obstetrics/gynecology studies in Uppsala, Sweden. Neuroticism was self‐rated on the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. Medical records of their first subsequent pregnancy were scanned for antenatal care use. Associations between antenatal care use and neuroticism were analyzed with logistic regression (binary outcomes) or negative binomial regression (count outcomes) comparing the 75th and 25th neuroticism percentiles. Depending on the Akaike information criterion the exposure was modeled as either linear or with restricted cubic splines. Analyses were adjusted for predisposing (sociodemographic and parity) and need factors (body mass index and psychiatric morbidity).

    Results

    After adjustment, women with higher neuroticism had more fetal ultrasounds (incidence rate ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02‐1.16), more emergency visits to an obstetrician/gynecologist (incidence rate ratio = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03‐1.45) and were more likely to visit a fear‐of‐childbirth clinic (odds ratio = 2.71, 95% CI 1.71‐4.29). Moreover, they more often consulted midwives in specialized antenatal care facilities (significant J‐shaped association).

    Conclusions

    Neuroticism was associated with higher utilization of publicly financed antenatal care in obstetric low‐risk women, even after adjusting for predisposing and need factors. Future studies should address the benefits of interventions as a complement to routine antenatal care programs to reduce subclinical anxiety.

    Keywords
    antenatal care, health care utilization, neuroticism, personality, pregnancy, prenatal care
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364260 (URN)10.1111/aogs.13506 (DOI)000460954800008 ()30457176 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2007-1955Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW2011.0115The Swedish Medical Association, SLS-250581Swedish Research Council, 521-2010-3293Swedish Research Council, K2008-54X-20642-01-3Swedish Society of MedicineStiftelsen Söderström - Königska sjukhemmetTore Nilsons Stiftelse för medicinsk forskning
    Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Eckerdal, Patricia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Volgsten, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Neuroticism is not independently associated with adverse obstetric or neonatal outcomes: An observational studyIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Hellgren, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Volgsten, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Wikström, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Obstetrics.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Neuroticism is associated with higher antenatal care utilization in obstetric low-risk women2019In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Elevated neuroticism is associated with higher health care utilization in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the association between neuroticism and the use of publicly financed antenatal care in obstetric low‐risk women, taking predisposing and need factors for health care utilization into consideration.

    Material and methods

    Participants comprised 1052 obstetric low‐risk women (no chronic diseases or adverse pregnancy conditions) included in several obstetrics/gynecology studies in Uppsala, Sweden. Neuroticism was self‐rated on the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. Medical records of their first subsequent pregnancy were scanned for antenatal care use. Associations between antenatal care use and neuroticism were analyzed with logistic regression (binary outcomes) or negative binomial regression (count outcomes) comparing the 75th and 25th neuroticism percentiles. Depending on the Akaike information criterion the exposure was modeled as either linear or with restricted cubic splines. Analyses were adjusted for predisposing (sociodemographic and parity) and need factors (body mass index and psychiatric morbidity).

    Results

    After adjustment, women with higher neuroticism had more fetal ultrasounds (incidence rate ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02‐1.16), more emergency visits to an obstetrician/gynecologist (incidence rate ratio = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03‐1.45) and were more likely to visit a fear‐of‐childbirth clinic (odds ratio = 2.71, 95% CI 1.71‐4.29). Moreover, they more often consulted midwives in specialized antenatal care facilities (significant J‐shaped association).

    Conclusions

    Neuroticism was associated with higher utilization of publicly financed antenatal care in obstetric low‐risk women, even after adjusting for predisposing and need factors. Future studies should address the benefits of interventions as a complement to routine antenatal care programs to reduce subclinical anxiety.

  • 4.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Sylvén, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetric research.
    Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 222, p. 177-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Personality traits such as neuroticism can help identify pregnant women at risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS). However, it is unclear whether attachment style could have an additional contribution to this risk elevation. This study aimed to examine the overlap of adult attachment insecurity and neuroticism/trait anxiety as PPDS predictors, taking into account baseline depressive symptoms.

    Methods:

    A Swedish population-based sample of pregnant women reported on adult attachment and either neuroticism (n = 1063) or trait anxiety (n = 555). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and at six weeks and six months postpartum. Correlations between attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were calculated. Generalized linear models of PPDS tested the effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance, adjusting for neuroticism/trait anxiety and baseline depression. Logistic regression models with combined high attachment anxiety and-neuroticism/trait anxiety visualized their value as risk factors beyond antenatal depression.

    Results:

    Attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were highly correlated (r = .55.77). Attachment anxiety exerted a partially independent effect on PPDS at six weeks (p < .05) and at six months (p < .05) adjusting for neuroticism. Among antenatally non-depressed, combined high attachment anxiety and high neuroticism or trait anxiety was predictive of PPDS at both assessment points. Limitations: Low acceptance rate, exclusive use of self-reports.

    Conclusions:

    Beyond personality, attachment anxiety had a small independent effect on the risk of PPDS. Combining items of adult attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety could prove useful in antenatal screening for high risk of PPDS.

  • 5.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Sylvén, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Psychometric properties of the attachment style questionnaire in Swedish pregnant women: short and full versions2017In: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, ISSN 0264-6838, E-ISSN 1469-672X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 450-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: (i) To evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the Attachment Style Questionnaire – Short Form (ASQ-SF) for use in pregnant women and (ii) to compare the reliability and factor structure of the short- and full version-ASQ among pregnant women. Background: Adult attachment insecurity is currently included as a major risk factor in studies of perinatal health. None of the self-report measures with a Swedish translation have been psychometrically evaluated in a pregnant cohort.

    Methods: A population-based cohort of 1631 pregnant women answered the ASQ in late pregnancy. Internal consistency (item- subscale correlations, Cronbach’s α, and α if item deleted) was evaluated for the seven available subscales. Con rmatory factor analysis (CFA) was run to examine the factor structure of the short form compared with the full-version. Test–retest correlations were assessed in a subgroup (n = 48).

    Results: All mean item-subscale correlations for the ASQ-SF were > 0.30. Cronbach’s α’s for ASQ-SF dimensions were as follows: Avoidance (0.87); Anxiety (0.89); Discomfort with Closeness (0.85); Relationships as Secondary (0.54); Con dence (0.83); Need for Approval (0.76); and Preoccupation with Relationships (0.77). No item removal substantively increased subscale α’s. The CFA demonstrated better model t for the ASQ-SF than for the full-version ASQ, while other reliability measures were similar. Test–retest correlations ranged from 0.65 to 0.84.

    Conclusion: The ASQ-SF showed similar psychometric properties in pregnant women as in the general population and had good reliability, but the optimal factor structure needs to be studied further. Results support the usage of the ASQ-SF in pregnant cohorts. 

  • 6.
    Iliadis, Stavros I
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Johansson, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Women with prolonged nausea in pregnancy have increased risk for depressive symptoms postpartum2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 15796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this population-based, longitudinal study was to assess the association between nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and perinatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (N = 4239) undergoing routine ultrasound at gestational week (GW) 17 self-reported on NVP and were divided into those without nausea (G0), early (<= 17 GW) nausea without medication (G1), early nausea with medication (G2), and prolonged (>17 GW) nausea (G3). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at GW 17 and 32 (cut-off >= 13) and at six weeks postpartum (cut-off >= 12) was used to assess depressive symptoms. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms at GW 32 and at six weeks postpartum. NVP was experienced by 80.7%. The unadjusted logistic regression showed a positive association between all three nausea groups and depressive symptoms at all time-points. After adjustment, significant associations with postpartum depressive symptoms remained for G3, compared to G0 (aOR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.1-2.52). After excluding women with history of depression, only the G3 group was at higher odds for postpartum depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.26; 95% CI 1.04-4.92). In conclusion, women with prolonged nausea have increased risk of depressive symptoms at six weeks postpartum, regardless of history of depression.

  • 7.
    Iliadis, Stavros I
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Ranstrand, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Georgakis, Marios K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Papadopoulos, Fotios
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Self-Harm Thoughts Postpartum as a Marker for Long-Term Morbidity2018In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 6, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Postpartum depression predisposes to maternal affective and somatic disorders. It is important to identify which women are at an increased risk of subsequent morbidity and would benefit from an intensified follow-up. Self-harm thoughts (SHTs), with or without other depressive symptomatology, might have prognostic value for maternal health beyond the postpartum period.

    Aim: This study is to investigate the somatic and psychiatric morbidity of postpartum women with SHTs, with or without other depressive symptoms, over a 7-year follow-up period.

    Materials and methods: The subjects for this study are derived from a population based Swedish cohort of women who gave birth at Uppsala University Hospital (May 2006-June 2007) and who answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 5 days, 6 weeks, and 6 months postpartum. Three groups were included: women reporting SHTs (SHT group, n = 107) on item 10 of the EPDS; women reporting depressive symptoms, i.e., EPDS >= 12 at 6 weeks and/or 6 months postpartum, without SHTs (DEP group, n = 94); and randomly selected controls screening negatively for postpartum depression (CTL group, n = 104). The number of diagnostic codes for somatic and psychiatric morbidity according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems system, and the number of medical interventions were retrieved from medical records over 7 years following childbirth and were used as the outcome measures, together with any prescription of antidepressants and sick leave during the follow-up.

    Results: The SHT group had the highest psychiatric morbidity of all groups and more somatic morbidity than controls. Affective disorders were more common in the SHT and the DEP groups compared with controls, as well as antidepressant prescriptions and sick leave. One-fifth of women with SHTs did not screen positive for depressive symptoms; nevertheless, they had more somatic and psychiatric morbidity than the control group.

    Conclusion: Women reporting thoughts of self-harm in the postpartum period are at an increased risk of somatic and psychiatric morbidity during a follow-up of 7 years after delivery, and this increased risk may not be fully attributed to depressive symptoms. Results underline the importance of screening for self-harm symptoms postpartum and point to a need for individualized follow-up.

  • 8.
    Wikman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Axfors, Cathrine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Iliadis, Stavros I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Cox, John
    Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.
    Fransson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Characteristics of women with different perinatal depression trajectories2019In: Journal of Neuroscience Research, ISSN 0360-4012, E-ISSN 1097-4547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal perinatal depression (PND), a common mental disorder with a prevalence of over 10%, is associated with long-term health risks for both mothers and offspring. This study aimed at describing characteristics related to background and lifestyle, pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum of different PND trajectories defined according to the onset of depressive symptoms. Participants were drawn from a large population-based cohort study in Uppsala, Sweden (n = 2,466). Five trajectory groups of depressive symptom onset were created using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ≥13 (pregnancy) or ≥12 points (postpartum): (a) healthy (60.6%), (b) pregnancy depression (8.5%), (c) early postpartum onset (10.9%), (d) late postpartum onset (5.4%), and (e) chronic depression (14.6%). In multinomial logistic regressions, the associations between trajectories and the included characteristics were tested using the healthy trajectory as reference. Background characteristics (younger age, lower education, unemployment) were primarily associated with pregnancy depression and chronic depression. Characteristics associated with all PND trajectories were smoking prior to pregnancy, migraine, premenstrual mood symptoms, intimate partner violence, interpersonal trauma, negative delivery expectations, pregnancy nausea, and symphysiolysis. Nulliparity, instrumental delivery, or a negative delivery experience was associated with early postpartum onset. Postpartum factors (e.g., infantile colic, lack of sleep, low partner support, and bonding difficulties) were associated with early and late postpartum onset together with chronic depression. The findings suggest that different PND trajectories have divergent characteristics, which could be used to create individualized treatment options. To find the most predictive characteristics for different PND trajectories, studies with even larger and more diverse samples are warranted.

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