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  • 1.
    Kaluza, Joanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.; Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Human Nutr, Nutr Res Lab, 159C Nowoursynowska St, PL-02776 Warsaw, Poland..
    Harris, Holly
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Program Epidemiol, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98104 USA.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Questionnaire-Based Anti-Inflammatory Diet Index as a Predictor of Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation.2018In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is accumulating evidence that diet may be associated with markers of inflammation. We have evaluated if an empirically developed questionnaire-based Anti-Inflammatory Diet Index (AIDI) may predict low-grade systemic chronic inflammation in a Nordic population. The AIDI was developed using a 123-item food frequency questionnaire among 3503 women (56-74 years old) with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) plasma concentration <20 mg/L. Using Spearman correlations, we identified 20 foods (AIDI-20) statistically significantly related to hsCRP. The median (range) of AIDI-20 was 8 (0-17) scores, and the median concentration of hsCRP in the lowest versus the highest quintile of AIDI-20 (≤6 vs. ≥11 scores) varied by 80% (1.8 vs. 1.0 mg/L, respectively). In a multivariable-adjusted linear regression model, women in the highest quintile of AIDI-20 compared with those in the lowest had a 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18-33%; p-trend <0.001) lower hsCRP concentration; each 1-score increment in the AIDI-20 was associated with a 0.06 (95% CI 0.04-0.08) mg/L lower hsCRP. The observed association between the AIDI-20 and hsCRP was robust by all hsCRP levels and in subgroups defined by inflammatory-related factors. Our results lead to the hypothesis that the empirically developed questionnaire-based dietary anti-inflammatory index may predict low-grade systemic inflammation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 78-84.

  • 2. Kaluza, Joanna
    et al.
    Harris, Holly
    Wallin, Alice
    Linden, Anders
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Karolinska Inst, Unit Nutr Epidemiol, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study of Men.2018In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 254-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The limited literature suggests that dietary fiber intake from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is negatively associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via fiber's anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the association between total fiber and fiber sources and risk of COPD in the population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men (45,058 men, aged 45-79 years) with no history of COPD at baseline.

    METHODS: Dietary fiber intake was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997 and was energy-adjusted using the residual method. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 13.1 years (1998-2012), 1,982 incident cases of COPD were ascertained via linkage to the Swedish health registers. A strong inverse association between total fiber intake (≥36.8 vs. <23.7 g/day) and COPD was observed in current smokers (hazard ratio [HR]=0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.43-0.67) and ex-smokers (HR=0.62, 95%CI=0.50-0.78) but not in never smokers (HR=0.93; 95%CI=0.60-1.45;P-interaction=0.04). For cereal fiber, HRs for highest vs. lowest quintile were 0.62 (95%CI=0.51-0.77,P-trend<0.001) in current smokers and 0.66 (95%CI=0.52-0.82,P-trend<0.001) in ex-smokers; for fruit fiber the HR was 0.65 (95%CI=0.52-0.81,P-trend<0.001) in current smokers and 0.77 (95%CI=0.61-0.98,P-trend=0.17) in ex-smokers; for vegetable fiber it was 0.71 (95%CI=0.57-0.88,P-trend=0.003) in current smokers and 0.92 (95%CI=0.71-1.19,P-trend=0.48) in ex-smokers.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that high fiber intake was inversely associated with COPD incidence in men who are current or ex-smokers.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Susanna C
    et al.
    Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Drca, Nikola
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jensen-Urstad, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics. Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chocolate consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: Two cohort studies and a meta-analysis2018In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 195, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chocolate consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in Swedish adults from two cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from cohort studies on this topic.

    METHODS: Our study population comprised 40,009 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 32,486 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Incident AF cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. Published cohort studies of chocolate consumption in relation to risk of AF were identified by a PubMed search through September 14, 2017.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, AF was diagnosed in 9978 Swedish men and women. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio of AF for those in the highest category of chocolate consumption (≥3-4 servings/week) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04). In a random-effects meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, including 180,454 participants and 16,356 AF cases, the hazard ratios of AF were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) per 2 servings/week increase in chocolate consumption and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.03) for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption.

    CONCLUSION: Available data provide no evidence of an association of chocolate consumption with risk of AF.

  • 4.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lohmander, L S
    Turkiewicz, A
    Wolk, Alicja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nilsson, P
    Englund, M
    Association between statin use and consultation or surgery for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a pooled analysis of four cohort studies.2017In: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, ISSN 1063-4584, E-ISSN 1522-9653, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 1804-1813, article id S1063-4584(17)31102-0Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental findings and previous observational data have suggested lower risk of osteoarthritis (OA) with statin use but results are inconsistent. Large-scale studies with a clinically important outcome are needed. Thus, we aimed to determine whether statin use is associated with a reduced risk of developing clinically-defined hip or knee OA.

    DESIGN: Pooled analysis based on time-to-event analysis of four population-based large cohorts, encompassing in total 132,607 persons aged 57-91 years resident in southern and central Sweden. We studied the association between statin use and time to consultation or surgery for OA of the hip or knee by time-dependent exposure analysis and Cox regression.

    RESULTS: During 7.5 years of follow-up, we identified 7468 out- or inpatient treated cases of hip or knee OA. Compared with never use, current use of statins conferred no overall reduction in the risk of OA with an adjusted pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.99-1.10). We found no dose-response relation between duration of current statin use and the risk of OA, with similar HRs among patients with less than 1 year of use (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.92-1.32) as in patients with use for 3 years or more (HR 1.05; 0.93-1.16). Results were comparable in those with low, medium and high dose of current statin use, without indications of heterogeneity of study results.

    CONCLUSION: Statin use is not associated with reduced risk of consultation or surgery for OA of the hip or knee.

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