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  • 1.
    Beier, Susanne
    et al.
    Heidelberg University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Oehmann, Verena
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Peter
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Klaus
    Heidelberg University.
    Influence of judges’ behaviors on perceived procedural justice2014In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 46-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of judges’ behavior on procedural justice was analyzed in a field study, observing the judges’ behavior during n = 129 trials and assessing the defendants’ and the audiences’ justice perceptions. The observed judicial behavior was unrelated to the defendants’ justice perceptions. However, the more respectful the judge treated the defendants, the fairer the audience perceived the trial. In general, the effect size of the relationship between observational measures and subjective justice ratings was small in comparison to the relationship within defendants’ or audiences’ ratings. There were striking differences in the justice perception between the two data sources, namely defendants and audience. Thus, the source matters and, to avoid a same-source bias, should be taken into account when analyzing justice perceptions.

  • 2.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Griep, Yannick
    University of Calgary, Canada; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    How do job insecurity and organizational justice relate to depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties: a multilevel study on immediate and prolonged effects in swedish workers2019In: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity–justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice–health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two‐year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within‐ and between‐person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within‐person job insecurity–justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within‐person justice–health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within‐ and between‐person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-10 00:00
  • 3.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Academy of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Not All Are Equal: A Latent Profile Analysis of Well-Being among the Self-Employed2019In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a person-centered approach to distinguish between subpopulations of self-employed individuals using multidimensional well-being indicators. Data were obtained from European Social Survey including a sample of 3461 self-employed individuals from 29 European countries. The analysis has empirically identified six distinct profiles named ‘unhappy’, ‘languishing’, ‘happy’, ‘satisfied’, ‘passionate’, and ‘flourishing’. The profiles were associated with significant differences in well-being, health and work-related variables. The results highlight the heterogeneity of the self-employed population, and describe the complex—both hedonic and eudaimonic—character of the well-being concept in this population.

  • 4. Eib, Constanze
    Does it matter if I’m treated fairly at work?2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Editorial:: Fairness Perceptions at Work and Health – a complicated story2018In: Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 87-91Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Processes of Organizational Justice: Insights into the perception and enactment of justice2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-being at work is of major public interest, and justice at the workplace can be a key factor contributing to employees and managers feeling well. Research has found direct relationships between organizational justice perceptions and work and health outcomes. With research on the justice–health link still emerging, this thesis examines the moderating and mediating processes for the effects of justice perceptions on work outcomes and especially health outcomes. As little is known about those who enact justice, the antecedents and consequences of justice enactment are also studied. In Study I, the relationships between organizational justice and work and health outcomes were in focus, as the moderating role of job characteristics was investigated utilizing the demand–control(–support) model. Organizational justice and job characteristics were associated with work and health outcomes within and across time. The multiplicative effects showed that the organizational justice effects were stronger when perceived job demands were high, job control was low or social support was low. Study II examined the processes through which justice perceptions translate into health outcomes. Building on the allostatic load model, mental preoccupation with work was found to be a relevant mediator of the justice–health relationship, with locus of control moderating the mediated relationships. Study III focused on the actor perspective. Investigating predictions based on the deontic model of justice and ego-depletion theory, moral regard and justice self-efficacy predicted justice enactment positively, and justice enactment had positive effects on feeling professionally recognized but also negative health consequences for the actors themselves. This thesis contributes to advancing the emergent justice–health research stream by providing insights into the processes underlying these aspects, and by incorporating this stream into the actor perspective. 

  • 7.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, UK; Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden; Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm Stress Center, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm Stress Center, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record

  • 8.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, North-West University.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 549-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and over the time of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every studied job characteristic (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 9.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, North-West University.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 549-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and over the time of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every studied job characteristic (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 10.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Siegert, Steffi
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Is Female Entrepreneurship Only Empowering for Single Women? Evidence from France and Germany2019In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has been suggested as an alternative career model for women to gain economic empowerment while maintaining caring obligations. In this study, we investigate how gender and living situation affect entrepreneurs’ engagement in their business, home, well-being and business success in both France and Germany. Data from the European Social Survey were used, which included 470 French and 622 German self-employed people. For the French, women reported more working hours when living alone but there were no gender differences for the other living situations. For the Germans, there were no gender differences when the self-employed person lived alone; for the other living situations, men reported more working hours. Women reported working more household hours than men in both countries. There were no gender differences in life satisfaction for German self-employed people regardless of living situation; for the French, gender differences varied by living situation. Men reported more business success than women in both countries. Results suggest that self-employed people in Germany follow a traditional breadwinner model, whereas in France, self-employed women do more paid and unpaid work at the same time. In sum, entrepreneurship may only be empowering for self-employed women living alone.

  • 11.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, University of East Anglia.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University.
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Institutet, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Don't let it get to you! A moderated mediated approach to the (in)justice-health relationship.2015In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 434-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the consequences of overall justice perceptions on employees' mental health and work-family conflict. While many studies have found that perceiving injustice at work is harmful, little is known about the underlying processes. Based on the allostatic load model, it is hypothesized that mental preoccupation with work, defined as a cognitive state, is a mediator linking overall justice perceptions to employee health. Moreover, we argue that locus of control is a moderator for the mediated relationship. We tested our hypotheses with panel data consisting of 412 Swedish office workers. Results support that mental preoccupation with work mediates the relationship between overall justice and mental health, and overall justice and work-family conflict. Results also reveal that mental preoccupation with work plays a greater mediating role for individuals with an external locus of control. Implications and suggestions for future studies on the emerging relationship between organizational justice and health are discussed.

  • 12.
    Etuknwa, Abasiama
    et al.
    Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Daniels, Kevin
    Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sustainable Return to Work: A Systematic Review Focusing on Personal and Social Factors2019In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 679-700Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of important personal and social factors on sustainable return to work (RTW) after ill-health due musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and common mental disorders (CMDs) and to compare the effects of these personal and social factors across both conditions. Sustainable RTW is defined as a stable full-time or part-time RTW to either original or modified job for a period of at least 3 months without relapse or sickness absence re-occurrence.

    Methods A literature search was conducted in 13 databases and 79 studies were selected for the review, of which the methodological design was graded as very high, high and low quality. 

    Results The most consistent evidence for achieving sustainable RTW for both MSDs and CMDs was from support from line managers or supervisors and co-workers, positive attitude, self-efficacy, young age and higher education levels. Job crafting, economic status, length of absence and job contract/security showed promising results, but too few studies exist to draw definite conclusions. Results regarding gender were inconsistent. 

    Conclusions This review demonstrates that a variety of personal and social factors have positive and negative influences on sustainable RTW. We suggest that the social environment and how it interrelates with personal factors like attitudes and self-efficacy should be studied in more detail in the future as the inter-relationship between these factors appears to impact positively on sustainable RTW outcomes. Areas for future research include more high-quality studies on job crafting, economic status/income, length of absence, job contract/security and gender.

  • 13.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University.
    Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity.

    METHODS: Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account.

    RESULTS: We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  • 14.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    The influence of and change in procedural justice on self-rated health trajectories: Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health results.2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 320-8, article id 3565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Procedural justice perceptions are shown to be associated with minor psychiatric disorders, long sickness absence spells, and poor self-rated health, but previous studies have rarely considered how changes in procedural justice influence changes in health.

    METHODS: Data from four consecutive biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey of Health (SLOSH) (N=5854) were used to examine trajectories of self-rated health. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, we studied the predictive power of change in procedural justice perceptions using individual growth curve models within a multilevel framework.

    RESULTS: The results show that self-rated health trajectories slowly decline over time. The rate of change was influenced by age and sex, with older people and women showing a slower rate. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, procedural justice was significantly associated with self-rated health. Also, improvements in procedural justice were associated with improvements in self-rated health. Additionally, a reverse relationship with and change in self-rated health predicting procedural justice was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the idea that procedural justice at work is a crucial aspect of the psychosocial work environment and that changes towards more procedural justice could influence self-rated health positively. The reciprocal association of procedural justice and self-rated health warrants further research.

  • 15.
    Ogbonnaya, Chidiebere
    et al.
    Univ Sussex, Org Behav & Human Resource Management, Sch Business, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Gahan, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Human Resource Management & Org Behav, Dept Management & Mkt, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Recessionary changes at work and employee well-being: the protective roles of national- and workplace-level institutions2019In: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 377-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recession that followed the 2008 financial crisis was characterised by major changes to employees’ experiences at work. This study investigates the potential adverse well-being effects of two of such changes: perceived organisational distress and job deterioration. The study also examines the extent to which two national-level institutions (employment protection legislation and collective bargaining coverage) and corresponding institutions at the workplace level (employment contract and union membership) may act as buffers against these effects. Using data from 21 European countries, we show that recessionary changes are associated with reduced psychological well-being and greater levels of work–nonwork interference among workers. Our analysis also supports the proposition that different national- and workplace-level institutions may act as buffers against adverse well-being outcomes.

  • 16. Sieverding, Monika
    et al.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neubauer, Andreas B
    Stahl, Thomas
    Can lifestyle preferences help explain the persistent gender gap in academia? The "mothers work less" hypothesis supported for German but not for U.S. early career researchers2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0202728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do lifestyle preferences contribute to the remaining gender gap in higher positions in academia with highly qualified women-especially those with children-deliberately working fewer hours than men do? We tested the "mothers work less" hypothesis in two samples of early career researchers employed at universities in Germany (N = 202) and in the US (N = 197). Early career researchers in the US worked on average 6.3 hours more per week than researchers in Germany. In Germany, female early career researchers with children had drastically reduced work hours (around 8 hours per week) compared to male researchers with children and compared to female researchers without children, whereas we found no such effect for U.S. researchers. In addition, we asked how long respondents would ideally want to work (ideal work hours), and results revealed similar effects for ideal work hours. Results support the "mothers work less" hypothesis for German but not for U.S. early career researchers.

  • 17.
    Soenen, Guillaume
    et al.
    EMLYON Business School.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of East Anglia, Norwich Business School, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.
    Torrès, Olivier
    Montpellier University.
    The cost of injustice: overall justice, emotional exhaustion, and performance among entrepreneurs: do founders fare better?2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 355-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we build on the allostatic load model, developed in stress research, to explore the impact of entrepreneurs’ overall justice perceptions on emotional exhaustion and firm performance. Results revealed that the relationship between overall justice and emotional exhaustion was mediated by rumination about work. Further, building on recent work by Baron et al. (Journal of Management, 42(3), 742–768, 2016), which highlighted that company founders have more resources to deal with stress, we hypothesized that the relationship between rumination about work and emotional exhaustion was moderated by whether the entrepreneur was the founder of the venture or not. Results revealed that indeed founders appeared to be immune to the consequences of rumination about work elicited by injustice at work, while non-founders suffered from it. Moreover, emotional exhaustion was related to the monthly firm performance. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  • 18.
    Vetter, Max
    et al.
    Heidelberg University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Hill-Kloß, Sonja
    Heidelberg University.
    Wollscheid, Philipp
    Heidelberg University.
    Hagemann, Dirk
    Heidelberg University.
    Entwicklung und Validierung einer Skala zum sozialen Exhibitionismus im Internet (SEXI)2014In: DiagnosticaArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Socially exhibitionistic behavior in virtual environments has been a scarcely researched issue, despite its increasing relevancein modern societies. Although many theoretical approaches have been suggested, there is a lack of empirical work on this construct. Onepossible reason for this deficit is the absence of an appropriate instrument for the measurement. In order to measure socially exhibitionisticbehavior, a 15-item-scale and a corresponding shortened 8-item version was developed. An explorative factor analysis yielded theexpected one-factor solution. Discriminant validity was investigated by analyzing the correlation structure between the new scale andseveral other measures of personality (Study 1). This was followed by an extensive validation study to investigate both discriminantand convergent validity (Study 2) and a quasi-experimental study comprising extreme prototypes of socially exhibitionistic behavior(Study 3). The findings strongly suggest that the new scale is an appropriate instrument for the measurement of socially exhibitionisticbehavior in virtual environments

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