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  • 1.
    Beretta, Chiara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nikitidou, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Gallasch, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Extracellular vesicles from amyloid-beta exposed cell cultures induce severe dysfunction in cortical neurons2020In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, article id 19656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a substantial loss of neurons and synapses throughout the brain. The exact mechanism behind the neurodegeneration is still unclear, but recent data suggests that spreading of amyloid-beta (A beta) pathology via extracellular vesicles (EVs) may contribute to disease progression. We have previously shown that an incomplete degradation of A beta (42) protofibrils by astrocytes results in the release of EVs containing neurotoxic A beta. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms behind EV-associated neurotoxicity in detail. EVs were isolated from untreated and A beta (42) protofibril exposed neuroglial co-cultures, consisting mainly of astrocytes. The EVs were added to cortical neurons for 2 or 4 days and the neurodegenerative processes were followed with immunocytochemistry, time-lapse imaging and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Addition of EVs from A beta (42) protofibril exposed co-cultures resulted in synaptic loss, severe mitochondrial impairment and apoptosis. TEM analysis demonstrated that the EVs induced axonal swelling and vacuolization of the neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, EV exposed neurons also displayed pathological lamellar bodies of cholesterol deposits in lysosomal compartments. Taken together, our data show that the secretion of EVs from A beta exposed cells induces neuronal dysfunction in several ways, indicating a central role for EVs in the progression of A beta -induced pathology.

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  • 2.
    Konstantinidis, Evangelos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Molisak, Agnieszka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Perrin, Florian
    Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Memory Disorders Unit, Charlestown, MA USA..
    Streubel-Gallasch, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Fayad, Sarah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kim, Daniel Y.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mol Pathol Unit, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Canc Res, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Computat & Integrat Biol, Charlestown, MA USA..
    Petri, Karl
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mol Pathol Unit, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Canc Res, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Computat & Integrat Biol, Charlestown, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Aryee, Martin J.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mol Pathol Unit, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Canc Res, Charlestown, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA..
    Aguilar, Ximena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    György, Bence
    Inst Mol & Clin Ophthalmol Basel, Basel, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Dept Ophthalmol, Basel, Switzerland..
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Joung, J. Keith
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mol Pathol Unit, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Canc Res, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Computat & Integrat Biol, Charlestown, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Pattanayak, Vikram
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mol Pathol Unit, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Canc Res, Charlestown, MA USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Computat & Integrat Biol, Charlestown, MA USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pathol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Essand, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Berezovska, Oksana
    Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Memory Disorders Unit, Charlestown, MA USA..
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Univ Hlth Network, Krembil Brain Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada; Univ Toronto, Dept Med, Toronto, ON, Canada; Univ Toronto, Tanz Ctr Res Neurodegenerat Dis, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    CRISPR-Cas9 treatment partially restores amyloid-β 42/40 in human fibroblasts with the Alzheimer's disease PSEN1 M146L mutation2022In: Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids, E-ISSN 2162-2531, Vol. 28, p. 450-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) is a central component of γ-secretase, an enzymatic complex involved in the generation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide that deposits as plaques in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. The M146L mutation in the PS1 gene (PSEN1) leads to an autosomal dominant form of early-onset AD by promoting a relative increase in the generation of the more aggregation-prone Aβ42. This change is evident not only in the brain but also in peripheral cells of mutation carriers. In this study we used the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes to selectively disrupt the PSEN1M146L allele in human fibroblasts. A disruption of more than 50% of mutant alleles was observed in all CRISPR-Cas9-treated samples, resulting in reduced extracellular Aβ42/40 ratios. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based conformation and western blot analyses indicated that CRISPR-Cas9 treatment also affects the overall PS1 conformation and reduces PS1 levels. Moreover, our guide RNA did not lead to any detectable editing at the highest-ranking candidate off-target sites identified by ONE-seq and CIRCLE-seq. Overall, our data support the effectiveness of CRISPR-Cas9 in selectively targeting the PSEN1M146L allele and counteracting the AD-associated phenotype. We believe that this system could be developed into a therapeutic strategy for patients with this and other dominant mutations leading to early-onset AD.

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  • 3.
    Mothes, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Portal, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Research group Mia Lindskog.
    Konstantinidis, Evangelos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Eltom, Khalid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Libard, Sylwia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neurooncology and neurodegeneration.
    Streubel-Gallasch, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Univ Hlth Network, Krembil Brain Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada; Univ Toronto, Dept Med, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Rostami, Jinar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lindskog, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Research group Mia Lindskog.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Astrocytic uptake of neuronal corpses promotes cell-to-cell spreading of tau pathology2023In: Acta neuropathologica communications, E-ISSN 2051-5960, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tau deposits in astrocytes are frequently found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Since astrocytes do not express tau, the inclusions have been suggested to be of neuronal origin. However, the mechanisms behind their appearance and their relevance for disease progression remain unknown. Here we demonstrate, using a battery of experimental techniques that human astrocytes serve as an intermediator, promoting cell-to-cell spreading of pathological tau. Human astrocytes engulf and process, but fail to fully degrade dead neurons with tau pathology, as well as synthetic tau fibrils and tau aggregates isolated from AD brain tissue. Instead, the pathogenic tau is spread to nearby cells via secretion and tunneling nanotube mediated transfer. By performing co-culture experiments we could show that tau-containing astrocytes induce tau pathology in healthy human neurons directly. Furthermore, our results from a FRET based seeding assay, demonstrated that the tau proteoforms secreted by astrocytes have an exceptional seeding capacity, compared to the original tau species engulfed by the cells. Taken together, our study establishes a central role for astrocytes in mediating tau pathology, which could be of relevance for identifying novel treatment targets for AD and other tauopathies.

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  • 4.
    Streubel-Gallasch, Linn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Giusti, Veronica
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Sandre, Michele
    Univ Padua, Dept Neurosci, Parkinson & Movement Disorders Unit, Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, PNC, Padua, Italy..
    Tessari, Isabella
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Plotegher, Nicoletta
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Giusto, Elena
    IRCCS San Camillo Hosp, Venice, Italy..
    Masato, Anna
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Iovino, Ludovica
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Battisti, Ilaria
    Univ Padua, Dept Biomed Sci, Padua, Italy..
    Arrigoni, Giorgio
    Univ Padua, Dept Biomed Sci, Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, CRIBI Biotechnol Ctr, Padua, Italy..
    Shimshek, Derya
    Novartis Inst BioMed Res, Basel, Switzerland..
    Greggio, Elisa
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Tremblay, Marie-Eve
    Univ Victoria, Div Med Sci, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Bubacco, Luigi
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy..
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Civiero, Laura
    Univ Padua, Dept Biol, Padua, Italy.;IRCCS San Camillo Hosp, Venice, Italy..
    Parkinson's Disease-Associated LRRK2 Interferes with Astrocyte-Mediated Alpha-Synuclein Clearance2021In: Molecular Neurobiology, ISSN 0893-7648, E-ISSN 1559-1182, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 3119-3140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative, progressive disease without a cure. To prevent PD onset or at least limit neurodegeneration, a better understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular disease mechanisms is crucial. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene represent one of the most common causes of familial PD. In addition, LRRK2 variants are risk factors for sporadic PD, making LRRK2 an attractive therapeutic target. Mutations in LRRK2 have been linked to impaired alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) degradation in neurons. However, in which way pathogenic LRRK2 affects alpha-syn clearance by astrocytes, the major glial cell type of the brain, remains unclear. The impact of astrocytes on PD progression has received more attention and recent data indicate that astrocytes play a key role in alpha-syn-mediated pathology. In the present study, we aimed to compare the capacity of wild-type astrocytes and astrocytes carrying the PD-linked G2019S mutation in Lrrk2 to ingest and degrade fibrillary alpha-syn. For this purpose, we used two different astrocyte culture systems that were exposed to sonicated alpha-syn for 24 h and analyzed directly after the alpha-syn pulse or 6 days later. To elucidate the impact of LRRK2 on alpha-syn clearance, we performed various analyses, including complementary imaging, transmission electron microscopy, and proteomic approaches. Our results show that astrocytes carrying the G2019S mutation in Lrrk2 exhibit a decreased capacity to internalize and degrade fibrillar alpha-syn via the endo-lysosomal pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of alpha-syn internalization in the Lrrk2 G2019S astrocytes is linked to annexin A2 (AnxA2) loss of function. Together, our findings reveal that astrocytic LRRK2 contributes to the clearance of extracellular alpha-syn aggregates through an AnxA2-dependent mechanism.

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  • 5.
    Streubel-Gallasch, Linn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Zyśk, Marlena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Beretta, Chiara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Traumatic brain injury in the presence of Aβ pathology affects neuronal survival, glial activation and autophagy2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 22982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presents a widespread health problem in the elderly population. In addition to the acute injury, epidemiological studies have observed an increased probability and earlier onset of dementias in the elderly following TBI. However, the underlying mechanisms of the connection between TBI and Alzheimer’s disease in the aged brain and potential exacerbating factors is still evolving. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular injury-induced processes in the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. For this purpose, a co-culture system of cortical stem-cell derived astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes were exposed to Aβ42 protofibrils prior to a mechanically induced scratch injury. Cellular responses, including neurodegeneration, glial activation and autophagy was assessed by immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and transmission electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that the combined burden of Aβ exposure and experimental TBI causes a decline in the number of neurons, the differential expression of the key astrocytic markers glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100 calcium-binding protein beta, mitochondrial alterations and prevents the upregulation of autophagy. Our study provides valuable information about the impact of TBI sustained in the presence of Aβ deposits and helps to advance the understanding of geriatric TBI on the cellular level.

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  • 6.
    Söllvander, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Nikitidou, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Gallasch, Linn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Zysk, Marlena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Söderberg, Linda
    BioArctic AB, Warfvinges Vag 35, SE-11251 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sehlin, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Erlandsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    The A beta protofibril selective antibody mAb158 prevents accumulation of A beta in astrocytes and rescues neurons from A beta-induced cell death2018In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, ISSN 1742-2094, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 15, article id 98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Currently, several amyloid beta (A beta) antibodies, including the protofibril selective antibody BAN2401, are in clinical trials. The murine version of BAN2401, mAb158, has previously been shown to lower the levels of pathogenic A beta and prevent A beta deposition in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the cellular mechanisms of the antibody's action remain unknown. We have recently shown that astrocytes effectively engulf A beta(42) protofibrils, but store rather than degrade the ingested A beta aggregates. In a co-culture set-up, the incomplete degradation of A beta(42) protofibrils by astrocytes results in increased neuronal cell death, due to the release of extracellular vesicles, containing N-truncated, neurotoxic A beta. Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate if the accumulation of A beta in astrocytes can be affected by the A beta protofibril selective antibody mAb158. Co-cultures of astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, derived from embryonic mouse cortex, were exposed to A beta(42) protofibrils in the presence or absence of mAb158. Results: Our results demonstrate that the presence of mAb158 almost abolished A beta accumulation in astrocytes. Consequently, mAb158 treatment rescued neurons from A beta-induced cell death. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we conclude that astrocytes may play a central mechanistic role in anti-A beta immunotherapy.

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