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  • 1.
    Liu, Tianfei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Guo, Meiyuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Theoretical Chemistry.
    Orthaber, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Lomoth, Reiner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lundberg, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Theoretical Chemistry.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Accelerating proton-coupled electron transfer of metal hydrides in catalyst model reactions2018In: Nature Chemistry, ISSN 1755-4330, E-ISSN 1755-4349, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 881-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal hydrides are key intermediates in catalytic proton reduction and dihydrogen oxidation. There is currently much interest in appending proton relays near the metal centre to accelerate catalysis by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). However, the elementary PCET steps and the role of the proton relays are still poorly understood, and direct kinetic studies of these processes are scarce. Here, we report a series of tungsten hydride complexes as proxy catalysts, with covalently attached pyridyl groups as proton acceptors. The rate of their PCET reaction with external oxidants is increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that of the analogous systems with external pyridine on account of facilitated proton transfer. Moreover, the mechanism of the PCET reaction is altered by the appended bases. A unique feature is that the reaction can be tuned to follow three distinct PCET mechanisms-electron-first, proton-first or a concerted reaction-with very different sensitivities to oxidant and base strength. Such knowledge is crucial for rational improvements of solar fuel catalysts.

  • 2.
    Liu, Tianfei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tyburski, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Wang, Shihuai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Fernandez-Teran, Ricardo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Synthetic Molecular Chemistry.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Elucidating Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanisms of Metal Hydrides with Free Energy- and Pressure-Dependent Kinetics2019In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 141, no 43, p. 17245-17259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) was studied in a series of tungsten hydride complexes with pendant pyridyl arms ([(PyCH2Cp)WH(CO)(3)], PyCH2Cp = pyridyl methyl cyclopentadienyl), triggered by laser flash-generated Ru-III-tris-bipyridine oxidants, in acetonitrile solution. The free energy dependence of the rate constant and the kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) showed that the PCET mechanism could be switched between concerted and the two stepwise PCET mechanisms (electron-first or proton-first) in a predictable fashion. Straightforward and general guidelines for how the relative rates of the different mechanisms depend on oxidant and base are presented. The rate of the concerted reaction should depend symmetrically on changes in oxidant and base strength, that is on the overall Delta G(PCET)(0), and we argue that an "asynchronous" behavior would not be consistent with a model where the electron and proton tunnel from a common transition state. The observed rate constants and KIEs were examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure (1-2000 bar) and were found to exhibit qualitatively different dependence on pressure for different PCET mechanisms. This is discussed in terms of different volume profiles of the PCET mechanisms as well as enhanced proton tunneling for the concerted mechanism. The results allowed for assignment of the main mechanism operating in the different cases, which is one of the critical questions in PCET research. They also show how the rate of a PCET reaction will be affected very differently by changes of oxidant and base strength, depending on which mechanism dominates. This is of fundamental interest as well as of practical importance for rational design of, for example, catalysts for fuel cells and solar fuel formation, which operate in steps of PCET reactions. The mechanistic richness shown by this system illustrates that the specific mechanism is not intrinsic to a specific synthetic catalyst or enzyme active site but depends on the reaction conditions.

  • 3.
    Lomoth, Reiner
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Liu, Tianfei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Wang, Shihuai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Probing the elementary steps of PCET catalysis2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Wang, Shihuai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pollen, Sonja
    Weippert, Valentin
    Liu, Tianfei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Lomoth, Reiner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Spectroscopic Detection of Key Intermediates and Turnover Process in Catalytic H2 Formation by a Biomimetic Diiron CatalystManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FeFe(Cl2-bdt)(CO)2 (1) (Cl2-bdt = dichlorobenzene-1,2-dthiolate), inspired by the active site of FeFe-hydrogenase, shows achemically reversible 2e- reduction at -1.20 V VS. Fc+/Fc. From thiscompound, the rigid and unsaturated bdt-bridging ligand lowers thereduction potential and stabilizes the reduced forms, allowing us tocharacterize the overall catalytic process. Herein, we provide theexact structural information on the key catalytic intermediates such as1H- that is not identified experimentally. In addition, we first report thespectroscopic evidence of turnover process of H2 formation catalysedby complex 1, and provide the straightforward determination ofturnover frequency (TOF).

  • 5.
    Wang, Shihuai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pullen, Sonja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. TU Dortmund Univ, Fac Chem & Chem Biol, Otto Hahn Str 6, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany.
    Weippert, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Liu, Tianfei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Synthetic Molecular Chemistry.
    Lomoth, Reiner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Direct Spectroscopic Detection of Key Intermediates and Turnover Process in Catalytic H2 Formation by a Biomimetic Diiron Catalyst2019In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 25, no 47, p. 11135-11140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [FeFe(Cl-2-bdt)(CO)(6)] (1; Cl-2-bdt=3,6-dichlorobenzene-1,2-dithiolate), inspired by the active site of FeFe-hydrogenase, shows a chemically reversible 2 e(-) reduction at -1.20 V versus the ferrocene/ferrocenium couple. The rigid and aromatic bdt bridging ligand lowers the reduction potential and stabilizes the reduced forms, compared with analogous complexes with aliphatic dithiolates; thus allowing details of the catalytic process to be characterized. Herein, time-resolved IR spectroscopy is used to provide kinetic and structural information on key catalytic intermediates. This includes the doubly reduced, protonated complex 1H(-), which has not been previously identified experimentally. In addition, the first direct spectroscopic observation of the turnover process for a molecular H-2 evolving catalyst is reported, allowing for straightforward determination of the turnover frequency.

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