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  • 1.
    Babusiaux, C.
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Prusti, T.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Operat Dept, Miss Operat Div, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Comoretto, G.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ESA ESAC, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes Sistemas Informat, Ctr Utrera,Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    ESA ESAC, Elecnor Deimos Space, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Accart, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ESA ESAC, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd,NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barbato, D.
    Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republica Arabe Saharawi S-N, Puerto Real 11510, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bertones, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Bern Univ, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON, Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Comp, ETS Ingenieros Caminos Canales & Puertos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    CRAAG, Route Observ Bp 63, Algiers 16340, Algeria;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Martino, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Casas, M. Farras
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Gerssen, J.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comp, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Gueguen, A.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterrestrial Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland;Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Jevardat de Fombelle, G.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON, Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Kohley, R.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, Dept Phys, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON, Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Telespazio, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Liao, S.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut II 70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, CEA DSM CNRS, Bat 709,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Matijevic, G.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    Musella, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
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    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
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    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Poujoulet, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France;ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    ESA ESAC, Vitrociset Belgium, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
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    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    ESA ESAC, QUASAR Sci Resources, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Sagrista Selles, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal;ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salgado, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Salguero, E.
    ESA ESAC, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Nord Optic Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    Spanish Virtual Observ, Santander, Spain.
    Segovia, J. C.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38712, Santa Cruz Tene, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
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    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
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    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
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    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8, Avon, England;IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4,08034, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
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    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
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    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
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    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Clotet, F. Torra
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
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    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
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    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
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    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comp, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
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    ESA ESAC, QUASAR Sci Resources, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    von Essen, C.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
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    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wertz, O.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ, Paris 6 & CNRS, UMR 7095,Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Zerjal, M.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel;Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Zucker, S.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. Aims. We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. Methods. We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. Results. The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD-based studies.

  • 2.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
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    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
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    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
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    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Miss Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
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    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
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    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
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    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
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    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
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    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
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    ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
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    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
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    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
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    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
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    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Paris XI, CNRS, UMR 8617, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France;Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera,Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain;Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanz Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Aramburu, A. Abreu
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Urbanizac Villafranca Ca, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanz Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;OV UFRJ, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;ON MCT, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd,NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Villanueva Canada, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bertone, S.
    Bern Univ, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland;Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bressan, A.
    Scuola Int Super Studi Avanzati, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, ETS Ingenieros Caminos Canales & Puertos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium;CRAAG, Route Observ,Bp 63, Bouzareah 16340, Algeria.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Martino, D.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Eynard Bontemps, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    CTS, UNINOVA, Campus FCT UNL,Monte Caparica, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gai, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comput, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus II, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Max Planck Inst Extraterrestrial Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland;Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Jevardat de Fombelle, G.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Amer Community Schools Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA;Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, Dept Phys, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    CNES, Telespazio, Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Liao, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Villanueva Canada, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut 3-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys CEA DSM, Bat 709,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Musella, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Poujoulet, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-314019 Toulouse, France.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    ESA ESAC, Vitrociset Belgium, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Sagrista Selles, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.
    Salgado, J.
    ESA ESAC, QUASAR Sci Resources, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    Nord Optic Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    Spanish Virtual Observ, Santander, Spain;ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Villanueva Canada, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Stoev, H.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38712, Spain.
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Tapiador, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain;ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Taris, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Tauran, G.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, H H Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Terrett, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Teyssandier, P.
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comput, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus II, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Vogt, S.
    ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    von Essen, C.
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Wertz, O.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UPMC Univ Paris 6,UMR 7095, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 2 Summary of the contents and survey properties2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims. A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. Methods. The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. Results. Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0 : 5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the G(BP) (330-680 nm) and G(RP) (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy.

  • 3.
    Eyer, L.
    et al.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Zwitter, T.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Sloven.
    Gaia Data Release 2 Variable stars in the colour-absolute magnitude diagram2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 623, article id A110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    The ESA Gaia mission provides a unique time-domain survey for more than 1.6 billion sources with G less than or similar to 21 mag.

    Aims

    We showcase stellar variability in the Galactic colour-absolute magnitude diagram (CaMD). We focus on pulsating, eruptive, and cataclysmic variables, as well as on stars that exhibit variability that is due to rotation and eclipses.

    Methods

    We describe the locations of variable star classes, variable object fractions, and typical variability amplitudes throughout the CaMD and show how variability-related changes in colour and brightness induce "motions". To do this, we use 22 months of calibrated photometric, spectro-photometric, and astrometric Gaia data of stars with a significant parallax. To ensure that a large variety of variable star classes populate the CaMD, we crossmatched Gaia sources with known variable stars. We also used the statistics and variability detection modules of the Gaia variability pipeline. Corrections for interstellar extinction are not implemented in this article.

    Results

    Gaia enables the first investigation of Galactic variable star populations in the CaMD on a similar, if not larger, scale as was previously done in the Magellanic Clouds. Although the observed colours are not corrected for reddening, distinct regions are visible in which variable stars occur. We determine variable star fractions to within the current detection thresholds of Gaia. Finally, we report the most complete description of variability-induced motion within the CaMD to date.

    Conclusions

    Gaia enables novel insights into variability phenomena for an unprecedented number of stars, which will benefit the understanding of stellar astrophysics. The CaMD of Galactic variable stars provides crucial information on physical origins of variability in a way that has previously only been accessible for Galactic star clusters or external galaxies. Future Gaia data releases will enable significant improvements over this preview by providing longer time series, more accurate astrometry, and additional data types (time series BP and RP spectra, RVS spectra, and radial velocities), all for much larger samples of stars.

  • 4.
    Gavel, Alvin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia;Arc Ctr Excellence All Sky Astrophys 3 Dimens AST, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    The LUMBA UVES stellar parameter pipeline2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 629, article id A74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The Gaia-ESO Survey has taken high-quality spectra of a subset of 100 000 stars observed with the Gaia spacecraft. The goal for this subset is to derive chemical abundances for these stars that will complement the astrometric data collected by Gaia. Deriving the chemical abundances requires that the stellar parameters be determined. Aims. We present a pipeline for deriving stellar parameters from spectra observed with the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph in its standard fibre-fed mode centred on 580 nm, as used in the Gaia-ESO Survey. We quantify the performance of the pipeline in terms of systematic offsets and scatter. In doing so, we present a general method for benchmarking stellar parameter determination pipelines. Methods. Assuming a general model of the errors in stellar parameter pipelines, together with a sample of spectra of stars whose stellar parameters are known from fundamental measurements and relations, we use a Markov chain Monte Carlo method to quantitatively test the pipeline. Results. We find that the pipeline provides parameter estimates with systematic errors on effective temperature below 100 K, on surface gravity below 0.1 dex, and on metallicity below 0.05 dex for the main spectral types of star observed in the Gaia-ESO Survey and tested here. The performance on red giants is somewhat lower. Conclusions. The pipeline performs well enough to fulfil its intended purpose within the Gaia-ESO Survey. It is also general enough that it can be put to use on spectra from other surveys or other spectrographs similar to FLAMES-UVES.

  • 5.
    Helmi, A.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Antoja, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mission Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Gaia DPAC Project Off, ESAC, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Paris XI, UMR 8617, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, CNRS, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain;Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzs Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzs Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Centro Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Bern, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, Avda Castros S-N, Santander 39005, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    CRAAG, Route Observ BP 63, Bouzareah 16340, Alger, Algeria;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgrp Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Martino, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Computac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Max Planck Inst Extrater Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 H- Budapest, Hungary;Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Phys, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Liao, S.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 109, Peoples R China;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, PR, Peoples R China;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Centro Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut III-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA DSM CNRS, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Poujoulet, E.
    AKKA CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salgado, J.
    QUASAR Sci Resources ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Osberno Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    Nord Opt Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    Spanish Virtual Observ, Madrid, Spain;ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Centro Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Stoev, H.
    Fdn Galileo Galilei INAF, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Santa Cruz de La Palma 38712, CA, Spain.
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Tapiador, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 28040, Spain;INSA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Tauran, G.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Terrett, D.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England.
    Teyssandier, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Computac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Vogt, S.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    von Essen, C.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wertz, O.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Wevems, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC, Univ Paris 06, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France;CNRS, UMR 7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 2 Kinematics of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the outstanding quality of the second data release of the Gaia mission and its power for constraining many different aspects of the dynamics of the satellites of the Milky Way. We focus here on determining the proper motions of 75 Galactic globular clusters, nine dwarf spheroidal galaxies, one ultra-faint system, and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Methods. Using data extracted from the Gaia archive, we derived the proper motions and parallaxes for these systems, as well as their uncertainties. We demonstrate that the errors, statistical and systematic, are relatively well understood. We integrated the orbits of these objects in three different Galactic potentials, and characterised their properties. We present the derived proper motions, space velocities, and characteristic orbital parameters in various tables to facilitate their use by the astronomical community. Results. Our limited and straightforward analyses have allowed us for example to (i) determine absolute and very precise proper motions for globular clusters; (ii) detect clear rotation signatures in the proper motions of at least five globular clusters; (iii) show that the satellites of the Milky Way are all on high-inclination orbits, but that they do not share a single plane of motion; (i v) derive a lower limit for the mass of the Milky Way of 9.1(-2.6)(+6.2) x 10(11) M-circle dot based on the assumption that the Leo I dwarf spheroidal is bound; (v) derive a rotation curve for the Large Magellanic Cloud based solely on proper motions that is competitive with line-of-sight velocity curves, now using many orders of magnitude more sources; and (v i) unveil the dynamical effect of the bar on the motions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Conclusions. All these results highlight the incredible power of the Gaia astrometric mission, and in particular of its second data release.

  • 6.
    Katz, D.
    et al.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mision Operat Div, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Bd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Gaia DPAC Project Off, ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Av, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Bd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Altavilla, G.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil;Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Univ Bern, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland;Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain;INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, ETS Ingn Caminos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Avenida Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    CRAAG Ctr Rech Astron Astrophys & Geophys, Route Observ,BP 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece;Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Natl Observ Athens, I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Ctr Nacl Super Computac, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Gueguen, A.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany;Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens, I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece;Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Av, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Phys, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, 5000 Forbes Av, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Baja Observ Univ Szeged, Szeged Ut III-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary;Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, CEA DSM,CNRS,CEA Saclay, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Av, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Pawlak, M.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poujoulet, E.
    AKKA CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Av, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Bd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salgado, J.
    QUASAR Sci Resources ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    Nord Optic Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Spanish Virtual Observ, Madrid, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Stoev, H.
    Fdn Galileo Galilei INAF, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja, Santa Cruz de T, Spain.
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, Budapest, Hungary.
    Tapiador, D.
    INSA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 3, Spain.
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    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
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    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Av, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
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    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
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    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
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    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Ctr Nacl Super Computac, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
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    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
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    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
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    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
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    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
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    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
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    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
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    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Zorec, J.
    CNRS, UMR 7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd, F-75014 Paris, France;Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris 06, UPMC, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 2 Mapping the Milky Way disc kinematics2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The second Gaia data release (Gaia DR2) contains high-precision positions, parallaxes, and proper motions for 1.3 billion sources as well as line-of-sight velocities for 7.2 million stars brighter than G(RVS) = 12 mag. Both samples provide a full sky coverage. Aims. To illustrate the potential of Gaia DR2, we provide a first look at the kinematics of the Milky Way disc, within a radius of several kiloparsecs around the Sun. Methods. We benefit for the first time from a sample of 6.4 million F-G-K stars with full 6D phase-space coordinates, precise parallaxes (sigma((omega) over bar)/(omega) over bar <= 20%), and precise Galactic cylindrical velocities (median uncertainties of 0.9-1.4 km s(-1) and 20% of the stars with uncertainties smaller than 1 km s(-1) on all three components). From this sample, we extracted a sub-sample of 3.2 million giant stars to map the velocity field of the Galactic disc from similar to 5 kpc to similar to 13 kpc from the Galactic centre and up to 2 kpc above and below the plane. We also study the distribution of 0.3 million solar neighbourhood stars (r < 200 pc), with median velocity uncertainties of 0.4 km s(-1), in velocity space and use the full sample to examine how the over-densities evolve in more distant regions. Results. Gaia DR2 allows us to draw 3D maps of the Galactocentric median velocities and velocity dispersions with unprecedented accuracy, precision, and spatial resolution. The maps show the complexity and richness of the velocity field of the galactic disc. We observe streaming motions in all the components of the velocities as well as patterns in the velocity dispersions. For example, we confirm the previously reported negative and positive galactocentric radial velocity gradients in the inner and outer disc, respectively. Here, we see them as part of a non-axisymmetric kinematic oscillation, and we map its azimuthal and vertical behaviour. We also witness a new global arrangement of stars in the velocity plane of the solar neighbourhood and in distant regions in which stars are organised in thin substructures with the shape of circular arches that are oriented approximately along the horizontal direction in the U - V plane. Moreover, in distant regions, we see variations in the velocity substructures more clearly than ever before, in particular, variations in the velocity of the Hercules stream. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 provides the largest existing full 6D phase-space coordinates catalogue. It also vastly increases the number of available distances and transverse velocities with respect to Gaia DR1. Gaia DR2 offers a great wealth of information on the Milky Way and reveals clear non-axisymmetric kinematic signatures within the Galactic disc, for instance. It is now up to the astronomical community to explore its full potential.

  • 7.
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    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
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    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
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    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
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    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
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    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mission Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Carry, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.;Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera,Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England..
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.;Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, 02430 Masala, Finland..
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England..
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Anderson, R. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Antoja, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA..
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain..
    Bertone, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Bern Univ, Astron Inst, Sidlerstra 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX SRL, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy..
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy..
    Cannizzaro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dpto Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, Avda Castros S-N, Santander 39005, Spain..
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;CRAAG, Route Observ Bp 63, Algiers, Algeria..
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgrp Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    De March, R.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Zografos 15783, Greece..
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Monte De Caparica, Caparica, Portugal..
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Federici, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci N, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Galleti, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Zografos 15783, Greece..
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Computac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed. Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden..
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany..
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Zografos 15783, Greece..
    Hauser, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyetem Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary..
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Karampelas, A.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Zografos 15783, Greece.;Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece..
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Zografos 15783, Greece..
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Phys, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Shanghai, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Licata, E.
    EURIX SRL, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy..
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Zografos 15783, Greece..
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut III-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary..
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Laboratoire AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, CEA DSM,CNRS,CEA Saclay, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    O'Mullane, W.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Poujoulet, E.
    AKKA CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologn, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Salgado, J.
    QUASAR Sci Resources ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Shih, I. -C
    Siltala, L.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Nordic Opt Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain..
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Solano, E.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.;Spanish Virtual Observ, Madrid, Spain..
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.;Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Stoev, H.
    Fdn Galileo Galilei INAF, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38712, Santa Cruz De T, Spain..
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tapiador, D.
    INSA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dpto Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Tauran, G.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England..
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Terrett, D.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England..
    Teyssandier, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Valentini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Computac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed. Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vogt, S.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    von Essen, C.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse 9, France..
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Wertz, O.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    Wevers, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC, Univ Paris 06, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.;CNRS, UMR 7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Gaia Data Release 2 The celestial reference frame (Gaia-CRF2)2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The second release of Gaia data (Gaia DR2) contains the astrometric parameters for more than half a million quasars. This set defines a kinematically non-rotating reference frame in the optical domain. A subset of these quasars have accurate VLBI positions that allow the axes of the reference frame to be aligned with the International Celestial Reference System (ICRF) radio frame.

    Aims: We describe the astrometric and photometric properties of the quasars that were selected to represent the celestial reference frame of Gaia DR2 (Gaia-CRF2), and to compare the optical and radio positions for sources with accurate VLBI positions.

    Methods: Descriptive statistics are used to characterise the overall properties of the quasar sample. Residual rotation and orientation errors and large-scale systematics are quantified by means of expansions in vector spherical harmonics. Positional differences are calculated relative to a prototype version of the forthcoming ICRF3.

    Results: Gaia-CRF2 consists of the positions of a sample of 556 869 sources in Gaia DR2, obtained from a positional cross-match with the ICRF3-prototype and AllWISE AGN catalogues. The sample constitutes a clean, dense, and homogeneous set of extragalactic point sources in the magnitude range G similar or equal to 16 to 21 mag with accurately known optical positions. The median positional uncertainty is 0.12 mas for G < 18 mag and 0.5 mas at G = 20 mag. Large-scale systematics are estimated to be in the range 20 to 30 mu as. The accuracy claims are supported by the parallaxes and proper motions of the quasars in Gaia DR2. The optical positions for a subset of 2820 sources in common with the ICRF3-prototype show very good overall agreement with the radio positions, but several tens of sources have significantly discrepant positions.

    Conclusions: Based on less than 40% of the data expected from the nominal Gaia mission, Gaia-CRF2 is the first realisation of a non-rotating global optical reference frame that meets the ICRS prescriptions, meaning that it is built only on extragalactic sources. Its accuracy matches the current radio frame of the ICRF, but the density of sources in all parts of the sky is much higher, except along the Galactic equator.

  • 8.
    Spoto, F.
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    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.;Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carry, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.;Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Petit, J. -M
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden..
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Poujoulet, E.
    AKKA CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-9 Toulouse, France..
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mission Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, 2201, Netherlands..
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride, England..
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofi, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.;Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England..
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 6, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Anderson, R. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Andrei, A. H.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA..
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain..
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;Bern Univ, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX SRL, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy..
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy..
    Cannizzaro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.;INAF Osservatorio astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dpto Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, Avda Castros S-N, Santander, Spain..
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Avenida Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;CRAAG, Route Observ Bp 63, Algiers 16340, Algeria..
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgrp Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 6, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Federici, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Galleti, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 6, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Supercomputac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed. Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany..
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyetem Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary..
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Karampelas, A.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.;Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece..
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Phys, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Licata, E.
    EURIX SRL, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy..
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut III-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary..
    Marshall, D. J.
    CEA Saclay, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, CEA DSM CNRS,Univ Paris Diderot, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    O'Mullane, W.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Salgado, J.
    QUASAR Sci Resources ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Nordic Opt Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, 38711 38711, Spain..
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Solano, E.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Spanish Virtual Observ, Madrid, Spain..
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Stoev, H.
    Fdn Galileo Galilei INAF, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja, Santa Cruz De T, Spain..
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tapiador, D.
    INSA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dpto Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Tauran, G.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England..
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Terrett, D.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England..
    Teyssandier, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, SYRTE, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Valentini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Supercomputac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed. Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vogt, S.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    von Essen, C.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Wertz, O.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    Wevers, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Warsaw Observ, Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Zorec, J.
    Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, UPMC, 98 Bis Bd, F-75014 Paris, France.;CNRS, UMR 7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Gaia Data Release 2: Observations of solar system objects2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The Gaia spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) has been securing observations of solar system objects (SSOs) since the beginning of its operations. Data Release 2 (DR2) contains the observations of a selected sample of 14,099 SSOs. These asteroids have been already identified and have been numbered by the Minor Planet Center repository. Positions are provided for each Gaia observation at CCD level. As additional information, complementary to astrometry, the apparent brightness of SSOs in the unfiltered G band is also provided for selected observations.

    Aims: We explain the processing of SSO data, and describe the criteria we used to select the sample published in Gaia DR2. We then explore the data set to assess its quality.

    Methods: To exploit the main data product for the solar system in Gaia DR2, which is the epoch astrometry of asteroids, it is necessary to take into account the unusual properties of the uncertainty, as the position information is nearly one-dimensional. When this aspect is handled appropriately, an orbit fit can be obtained with post-fit residuals that are overall consistent with the a-priori error model that was used to define individual values of the astrometric uncertainty. The role of both random and systematic errors is described. The distribution of residuals allowed us to identify possible contaminants in the data set (such as stars). Photometry in the G band was compared to computed values from reference asteroid shapes and to the flux registered at the corresponding epochs by the red and blue photometers (RP and BP).

    Results: The overall astrometric performance is close to the expectations, with an optimal range of brightness G similar to 12 - 17. In this range, the typical transit-level accuracy is well below 1 mas. For fainter asteroids, the growing photon noise deteriorates the performance. Asteroids brighter than G similar to 12 are affected by a lower performance of the processing of their signals. The dramatic improvement brought by Gaia DR2 astrometry of SSOs is demonstrated by comparisons to the archive data and by preliminary tests on the detection of subtle non-gravitational effects.

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