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  • 1.
    Northoff, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Hangzhou Normal Univ, Dept Psychol, Hangzhou 310013, Zhejiang, Peoples R China;Univ Ottawa, Inst Mental Hlth Res, Mind Brain Imaging & Neuroeth, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Tumati, Shankar
    Univ Ottawa, Inst Mental Hlth Res, Mind Brain Imaging & Neuroeth, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    "Average is good, extremes are bad" - Non-linear inverted U-shaped relationship between neural mechanisms and functionality of mental features2019In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 104, p. 11-25Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, studies emphasize differences in neural measures between pathological and healthy groups, assuming a binary distinction between the groups, and a linear relationship between neural measures and symptoms. Here, we present four examples that show a continuous relation across the divide of normal and pathological states between neural measures and mental functions. This relation can be characterized by a nonlinear inverted-U shaped curve. Along this curve, mid-range or average expression of a neural measure is associated with optimal function of a mental feature (in healthy states), whereas extreme expression, either high or low, is associated with sub-optimal function, and occurs in different neural disorders. Neural expression between the optimal or intermediate and pathological or extreme values is associated with sub-optimal function and atrisk mental states. Thus, this model of neuro-mental relationship can be summarized as "average is good, extremes are bad". By focussing on neuro-mental relationships, this model can facilitate the transition of psychiatry from a categorical to a dimensional and individualized approach needed in the era of precision medicine.

  • 2.
    Northoff, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Mental Health Center, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China ; Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics, Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Wainio-Theberge, Soren
    Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics, Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Is temporo-spatial dynamics the “common currency” of brain and mind?: In Quest of “Spatiotemporal Neuroscience”2019In: Physics of Life Reviews, ISSN 1571-0645, E-ISSN 1873-1457Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroscience has made considerable progress in unraveling the neural correlates of mental phenomena like self, consciousness, and perception. However, the “common currency” shared between neuronal and mental activity, brain and mind, remains yet unclear. In this article, we propose that the dynamics of time and space provides a “common currency” that connects neuronal and mental features. Time and space are here understood in a dynamic context (as in contemporary physics): that is, in terms of the way the brain's spontaneous activity constructs its spatial and temporal relationships, for instance in terms of functional connectivity and different frequencies of fluctuations. Recruiting recent empirical evidence, we show that the different ways in which the spontaneous activity constructs its “inner time and space” are manifested in distinct mental features. Specifically, we demonstrate how spatiotemporal mechanisms like spatiotemporal repertoire, integration, and speed yield mental features like consciousness, self, and time speed perception. The focus on the brain's spatiotemporal mechanisms entails what we describe as “Spatiotemporal Neuroscience”. Spatiotemporal Neuroscience conceives neuronal activity in terms of its temporo-spatial dynamics rather than its various functions (e.g., cognitive, affective, social, etc.) as in other branches of neuroscience (as distinguished from Cognitive, Affective, Cultural, Social, etc. Neuroscience). That allows Spatiotemporal Neuroscience to take into view the so-called ‘spatio-temporality’ of mental features including their non-causal, intrinsic and transformative relationship with neuronal features. In conclusion, Spatiotemporal Neuroscience opens the door to investigate and ultimately reveal the brain's own temporo-spatial dynamics as the hitherto missing “common currency” of neuronal and mental features.

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