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  • 1.
    Alsos, Inger Greve
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Lammers, Youri
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Kjellman, Sofia E.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Merkel, Marie Kristine Foreid
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Arctic Univ Museum Norway, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Bender, Emma M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Rouillard, Alexandra
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway.;Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect GeoGenet, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark..
    Erlendsson, Egill
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Gudmundsdottir, Esther Ruth
    Univ Copenhagen, GLOBE Inst, Sect GeoGenet, Oster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.;Univ Iceland, Nordic Volcanol Ctr, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Benediktsson, Ivar Orn
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Farnsworth, Wesley R.
    Univ Iceland, Nordic Volcanol Ctr, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Brynjolfsson, Skafti
    Iceland Inst Nat Hist, IS-600 Borgum Vio Noroursloo, Akureyri, Iceland..
    Gisladottir, Gudrun
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Dögg Eddudottir, Sigrun
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Schomacker, Anders
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Geosci, POB 6050, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Ancient sedimentary DNA shows rapid post-glacial colonisation of Iceland followed by relatively stable vegetation until the Norse settlement (Landnam) AD 8702021Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 259, artikel-id 106903Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding patterns of colonisation is important for explaining both the distribution of single species and anticipating how ecosystems may respond to global warming. Insular flora may be especially vulnerable because oceans represent severe dispersal barriers. Here we analyse two lake sediment cores from Iceland for ancient sedimentary DNA to infer patterns of colonisation and Holocene vegetation development. Our cores from lakes Torfdalsvatn and Nykurvatn span the last c. 12,000 cal yr BP and c. 8600 cal yr BP, respectively. With near-centennial resolution, we identified a total of 191 plant taxa, with 152 taxa identified in the sedimentary record of Torfdalsvatn and 172 plant taxa in the sedimentary record of Nykurvatn. The terrestrial vegetation at Torfdalsvatn was initially dominated by bryophytes, arctic herbs such as Saxifraga spp. and grasses. Around 10,100 cal yr BP, a massive immigration of new taxa was observed, and shrubs and dwarf shrubs became common whereas aquatic macrophytes became dominant. At Nykurvatn, the dominant taxa were all present in the earliest samples; shrubs and dwarf shrubs were more abundant at this site than at Torfdalsvatn. There was an overall steep increase both in the local accumulated richness and regional species pool until 8000 cal yr BP, by which time 3/4 of all taxa identified had arrived. The period 4500-1000 cal yr BP witnessed the appearance of a a small number of bryophytes, graminoids and forbs that were not recorded in earlier samples. The last millennium, after human settlement of the island (Landnam), is characterised by a sudden disappearance of Juniperus communis, but also reappearance of some high arctic forbs and dwarf shrubs. Notable immigration during the Holocene coincides with periods of increased incidence of sea ice, and we hypothesise that this may have acted as a dispersal vector. Thus, although ongoing climate change might provide a suitable habitat in Iceland for a large range of species only found in the neighbouring regions today, the reduction of sea ice may in fact limit the natural colonisation of new plant species.

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  • 2.
    Bates, Rupert
    et al.
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, Durham, England..
    Erlendsson, Egill
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjvik, Iceland..
    Dögg Eddudottir, Sigrun
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi. Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjvik, Iceland. .
    Mockel, Susanne Claudia
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjvik, Iceland..
    Tinganelli, Leone
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjvik, Iceland.;Landgraeoslan, Hella, Iceland..
    Gisladottir, Guorun
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjvik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Landnam, Land Use and Landscape Change at Kagaoarholl in Northwest Iceland2022Ingår i: Environmental Archaeology, ISSN 1461-4103, E-ISSN 1749-6314, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 211-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palaeoecological studies from across Iceland, in tandem with historical and archaeological examinations, have helped improve our understanding of patterns and processes involved in the initial settlement of Iceland. Here, we present a new high resolution reconstruction of vegetation and landscape dynamics for the farm Kagaoarholl, a lowland site in Austur-HunavatnssATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH ACUTEsla, Northwest Iceland, a region with a notable scarcity of known archaeological sites. Through palynology and the analysis of lithological proxies, the study locates and examines human influence at the study site and evaluates the mechanisms of environmental change. Prior to settlement, following long-term vegetation regression, Betula woodland interspersed with sedge bog was prevalent at Kagaoarholl. Woodland clearance and grazing was initiated no later than AD 900, illustrating the arrival of humans. Over the following centuries, the record shows continued grazing, increased soil erosion and a transition into heathland and shrubland indicative of anthropogenic environmental degradation. Woodland conservation and management practices are also inferred. The study is important in extending knowledge of Icelandic environmental change and anthropogenic activity where archaeological research is scant and in bringing together regional patterns of settlement in order to understand wider settlement processes.

  • 3.
    Dögg Eddudottir, Sigrun
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi. Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Erlendsson, Egill
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Gisladottir, Gudrun
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Landscape change in the Icelandic highland: A long-term record of the impacts of land use, climate and volcanism2020Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 240, artikel-id 106363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture has been practiced in Iceland since settlement (landnam; AD 877). This has caused changes in vegetation communities, soil erosion, desertification and loss of carbon stocks. Little data exist regarding vegetation and ecosystems in the Icelandic highland before landnam and therefore the impact of land use over time is poorly understood. The objectives of the study are to examine the timing, nature and causes of land degradation in the highland of Northwest Iceland. Specifically, to determine the resilience of the pre-landnam highland environment to disturbances (i.e. climate cooling and volcanism) and whether land use pressure was of sufficient magnitude to facilitate ecosystem change. A sediment core was taken from the highland lake Galtabol. A chronology for the core was constructed using known tephra layers and radiocarbon dated plant macrofossils. Pollen analysis (vegetation), coprophilous fungal spores (proxy for grazing), and sediment properties (proxies for erosion) were used to provide a high-resolution, integrated vegetation and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The pre-landnam environment showed resilience to climate cooling and repeated tephra fall. Soon after landnam the vegetation community changed and instability increased, indicated by changes in sediment properties. The pollen and spore record suggest introduction of grazing herbivores into the area after landnam. Following landnam, indicators of soil erosion appear in the sediment properties. Intensification of soil erosion occurred during the 17th century. The Galtabol record clearly demonstrates what can happen in landscapes without adequate management of natural resources and underestimation of landscape sensitivity. Introduction of land use resulted in changes in vegetation communities, loss of resilience and onset of increased soil erosion. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions may inform future decisions on management of the highland by providing baselines for natural variability in the pre-landmim environment.

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  • 4.
    Dögg Eddudottir, Sigrun
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad universitet.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Geographica Antikva.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Johansson, Annie
    Länsstyrelsen, Värmland.
    The history of settlement and agrarian land use in a boreal forest in Värmland, Sweden, new evidence from pollen analysis2021Ingår i: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 759-771Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shielings are the historically known form of transhumance in Scandinavia, where livestock were moved from the farmstead to sites in the outlands for summer grazing. Pollen analysis has provided a valuable insight into the history of shielings. This paper presents a vegetation reconstruction and archaeological survey from the shieling Kårebolssätern in northern Värmland, western Sweden, a renovated shieling that is still operating today. The first evidence of human activities in the area near Kårebolssätern are Hordeum- and Cannabis-type pollen grains occurring from ca. 100 BC. Further signs of human impact are charcoal and sporadic occurrences of apophyte pollen from ca. AD 250 and pollen indicating opening of the canopy ca. AD 570, probably a result of modification of the forest for grazing. A decrease in land use is seen between AD 1000 and 1250, possibly in response to a shift in emphasis towards large scale commodity production in the outlands. Emphasis on bloomery iron production and pitfall hunting may have caused a shift from agrarian shieling activity. The clearest changes in the pollen assemblage indicating grazing and cultivation occur from the mid-thirteenth century, coinciding with wetter climate at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The earliest occurrences of anthropochores in the record predate those of other shieling sites in Sweden. The pollen analysis reveals evidence of land use that predates the results of the archaeological survey. The study highlights how pollen analysis can reveal vegetation changes where early archaeological remains are obscure.

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  • 5.
    Jonsson, Daniel Freyr
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Nord Volcanol Ctr, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Environm Agcy Iceland, Sudurlandsbraut 24, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Gudmundsdottir, Esther Ruth
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Nord Volcanol Ctr, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Larsen, Gudrun
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Nord Volcanol Ctr, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Oladottir, Bergrun Arna
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Nord Volcanol Ctr, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Iceland Meteorol Off, Bustadavegur 7-9, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Erlendsson, Egill
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Dögg Eddudottir, Sigrun
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Sigmarsson, Olgeir
    Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Nord Volcanol Ctr, Sturlugata 7, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Lab Magmas & Volcans, Campus Univ Cezeaux, F-63178 Aubiere, France..
    The multi-component Hekla Ö Tephra, Iceland: a complex widespread mid-Holocene tephra layer2020Ingår i: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 410-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large Plinian eruptions from Hekla volcano, Iceland, produce compositionally zoned tephra used as key markers in tephrochronology. However, spatial variations in chemical composition of a tephra layer may complicate its identification. An example is the 5950-6180 bp cal a bp Hekla o tephra layer, which shows compositional spread from rhyolite, dacite and andesite to basalt. In soil sections north of Hekla, the SiO2 content of the tephra glass reaches 76 wt% in the lowest unit of the Hekla o deposit and decreases to 62-63 wt% in the uppermost unit. Intermingled within the whole deposit are basalt tephra grains having 46-47 wt% SiO2. The composition of the basalt glass includes primitive basalt and a more evolved basalt (MgO >6 and <6 wt%, respectively). Together with literature data, the Hekla o tephra and the so-called T-Tephra/Hekla-T are most likely from contemporaneous eruptions of different vents on the Hekla volcanic system, forming a single important marker tephra (Hekla oT) deposited over 80% of Iceland. Identification is complicated by its spatial compositional heterogeneity, such as systematic decrease in SiO2 content from the east to the west of Hekla volcano. Consequently, an individual tephra layer from a large explosive eruption can have different composition at different locations.

  • 6.
    Riddell, Scott J.
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Erlendsson, Egill
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Eddudottir, Sigrun Dogg
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Gisladottir, Gudrun
    Univ Iceland, Inst Life & Environm Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Sturlugata 7, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Kristjansdottir, Steinunn
    Univ Iceland, Dept Archaeol, Saemundargata 12, IS-102 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    The vegetation and land use histories of two farms in Iceland: settlement, monasticism, and tenancy2022Ingår i: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 395-414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palaeoecological research in Iceland has rarely considered the environmental consequences of landlord-tenant relations and has only recently begun to investigate the impact of medieval monasticism on Icelandic environment and society. Through the medium of two tenant farm sites, this investigation seeks to discern whether or not monastic landlords were influencing resource exploitation and the land management practices of their tenants. In particular, sedimentary and phyto-social contexts were examined and set within a chronological and palaeoecological framework from the late 9th century down to the 16th century. How this relates to medieval European monasticism is also considered while the prevailing influences of climate and volcanism are acknowledged. Palaeoecological data shed light upon the process of occupation at the two farms during the settlement period, with resources and land use trajectories already well-established by the time they were acquired by monastic institutions. This suggests that the tenant farms investigated were largely unaffected ecologically by absorption into a manorial system overseen by monasticism. This could be a consequence of prevailing environmental contexts that inhibited the development of alternative agricultural strategies, or simply that a different emphasis with regard to resource exploitation was paramount.

  • 7.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Ljunge, Magnus O.
    Larsson, Petter I.
    Dögg Eddudóttir, Sigrún
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Eriksson, Jemt Anna
    Hunter-gatherer farming during the first millennium bce in inland, boreal landscapes: new pollen analytical and archaeological evidence from Dalarna, central Sweden2023Ingår i: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 615-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The archaeological evidence of a sedentary hunter-gatherer society during the early metal ages, i.e. the frst and second millennia bce, in the central Scandinavian boreal inlands has previously been overlooked. In order to gain a deeper understandingof these past societies we have combined archaeological data with landscape-scale changes based on pollen records. Thecombined record clearly indicates landscape use characterized by domestication strategies that started during the Late BronzeAge ca. 1000 bce and further intensifed during the Early Iron Age. Indications of cultivation of plants, as well as possibleburning practices to clear shrub and forest, clearly show that arable farming and grazing were practiced in the area earlierthan had previously been assumed. The farming economy seems to have involved mainly small scale arable farming. Fishingand hunting continued to be important, but the investment in the landscape shown by both pitfall systems and agriculturealso express a domestication that would have required settled presence.

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