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  • 1.
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Privacy and Security in Network Controlled Systems via Dynamic Masking2023In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, E-ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 991-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new architecture to enhance the privacy and security of networked control systems against malicious adversaries. We consider an adversary which first learns the system using system identification techniques (privacy), and then performs a data injection attack (security). In particular, we consider an adversary conducting zero-dynamics attacks (ZDA) which maximizes the performance cost of the system whilst staying undetected. Using the proposed architecture, we show that it is possible to (i) introduce significant bias in the system estimates obtained by the adversary: thus providing privacy, and (ii) efficiently detect attacks when the adversary performs a ZDA using the identified system: thus providing security. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture

  • 2.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Risk-Based Analysis and Design of Secure Control Systems2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Networked Control Systems (NCSs) are integral to many critical infrastructures such as power grids, transportation, and production systems. The resilient operation of such NCS against cyber-attacks is essential for society, and risk management presents an effective framework for addressing these security challenges. The risk management framework encompasses two steps: risk assessment and risk mitigation. The risk assessment step aims to quantify the risk, whereas the risk mitigation step focuses on designing mitigation strategies. This thesis leverages the risk management framework to analyze and design NCSs that are resilient to cyber-attacks. In particular, this thesis aims to address the following research challenges. 

    Firstly, we aim to assess the risk of attack scenarios that are realistic (risk assessment step). In particular, we consider adversaries and operators with different levels of knowledge about the NCS. For instance, an adversary or operator may possess complete knowledge of the system dynamics or have only partial knowledge with varying degrees of uncertainty. Hence, we describe a systematic approach to assess the risk considering the interplay between the knowledge levels of adversaries and operators.

    Secondly, we aim to design the NCS to minimize the risk of attacks (risk mitigation step). We explore three different strategies to minimize the risk: (a) controller/detector design, (b) security measure allocation, and (c) system architecture design. In the first strategy, we design the controller and detector gains to minimize the risk of attacks. Here, risk is characterized by the performance loss caused by stealthy attacks on the NCS. In the second strategy, we consider a distributed NCS where certain distributed devices can be secured from attacks by deploying secure sensors and actuators. Then, we aim to strategically determine the devices to secure and mitigate the risk of attacks effectively. Finally, inspired by digital watermarking, we explore the idea of introducing watermarks in NCS to detect attacks efficiently. Throughout the thesis, we provide various numerical examples to depict the efficacy of risk assessment and risk mitigation algorithms. We also provide numerous discussions and avenues for future research directions.

    List of papers
    1. Joint controller and detector design against data injection attacks on actuators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint controller and detector design against data injection attacks on actuators
    2020 (English)In: IFAC PapersOnline, Elsevier BV , 2020, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 7439-7445Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of data injection attacks on actuators in control systems. Considering attacks that aim at maximizing impact while remaining undetected, the paper revisits the recently proposed output-to-output gain, which is compared to classical sensitivity metrics such as H-infinity and H_. In its original formulation, the output-to-output gain is unbounded for strictly proper systems. This limitation is further investigated and addressed by modifying the performance output of the system and ensuring that the system from attack signal to performance output is also strictly proper. With this system description, and by using the theory of dissipative systems, a Bi-linear Matrix Inequality (BMI) is formulated for system design. Using this BMI, a design algorithm is proposed based on the heuristic of alternating minimization. Through numerical simulations of the proposed algorithm, it is found that the output-to-output gain presents advantages over the other metrics: the effect of the attack is reduced in the performance output and increased in the detection output in a relatively large spectrum of frequencies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier BV, 2020
    Keywords
    System security, Quadratic performance indices, Fault detection, H-infinity control, Optimization
    National Category
    Control Engineering Signal Processing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-447676 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2020.12.1291 (DOI)000652593000483 ()
    Conference
    21st IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control - Meeting Societal Challenges, JUL 11-17, 2020, ELECTR NETWORK
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04396
    Available from: 2021-06-29 Created: 2021-06-29 Last updated: 2024-04-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Risk-averse controller design against data injection attacks on actuators for uncertain control systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk-averse controller design against data injection attacks on actuators for uncertain control systems
    2022 (English)In: 2022 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ACC), IEEE, 2022, p. 5037-5042Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the optimal controller design problem against data injection attacks on actuators for an uncertain control system. We consider attacks that aim at maximizing the attack impact while remaining stealthy in the finite horizon. To this end, we use the Conditional Value-at-Risk to characterize the risk associated with the impact of attacks. The worst-case attack impact is characterized using the recently proposed output-to-output l(2)-gain (OOG). We formulate the design problem and observe that it is non-convex and hard to solve. Using the framework of scenariobased optimization and a convex proxy for the OOG, we propose a convex optimization problem that approximately solves the design problem with probabilistic certificates. Finally, we illustrate the results through a numerical example.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2022
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-488231 (URN)10.23919/ACC53348.2022.9867257 (DOI)000865458704099 ()978-1-6654-5196-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    American Control Conference (ACC), JUN 08-10, 2022, Atlanta, GA
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04396Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Available from: 2022-11-14 Created: 2022-11-14 Last updated: 2024-04-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Risk Assessment of Stealthy Attacks on Uncertain Control Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Assessment of Stealthy Attacks on Uncertain Control Systems
    2023 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-512904 (URN)10.1109/tac.2023.3318194 (DOI)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04396
    Available from: 2023-09-29 Created: 2023-09-29 Last updated: 2024-04-07
    4. Risk assessment and optimal allocation of security measures under stealthy false data injection attacks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk assessment and optimal allocation of security measures under stealthy false data injection attacks
    2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 1347-1353Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper firstly addresses the problem of risk assessment under false data injection attacks on uncertain control systems. We consider an adversary with complete system knowledge, injecting stealthy false data into an uncertain control system. We then use the Value-at-Risk to characterize the risk associated with the attack impact caused by the adversary. The worst-case attack impact is characterized by the recently proposed output-to-output gain. We observe that the risk assessment problem corresponds to an infinite non-convex robust optimization problem. To this end, we use dissipative system theory and the scenario approach to approximate the risk-assessment problem into a convex problem and also provide probabilistic certificates on approximation. Secondly, we con-sider the problem of security measure allocation. We consider an operator with a constraint on the security budget. Under this constraint, we propose an algorithm to optimally allocate the security measures using the calculated risk such that the resulting Value-at-risk is minimized. Finally, we illustrate the results through a numerical example. The numerical example also illustrates that the security allocation using the Value-at-risk, and the impact on the nominal system may have different outcomes: thereby depicting the benefit of using risk metrics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
    Series
    Control Technology and Applications, E-ISSN 2768-0770
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-510181 (URN)10.1109/CCTA49430.2022.9966025 (DOI)978-1-6654-7339-2 (ISBN)978-1-6654-7338-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA), 23-25 August 2022, Trieste, Italy
    Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2024-04-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Risk-based Security Measure Allocation Against Actuator Attacks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk-based Security Measure Allocation Against Actuator Attacks
    2023 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of Control Systems, E-ISSN 2694-085X, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-510331 (URN)10.1109/ojcsys.2023.3305831 (DOI)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04396
    Available from: 2023-08-28 Created: 2023-08-28 Last updated: 2024-04-07Bibliographically approved
    6. Privacy and Security in Network Controlled Systems via Dynamic Masking
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Privacy and Security in Network Controlled Systems via Dynamic Masking
    2023 (English)In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, E-ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 991-996Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new architecture to enhance the privacy and security of networked control systems against malicious adversaries. We consider an adversary which first learns the system using system identification techniques (privacy), and then performs a data injection attack (security). In particular, we consider an adversary conducting zero-dynamics attacks (ZDA) which maximizes the performance cost of the system whilst staying undetected. Using the proposed architecture, we show that it is possible to (i) introduce significant bias in the system estimates obtained by the adversary: thus providing privacy, and (ii) efficiently detect attacks when the adversary performs a ZDA using the identified system: thus providing security. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2023
    Keywords
    Networked systems, Secure networked control systems, Linear systems, Privacy
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-525721 (URN)10.1016/j.ifacol.2023.10.1694 (DOI)001196708400157 ()
    Conference
    22nd IFAC World Congress, Yokohama, Japan, July 9-14, 2023
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04396Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Available from: 2024-03-27 Created: 2024-03-27 Last updated: 2024-04-18Bibliographically approved
    7. Design of multiplicative watermarking against covert attacks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of multiplicative watermarking against covert attacks
    2021 (English)In: 2021 60th IEEE CConference On Decision And Control (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, p. 4176-4181Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the design of an active cyber-attack detection architecture based on multiplicative watermarking, allowing for detection of covert attacks. We propose an optimal design problem, relying on the so-called output-to-output l(2)-gain, which characterizes the maximum gain between the residual output of a detection scheme and some performance output. Although optimal, this control problem is non-convex. Hence, we propose an algorithm to design the watermarking filters by solving the problem suboptimally via LMIs. We show that, against covert attacks, the output-to-output l(2)-gain is unbounded without watermarking, and we provide a sufficient condition for boundedness in the presence of watermarks.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021
    Series
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, ISSN 0743-1546
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-475324 (URN)10.1109/CDC45484.2021.9683075 (DOI)000781990303112 ()978-1-6654-3659-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), DEC 13-17, 2021, ELECTR NETWORK
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-04396Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Available from: 2022-06-02 Created: 2022-06-02 Last updated: 2024-04-07Bibliographically approved
    8. Switching Multiplicative Watermark Design against Covert Attacks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switching Multiplicative Watermark Design against Covert Attacks
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    N/A:
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-525724 (URN)
    Available from: 2024-03-27 Created: 2024-03-27 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved
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  • 3.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems. Delft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Delft, Netherlands.
    Baldi, Simone
    School of Mathematics, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Delft Center for Systems and Control, TU Delft, Delft, Netherlands.
    Optimal tracking strategies for uncertain ensembles of thermostatically controlled loads2020In: 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Control & Automation (ICCA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020, p. 901-906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand side energy management (DSEM) promises to regulate ensembles of loads to track desired power levels, in response to grid events (demand peaks, emergencies, variable renewable power generation, etc). A large fraction of such loads are Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) such as refrigerators, electric water heaters, and air conditioners. Such loads exhibit parametric uncertainty and heterogeneity which make power tracking difficult. Adaptive control strategies are explored in this work as a way to achieve power tracking. Effectiveness of such strategies are studied via numerical simulations.

  • 4.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Risk-based Security Measure Allocation Against Actuator Attacks2023In: IEEE Open Journal of Control Systems, E-ISSN 2694-085X, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Joint controller and detector design against data injection attacks on actuators2020In: IFAC PapersOnline, Elsevier BV , 2020, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 7439-7445Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of data injection attacks on actuators in control systems. Considering attacks that aim at maximizing impact while remaining undetected, the paper revisits the recently proposed output-to-output gain, which is compared to classical sensitivity metrics such as H-infinity and H_. In its original formulation, the output-to-output gain is unbounded for strictly proper systems. This limitation is further investigated and addressed by modifying the performance output of the system and ensuring that the system from attack signal to performance output is also strictly proper. With this system description, and by using the theory of dissipative systems, a Bi-linear Matrix Inequality (BMI) is formulated for system design. Using this BMI, a design algorithm is proposed based on the heuristic of alternating minimization. Through numerical simulations of the proposed algorithm, it is found that the output-to-output gain presents advantages over the other metrics: the effect of the attack is reduced in the performance output and increased in the detection output in a relatively large spectrum of frequencies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Risk-averse controller design against data injection attacks on actuators for uncertain control systems2022In: 2022 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ACC), IEEE, 2022, p. 5037-5042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the optimal controller design problem against data injection attacks on actuators for an uncertain control system. We consider attacks that aim at maximizing the attack impact while remaining stealthy in the finite horizon. To this end, we use the Conditional Value-at-Risk to characterize the risk associated with the impact of attacks. The worst-case attack impact is characterized using the recently proposed output-to-output l(2)-gain (OOG). We formulate the design problem and observe that it is non-convex and hard to solve. Using the framework of scenariobased optimization and a convex proxy for the OOG, we propose a convex optimization problem that approximately solves the design problem with probabilistic certificates. Finally, we illustrate the results through a numerical example.

  • 7.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Stealthy Cyber-Attack Design Using Dynamic Programming2021In: 2021 60th IEEE Conference On Decision And Control (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, p. 3474-3479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of data injection attacks on control systems. We consider attacks which aim at maximizing system disruption while staying undetected in the finite horizon. The maximum possible disruption caused by such attacks is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem whose dual problem is a convex semi-definite program. We show that the duality gap is zero using S-lemma. To determine the optimal attack vector, we formulate a soft-constrained optimization problem using the Lagrangian dual function. The framework of dynamic programming for indefinite cost functions is used to solve the soft-constrained optimization problem and determine the attack vector. Using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, we also provide necessary and sufficient conditions under which the obtained attack vector is optimal to the primal problem. Finally, we illustrate the results through numerical examples.

  • 8.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Risk assessment and optimal allocation of security measures under stealthy false data injection attacks2022In: 2022 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 1347-1353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper firstly addresses the problem of risk assessment under false data injection attacks on uncertain control systems. We consider an adversary with complete system knowledge, injecting stealthy false data into an uncertain control system. We then use the Value-at-Risk to characterize the risk associated with the attack impact caused by the adversary. The worst-case attack impact is characterized by the recently proposed output-to-output gain. We observe that the risk assessment problem corresponds to an infinite non-convex robust optimization problem. To this end, we use dissipative system theory and the scenario approach to approximate the risk-assessment problem into a convex problem and also provide probabilistic certificates on approximation. Secondly, we con-sider the problem of security measure allocation. We consider an operator with a constraint on the security budget. Under this constraint, we propose an algorithm to optimally allocate the security measures using the calculated risk such that the resulting Value-at-risk is minimized. Finally, we illustrate the results through a numerical example. The numerical example also illustrates that the security allocation using the Value-at-risk, and the impact on the nominal system may have different outcomes: thereby depicting the benefit of using risk metrics.

  • 9.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, PO Box 65, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, PO Box 65, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, PO Box 337, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Risk Assessment of Stealthy Attacks on Uncertain Control Systems2023In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Gallo, Alexander J.
    Teixeira, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Ferrari, Riccardo M. G.
    Switching Multiplicative Watermark Design against Covert AttacksIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gallo, Alexander J.
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Delft Ctr Syst & Control Mech Maritime & Mat Engn, Delft, Netherlands..
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Ferrari, Riccardo M. G.
    Delft Univ Technol, Delft Ctr Syst & Control Mech Maritime & Mat Engn, Delft, Netherlands..
    Design of multiplicative watermarking against covert attacks2021In: 2021 60th IEEE CConference On Decision And Control (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, p. 4176-4181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the design of an active cyber-attack detection architecture based on multiplicative watermarking, allowing for detection of covert attacks. We propose an optimal design problem, relying on the so-called output-to-output l(2)-gain, which characterizes the maximum gain between the residual output of a detection scheme and some performance output. Although optimal, this control problem is non-convex. Hence, we propose an algorithm to design the watermarking filters by solving the problem suboptimally via LMIs. We show that, against covert attacks, the output-to-output l(2)-gain is unbounded without watermarking, and we provide a sufficient condition for boundedness in the presence of watermarks.

  • 12.
    Nguyen, Anh Tung
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Anand, Sribalaji C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André M. H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    A Zero-Sum Game Framework for Optimal Sensor Placement in Uncertain Networked Control Systems under Cyber-Attacks2022In: 2022 IEEE 61st Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, , p. 8p. 6126-6133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a game-theoretic approach to address the problem of optimal sensor placement against an adversary in uncertain networked control systems. The problem is formulated as a zero-sum game with two players, namely a malicious adversary and a detector. Given a protected performance vertex, we consider a detector, with uncertain system knowledge, that selects another vertex on which to place a sensor and monitors its output with the aim of detecting the presence of the adversary. On the other hand, the adversary, also with uncertain system knowledge, chooses a single vertex and conducts a cyber-attack on its input. The purpose of the adversary is to drive the attack vertex as to maximally disrupt the protected performance vertex while remaining undetected by the detector. As our first contribution, the game payoff of the above-defined zero-sum game is formulated in terms of the Value-at-Risk of the adversary’s impact. However, this game payoff corresponds to an intractable optimization problem. To tackle the problem, we adopt the scenario approach to approximately compute the game payoff. Then, the optimal monitor selection is determined by analyzing the equilibrium of the zero-sum game. The proposed approach is illustrated via a numerical example of a 10-vertex networked control system.

    The full text will be freely available from 2025-01-10 11:31
  • 13.
    Nguyen, Anh Tung
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Coimbatore Anand, Sribalaji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Teixeira, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Signals and Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Optimal Detector Placement in Networked Control Systems under Cyber-attacks with Applications to Power Networks2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a game-theoretic method to address the problem of optimal detector placement in a networked control system under cyber-attacks. The networked control system is composed of interconnected agents where each agent is regulated by its local controller over unprotected communication, which leaves the system vulnerable to malicious cyber-attacks. To guarantee a given local performance, the defender optimally selects a single agent on which to place a detector at its local controller with the purpose of detecting cyber-attacks. On the other hand, an adversary optimally chooses a single agent on which to conduct a cyber-attack on its input with the aim of maximally worsening the local performance while remaining stealthy to the defender. First, we present a necessary and sufficient condition to ensure that the maximal attack impact on the local performance is bounded, which restricts the possible actions of the defender to a subset of available agents. Then, by considering the maximal attack impact on the local performance as a game payoff, we cast the problem of finding optimal actions of the defender and the adversary as a zero-sum game. Finally, with the possible action sets of the defender and the adversary, an algorithm is devoted to determining the Nash equilibria of the zero-sum game that yield the optimal detector placement. The proposed method is illustrated on an IEEE benchmark for power systems.

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