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  • 1.
    Fjelde, Hanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebels against Rebels: Explaining Violence between Rebel Groups2012In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 56, no 4, 604-628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebel groups that confront the government frequently become engaged in fierce and violent struggles with other groups. Why does a rebel group who is already fighting with the government become engaged in yet another struggle, thereby sacrificing scarce resources in the fight against other rebel groups? This article addresses this puzzle by providing the first global study on the determinants of interrebel violence. The authors argue that this violence should be understood as a means to secure material resources and political leverage that can help the group prevail in the conflict with the government. The quantitative analysis builds on new data on armed conflict between nonstate actors, 1989-2007. The results show that interrebel conflict is more likely when the rebel group fights in an area with drug cultivation, when the group is in control of territory beyond government reach, when the group is either militarily strong or weak in relation to other rebels, and where state authority is weak.

  • 2.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Political Pacts- No Promise of Peace?: no promise of peace2006In: Paper prepared for the 2006 Conference on Globalization and Peacebuilding, arranged by the Swedish Network of Peace, Conflict and Development Research, Uppsala, 6–8 November 2006, and for the 40th Annual Meeting of the Peace Science Society, Columbus, Ohio, 10–12 November 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Do political power-sharing arrangements lead to durable peace? Power sharing has become a preferred choice for policy makers to facilitate peacebuilding. However, the scientific support of the effectiveness of power sharing in this regard remains weak. In some cases, such as South Africa, power sharing is indeed associated with democracy and peace. On the other hand, the genocide in Rwanda, following a settlement containing provisions for power sharing, suggests that such changes of power balance can at worst be followed by violent conflict. Also statistical analyses indicate mixed results. Barbara Walter (2002) find that negotiated settlements, which include provisions of power sharing in the central government, may serve to reduce the risk of recurring conflict. In contrast, Matthew Hoddie and Caroline Hartzell (2005) do not find political power sharing in peace agreements to significantly affect the duration of peace.

    These mixed results suggest a need for a deeper analysis of the logic and consequences of power sharing. Drawing on insights from consociational theory we propose that settlements that include provisions for political power sharing should lead to peace if the parties agree on a political pact and if such promises are implemented. Firstly, such pacts guarantee a share of political power, which can enable the parties in overcoming the uncertainties involved in a peace process. Secondly, implementation of political power sharing allows for protracted negotiations in which the parties settle their main incompatibilities in iterative rounds of cooperation and compromises.

    We identify two main limitations in the literature on this topic. The first concerns the definitions used to examine the effect of political power-sharing on durable peace. One possible explanation to the mixed results is that different definitions of political power-sharing are employed. In line with consociational theory, political pacts that guarantee seats in the central government is a central component of political power-sharing (Lijphart 1977; Walter 2002). In other studies, political power-sharing is defined broadly and also includes cases of proportional electoral systems (e.g. Hartzell and Hoddie 2003; Mukherjee 2006). However, when using such a wide definition it is not possible to single out the effect of political pacts on durable peace. Second, previous research only to some extent investigates the implementation of political power sharing. In one of the few studies that do analyze implementation of political pacts, the absence of war is included as an integral part of the definition of implementation (Walter 2002). For this reason, we do not know if the implementation itself has effects on the duration of peace.

    To address these limitations, we introduce the IMPACT dataset (Implementation of Pacts). This new dataset not only contains information on whether the agreements entail provisions concerning political, military and territorial pacts, but also unique data on whether and when these pacts have been implemented. This dataset builds on information from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) and includes all 83 peace agreements signed by the government and one or more rebel groups in internal armed conflicts during the period 1989–2004 (UCDP 2006). We include more peace agreements stipulating political pacts than previous research by studying the entire post-Cold War period, examining full-scale civil wars as well as low intensity armed conflicts, and by focusing not only on the agreements signed by all or the main warring parties.

    The results of this study challenges conventional wisdom and puts into question the effectiveness of political power sharing as a tool for conflict resolution. The findings indicate that even when using a definition that captures the very essence of power sharing by focusing on guaranteed positions in central government, no significant influence on durable peace is found. Perhaps even more surprising, political pacts that are implemented are not shown to enhance the prospects for lasting peace.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Anchoring the Peace: Civil Society Actors in Peace Accords and Durable Peace2012In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 38, no 2, 243-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is peace more likely to prevail when the peace accord includes civil society actors such as religious groups, women's organizations, and human rights groups? This is the first statistical study that explores this issue. The article develops key claims in previous research regarding the role of civil society actors and durable peace, and proposes a set of hypotheses that focus on legitimacy in this process. The hypotheses are examined by employing unique data on the inclusion of civil society actors in all peace agreements in the post-Cold War period. The statistical analysis shows that inclusion of civil society actors in the peace settlement increases the durability of peace. The results further demonstrate that peace accords with involvement from civil society actors and political parties in combination are more likely to see peace prevail. The findings also suggest that inclusion of civil society has a particularly profound effect on the prospects for overall peace in nondemocratic societies.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Civil society in peace accords and the durability of peace2014In: Accord : an international review of peace initiatives, ISSN 1365-0742, Vol. 25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Inclusive Peace Deals: A Path to Durable Peace in Africa?2012In: From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and its Resolution in Africa after the Cold War / [ed] Thomas Ohlson, Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebels, Resolve and Resolution: Conflict in the Shadow of Settlements2005In: Presented at the 46th Annual International Studies Association Convention, Hawaii, 1-5 March, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 7.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Signing and Sticking to Peace2005In: Presented at the Jan Tinbergen Peace Science Conference, Amsterdam, 27–29 June, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 8.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    So Many Rebels, So Little Peace: Conflict in the Aftermath of Agreement2005In: Presented at 39th Annual Meeting of the Peace Science Society, Iowa City, 4–6 November, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 9.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Rebels on the Outside: Power and Uncertainty after Peace Agreements2004In: The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (APSA), 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 10.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Significance of Signing: Who Fights After Peace Agreements in Civil Wars2004In: The 45th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 11.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kovacs Söderberg, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Different Paths of Reconstruction: Military Reform in Post-War Sierra Leone and Liberia2013In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 20, no 1, 2-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) has developed into a key component of international peacebuilding agendas. However, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge of the advantages and drawbacks of different reform processes. This study offers a comparative analysis of two post-war states with diverse approaches to the reconstruction of the national armed forces after a civil war: Sierra Leone after the 1999 Lome Peace Accord, where the competing warring parties were integrated into a single force; and Liberia following the 2003 Accra Peace Agreement, where the old army was disbanded and a new force was recruited and built from scratch. The findings show that each approach was associated with distinct benefits and risks during the implementation process. However, the outcomes are also similar in many important respects, and raise questions about the long-term sustainability of these reforms.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mapping armed conflicts over Islamist claims: exploring regional variations2017In: SIPR Yearbook 2017: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, London: Oxford University Press, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Promises and Pitfalls of the Liberian Peace Process2005In: Presented at the Nordic Africa Days, Uppsala, 30 Sept-2 Oct, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 14.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Revisiting an Elusive Concept: A Review of the Debate on Spoilers in Peace Processes2011In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 13, no 4, 606-626 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a seminal article, Stedman (International Security, 22, 1997, 5) suggested that the greatest source of risk to civil war peace processes comes from so-called spoilers, leaders, and groups that perceive peace as threatening and use violence to undermine attempts to achieve it. The spoiler concept has since gained significant ground and widespread legitimacy both in the academic literature and in critical policy circles. In the footsteps of this development, however, we suggest that the spoiler concept has been stretched beyond its original meaning and given raise to a number of ambiguities concerning its definition and empirical applicability. This lack of clarity in regard to some of the key aspects of the spoiler concept does not only risk undermining the usefulness of the concept itself, but also risks hampering the accumulation of valuable research on this pertinent topic. This article presents a reflection on a burgeoning research field and aims to contribute to the same by attempting to offer greater conceptual clarity in regard to a number of issues that are the core of the spoiler debate and by presenting a conceptual framework for analyzing spoilers in future research.

  • 15.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Breaking the Cycle of Violence?: Promises and Pitfalls of the Liberian Peace Process2005In: Civil Wars, ISSN 13698249, Vol. 7, no 4, 19- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 15 of 15
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  • nn-NO
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