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  • 1. Axelsson, E.L.
    et al.
    Moore, D.G.
    Murphy, E.M.
    Goodwin, J.E.
    Clifford, B.R.
    The role of bodies in infants’ categorical representations of humans and non-human animals2018In: Infant and Child DevelopmentArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Churchley, Kirsten
    Horst, Jessica S.
    The Right Thing at the Right Time: Why Ostensive Naming Facilitates Word Learning2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examines how focusing children’s attention immediately after fast mapping improves their ability to retain novel names. Previous research suggests that young children can only retain novel names presented via referent selection if ostensive naming is provided and that such explicit naming works by increasing children’s attention to the target and decreasing their attention to the competitor objects (Horst and Samuelson, 2008). This explanation of the function of ostensive naming after referent selection trials was tested by drawing 24-month-old children’s attention to the target either by illuminating the target, covering the competitors, or both. A control group was given a social pragmatic cue (pointing). Children given social pragmatic cue support did not demonstrate retention. However, children demonstrated retention if the target object was illuminated, and also when it was illuminated and the competitors simultaneously dampened. This suggests that drawing children’s attention to the target object in a manner that helps focus children’s attention is critical for word learning via referent selection. Directing attention away from competitors while also directing attention toward a target also aids in the retention of novel words.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Emma L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dawson, Rachelle L
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Yim, Sharon Y
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Quddus, Tashfia
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Mine, Mine, Mine: Self-Reference and Children’s Retention of Novel Words2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults demonstrate enhanced memory for words encoded as belonging to themselves compared to those belonging to another. Known as the self-reference effect, there is evidence for the effect in children as young as three. Toddlers are efficient in linking novel words to novel objects, but have difficulties retaining multiple word-object associations. The aim here was to investigate the self-reference ownership paradigm on 3-year-old children’s retention of novel words. Following exposure to each of four novel word-object pairings, children were told that objects either belonged to them or another character. Children demonstrated significantly higher immediate retention of self-referenced compared to other-referenced items. Retention was also tested 4 h later and the following morning. Retention for self- and other-referenced words was significantly higher than chance at both delayed time points, but the difference between the self- and other-referenced words was no longer significant. The findings suggest that when it comes to toddlers’ retention of multiple novel words there is an initial memory enhancing effect for self- compared to other-referenced items, but the difference diminishes over time. Children’s looking times during the self-reference presentations were positively associated with retention of self-referenced words 4 h later. Looking times during the other-reference presentations were positively associated with proportional looking at other-referenced items during immediate retention testing. The findings have implications for children’s memory for novel words and future studies could test children’s explicit memories for the ownership manipulation itself and whether the effect is superior to other forms of memory supports such as ostensive naming.

  • 4. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Hill, Catherine M.
    Sadeh, Avi
    Dimitriou, Dagmara
    Sleep problems and language development in toddlers with Williams syndrome2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, p. 3988-3996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep and related maternal beliefs were assessed in a narrow age range of 18 children with Williams syndrome (WS) and 18 typically developing (TD) children. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterised by a complex physical, cognitive and behavioural phenotype. High prevalence of sleep difficulties in older children and adults with WS have been reported. Parents completed 6 questionnaires: the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, Infant Sleep Vignettes Interpretation Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index of Parents, Child Behaviour Checklist, MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for Infants - Words and Gestures, and the Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory. Compared to TD children, those with WS had shorter night sleep, more night wakings and wakefulness according to parental report. Regression analyses revealed that a proportion of the variance in language development scores in WS children could be explained by night sleep duration. Compared to control parents, the mothers of the WS group were more likely to describe their child’s sleep as problematic and had higher rates of involvement with child sleep, yet they had a lesser tendency to interpret sleep problems as signs of distress and a greater tendency to emphasise limit setting. Approximately half of both groups of mothers experienced poor sleep quality. This was also related to maternal mood, and night wakefulness in the children with WS. This is the first study to quantify sleep difficulties in young children with WS in a narrow age range using maternal report. The possible negative effects on maternal sleep and mood, and the link between night sleep and language development in young children with WS, requires further detailed investigation. ?? 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 5. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Horst, Jessica S.
    Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping2014In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 152, p. 95-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Horst, Jessica S.
    Testing a word is not a test of word learning2013In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 144, p. 264-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although vocabulary acquisition requires children learn names for multiple things, many investigations of word learning mechanisms teach children the name for only one of the objects presented. This is problematic because it is unclear whether children’s performance reflects recall of the correct name-object association or simply selection of the only object that was singled out by being the only object named. Children introduced to one novel name may perform at ceiling as they are not required to discriminate on the basis of the name per se, and appear to rapidly learn words following minimal exposure to a single word. We introduced children to four novel objects. For half the children, only one of the objects was named and for the other children, all four objects were named. Only children introduced to one word reliably selected the target object at test. This demonstration highlights the over-simplicity of one-word learning paradigms and the need for a shift in word learning paradigms where more than one word is taught to ensure children disambiguate objects on the basis of their names rather than their degree of salience. ?? 2013.

  • 7. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Perry, Lynn K.
    Scott, Emilly J.
    Horst, Jessica S.
    Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning2016In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 163, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Swinton, Jaclyn
    Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Winiger, Amanda. I
    Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Horst, Jessica. S
    Univ Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, England.
    Napping and toddlers' memory for fast-mapped words2018In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 582-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When toddlers hear a novel word, they quickly and independently link it with a novel object rather than known-name objects. However, they are less proficient in retaining multiple novel words. Sleep and even short naps can enhance declarative memory in adults and children and this study investigates the effect of napping on children’s memory for novel words. Forty two-and-a-half-year-old children were presented with referent selection trials for four novel nouns. Children’s retention of the words was tested immediately after referent selection, four hours later in the afternoon, and the following morning. Half of the toddlers napped prior to the afternoon retention test. Amongst the toddlers who napped, retention scores remained steady four hours after exposure and the following morning. In contrast, for the wake group, there was a steady decline in retention scores by the following morning and significantly lower retention scores compared to the nap group. Napping following exposure to novel word–object associations could help in maintaining memories and limiting decay. Nap duration was also associated with better retention scores, but there were no effects of sleep quality, habitual napping, or sleepiness. The findings have implications for the role of napping in children’s language acquisition.

  • 9. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Williams, Sophie E.
    Horst, Jessica S.
    The Effect of Sleep on Children’s Word Retention and Generalization2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first few years of life children spend a good proportion of time sleeping as well as acquiring the meanings of hundreds of words. There is now ample evidence of the effects of sleep on memory in adults and the number of studies demonstrating the effects of napping and nocturnal sleep in children is also mounting. In particular, sleep appears to benefit children’s memory for recently-encountered novel words. The effect of sleep on children’s generalization of novel words across multiple items, however, is less clear. Given that sleep is polyphasic in the early years, made up of multiple episodes, and children’s word learning is gradual and strengthened slowly over time, it is highly plausible that sleep is a strong candidate in supporting children’s memory for novel words. Importantly, it appears that when children sleep shortly after exposure to novel word-object pairs retention is better than if sleep is delayed, suggesting that napping plays a vital role in long-term word retention for young children. Word learning is a complex, challenging, and important part of development, thus the role that sleep plays in children’s retention of novel words is worthy of attention. As such, ensuring children get sufficient good quality sleep and regular opportunities to nap may be critical for language acquisition.

  • 10. Eapen, Valsamma
    et al.
    Walter, Amelia
    Guan, Jane
    Descallar, Joseph
    Axelsson, Emma
    Einfeld, Stewart
    Eastwood, John
    Murphy, Elisabeth
    Beasley, Deborah
    Silove, Natalie
    Dissanayake, Cheryl
    Woolfenden, Sue
    Williams, Katrina
    Jalaludin, Bin
    Maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns: Associations with socio-demographic factors2017In: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, ISSN 1034-4810, E-ISSN 1440-1754, Vol. 53, p. 963-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine socio-demographic factors associated with maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns in a longitudinal birth cohort study. An understanding of these factors is critical to improving uptake of services to maximise early identification and intervention for developmental concerns. Methods: A birth cohort was recruited from the post-natal wards of two teaching hospitals and through community nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia, between November 2011 and April 2013. Of the 4047 mothers approached, 2025 consented to participate (response rate = 50%). Socio-demographic and service use information was collected after the child’s birth and when the child was 18 months of age. Sources of help were divided into three categories (formal health services, other formal services and informal supports) and compound variables were created by summing the number of different sources identified by mothers. Results: Significantly more sources of help were intended to be used and/or actually accessed by mothers born in Australia, whose primary language was English, with higher levels of education and annual household income, and among mothers of first-born children. Conclusions: Developmental concerns are known to increase with increased psychosocial adversity. Our findings of reduced intent to access and use of services by socio-economically disadvantaged families and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds suggests that an inverse care effect is in operation whereby those children with the greatest health needs may have the least access to services. Possible explanations for this, and recommendations for improving service accessibility for these populations through targeted and culturally appropriate services, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians)

  • 11. Eapen, Valsamma
    et al.
    Woolfenden, Susan
    Williams, Katrina
    Jalaludin, Bin
    Dissanayake, Cheryl
    Axelsson, Emma L
    Murphy, Elisabeth
    Eastwood, John
    Descallar, Joseph
    Beasley, Deborah
    Crnčec, Rudi
    Short, Katherine
    "Are you available for the next 18 months?" - methods and aims of a longitudinal birth cohort study investigating a universal developmental surveillance program: the ’Watch Me Grow’ study2014In: BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 14, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Universal developmental surveillance programs aimed at early identification and targeted early intervention significantly improve short-and long-term outcomes in children at risk of developmental disorders. However, a significant challenge remains in providing sufficiently rigorous research and robust evidence to inform policy and service delivery. This paper describes the methods of the ’Watch Me Grow’ study that aims to maximise accurate early detection of children with developmental disorders through a partnership formed between policy makers, service providers and researchers. Methods/Design: A mixed methods study design was developed consisting of: (1) a qualitative study of parents and health service providers to investigate barriers and enablers of developmental surveillance; (2) recruitment of a birth cohort and their longitudinal follow-up to 18 months of age to: a) assess risk factors for not accessing existing developmental surveillance programs and b) estimate the prevalence of children identified with developmental risk; (3) comparison of surveillance outcomes with a reference standard at 18 months of age to assess the diagnostic test accuracy of existing and alternative developmental surveillance tools; and (4) comparison of developmental surveillance models to inform policy recommendations. Data linkage will be used to determine the uptake and representativeness of the study participant group versus non-participants. Discussion: The Watch Me Grow study is expected to provide a collaborative opportunity to enhance universal developmental surveillance for early accurate identification of developmental risk. This will also provide quality evidence about identification of developmental risk and access to services to be embedded in existing practice with linkages to policy development.

  • 12. Franklin, Anna
    et al.
    Catherwood, Di
    Alvarez, James
    Axelsson, Emma
    Hemispheric asymmetries in categorical perception of orientation in infants and adults2010In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 48, p. 2648-2657Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Kushnerenko, Elena
    et al.
    Tomalski, Przemyslaw
    Ballieux, Haiko
    Ribeiro, Helena
    Potton, Anita
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    Murphy, Elizabeth
    Moore, Derek G.
    Brain responses to audiovisual speech mismatch in infants are associated with individual differences in looking behaviour2013In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on audiovisual speech integration has reported high levels of individual variability, especially among young infants. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this variability results from individual differences in the maturation of audiovisual speech processing during infancy. A developmental shift in selective attention to audiovisual speech has been demonstrated between 6 and 9 months with an increase in the time spent looking to articulating mouths as compared to eyes (Lewkowicz & Hansen-Tift. (2012) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 1431-1436; Tomalski et al. (2012) Eur. J. Dev. Psychol., 1-14). In the present study we tested whether these changes in behavioural maturational level are associated with differences in brain responses to audiovisual speech across this age range. We measured high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to videos of audiovisually matching and mismatched syllables /ba/ and /ga/, and subsequently examined visual scanning of the same stimuli with eye-tracking. There were no clear age-specific changes in ERPs, but the amplitude of audiovisual mismatch response (AVMMR) to the combination of visual /ba/ and auditory /ga/ was strongly negatively associated with looking time to the mouth in the same condition. These results have significant implications for our understanding of individual differences in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in infants, suggesting that they are not strictly related to chronological age but instead associated with the maturation of looking behaviour, and develop at individual rates in the second half of the first year of life.

  • 14. Moore, Derek G.
    et al.
    Goodwin, Julia E.
    George, Rachel
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    Braddick, Fleur M.B.
    Infants perceive human point-light displays as solid forms2007In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 104, p. 377-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While five-month-old infants show orientation-specific sensitivity to changes in the motion and occlusion patterns of human point-light displays, it is not known whether infants are capable of binding a human representation to these displays. Furthermore, it has been suggested that infants do not encode the same physical properties for humans and material objects. To explore these issues we tested whether infants would selectively apply the principle of solidity to upright human displays. In the first experiment infants aged six and nine months were repeatedly shown a human point-light display walking across a computer screen up to 10 times or until habituated. Next, they were repeatedly shown the walking display passing behind an in-depth representation of a table, and finally they were shown the human display appearing to pass through the table top in violation of the solidity of the hidden human form. Both six- and nine-month-old infants showed significantly greater recovery of attention to this final phase. This suggests that infants are able to bind a solid vertical form to human motion. In two further control experiments we presented displays that contained similar patterns of motion but were not perceived by adults as human. Six- and nine-month-old infants did not show recovery of attention when a scrambled display or an inverted human display passed through the table. Thus, the binding of a solid human form to a display in only seems to occur for upright human motion. The paper considers the implications of these findings in relation to theories of infants’ developing conceptions of objects, humans and animals. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15. Moore, Derek G
    et al.
    Turner, John D
    Parrott, Andrew C
    Goodwin, Julia E
    Fulton, Sarah E
    Min, Meeyoung O
    Fox, Helen C
    Braddick, Fleur MB
    Axelsson, Emma L
    Lynch, Stephanie
    Ribeiro, Helena
    Frostick, Caroline J
    Singer, Lynn T
    During pregnancy, recreational drug-using women stop taking ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and reduce alcohol consumption, but continue to smoke tobacco and cannabis: initial findings from the Development and Infancy Study2010In: Journal of Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0269-8811, E-ISSN 1461-7285, Vol. 24, p. 1403-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Overs, B. J.
    et al.
    Woolfenden, S.
    Williams, K.
    Jalaludin, B.
    Axelsson, E. L.
    Dissanayake, C.
    Descallar, J.
    Harvey, S.
    Beasley, D.
    Murphy, E.
    Eapen, V.
    Predictors of developmental surveillance completion at six months of age in south western Sydney2017In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 43, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While developmental surveillance programs promote early identification of child developmental problems, evidence has indicated suboptimal uptake. This study aimed to identify predictors of developmental surveillance completion at 6months postpartum.$$rMETHODS: Questionnaires were administered to the parents of 510 infants who were born in south western Sydney, Australia over a 22-month period. Attendance for developmental screening and completion of the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6months postpartum were modelled separately using multivariable logistic regression.$$rRESULTS: Developmental surveillance attendance was predicted by higher levels of maternal education, annual income and being informed about checks. PEDS completion at 6months of age was predicted by higher income and being informed, as well as being married, employed, speaking English at home, full-term birth and the professional status of the practitioner completing the check.$$rCONCLUSIONS: Barriers to developmental surveillance included low socioeconomic status, linguistic diversity and possible gaps in parental knowledge and professional education. Developmental surveillance rates may be increased by the addition of targeted parental and professional support within current universal frameworks.$$rCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 17. Perry, Lynn K
    et al.
    Axelsson, Emma L
    Horst, Jessica S
    Learning What to Remember: Vocabulary Knowledge and Children’s Memory for Object Names and Features2016In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 25, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although young children can map a novel name to a novel object, it remains unclear what they actually remember about objects when they initially make such a name–object association. In the current study we investigated (1) what children remembered after they were initially introduced to name–object associations and (2) how their vocabulary size and vocabulary structure influenced what they remembered. As a group, children had difficulty remembering each of the features of the original novel objects. Further analyses revealed that differences in vocabulary structure predicted children’s ability to remember object features. Specifically, children who produced many names for categories organized by similarity in shape (e.g. ball, cup) had the best mem-ory for newly-learned objects’ features—especially their shapes. In addition, the more features children remembered, the more likely they were to retain the newly learned name–object associa-tions. Vocabulary size, however, was not predictive of children’s feature memory or retention. Taken together, these findings dem-onstrate that children’s existing vocabulary structure, rather than simply vocabulary size, influences what they attend to when en-countering a new object and subsequently their ability to remem-ber new name–object associations.

  • 18. Tomalski, Przemyslaw
    et al.
    Moore, Derek G.
    Ribeiro, Helena
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    Murphy, Elizabeth
    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette
    Johnson, Mark H.
    Kushnerenko, Elena
    Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy2013In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 16, p. 676-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subjects comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families.

  • 19. Tomalski, Przemyslaw
    et al.
    Ribeiro, Helena
    Ballieux, Haiko
    Axelsson, Emma L.
    Murphy, Elizabeth
    Moore, Derek G.
    Kushnerenko, Elena
    Exploring early developmental changes in face scanning patterns during the perception of audiovisual mismatch of speech cues2013In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 10, p. 611-624Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Woolfenden, Susan
    et al.
    Eapen, Valsamma
    Axelsson, Emma L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hendry, Alexandra
    Jalaludin, Bin
    Dissanayake, Cheryl
    Overs, Bronwyn
    Descallar, Joseph
    Eastwood, John
    Einfeld, Stewart
    Silove, Natalie
    Short, Kate
    Beasley, Deborah
    Crnčec, Rudi
    Murphy, Elisabeth
    Williams, Katrina
    Who is our cohort:: recruitment, representativeness, baseline risk and retention in the 'Watch Me Grow' study?2016In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND The "Watch Me Grow" (WMG) study examines the current developmental surveillance system in South West Sydney. This paper describes the establishment of the study birth cohort, including the recruitment processes, representativeness, follow-up and participants’ baseline risk for future developmental risk. METHODS Newborn infants and their parents were recruited from two public hospital postnatal wards and through child health nurses during the years 2011-2013. Data was obtained through a detailed participant questionnaire and linked with the participant’s electronic medical record (EMR). Representativeness was determined by Chi-square analyses of the available clinical, psychosocial and sociodemographic EMR data, comparing the WMG participants to eligible non-participants. Reasons for non-participation were also elicited. Participant characteristics were examined in six, 12, and 18-month follow-ups. RESULTS The number of infants recruited totalled 2,025, with 50 % of those approached agreeing to participate. Reasons for parents not participating included: lack of interest, being too busy, having plans to relocate, language barriers, participation in other research projects, and privacy concerns. The WMG cohort was broadly representative of the culturally diverse and socially disadvantaged local population from which it was sampled. Of the original 2025 participants enrolled at birth, participants with PEDS outcome data available at follow-up were: 792 (39 %) at six months, 649 (32 %) at 12 months, and 565 (28 %) at 18 months. Participants with greater psychosocial risk were less likely to have follow-up outcome data. Almost 40 % of infants in the baseline cohort were exposed to at least two risk factors known to be associated with developmental risk. CONCLUSIONS The WMG study birth cohort is a valuable resource for health services due to the inclusion of participants from vulnerable populations, despite there being challenges in being able to actively follow-up this population.

  • 21. Woolfenden, Susan
    et al.
    Eapen, Valsamma
    Jalaludin, Bin
    Hayen, Andrew
    Kemp, Lynn
    Dissanyake, Cheryl
    Hendry, Alexandra
    Axelsson, Emma
    Overs, Bronwyn
    Eastwood, John
    \vCrnčec, Rudi
    McKenzie, Anne
    Beasley, Deborah
    Murphy, Elisabeth
    Williams, Katrina
    Prevalence and factors associated with parental concerns about development detected by the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks in a birth cohort2016In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Early identification of developmental vulnerability is vital. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of moderate or high developmental risk on the Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6-month, 12-month and 18-month well-child checks; identify associated risk factors; and examine documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Design, participants: A prospective birth cohort of 2025 children with 50% of those approached agreeing to participate. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaires and linked electronic medical records. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents to collect PEDS data. Primary and secondary outcomes: Multiple logistic regression analyses identified risk factors for moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS. A Cumulative Risk Index examined the impact of multiple risk factors on developmental risk and documentation of the PEDS at the well-child checks. Results: Of the original cohort, 792 (39%) had 6-month, 649 (32%) had 12-month and 565 (28%) had 18-month PEDS data. Parental concerns indicating moderate or high developmental risk on the PEDS were 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 6 months, 27% (95% CI 24 to 30) at 12 months and 33% (95% CI 29 to 37) at 18 months. Factors associated with moderate or high developmental risk were perinatal risk (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); maternal Middle Eastern or Asian nationality (OR 6 months: 1.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4)), (OR 12 months: 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7)); and household disadvantage (OR 6 months: 1.5 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). As the number of risk factors increased the odds increased for high or moderate developmental risk and no documentation of the PEDS at well-child checks. Conclusions: Children with multiple risk factors are more likely to have parental concerns indicating developmental vulnerability using the PEDS and for these concerns to not be documented.

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