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  • 1.
    Chen, Hwei -Yen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 848-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  • 2.
    Hooper, Amy K.
    et al.
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wylde, Zachariah
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bonduriansky, Russell
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast2017In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 671-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs that limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioral secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males. We found that high-condition males developed more quickly and reached their reproductive peak earlier in life, but also experienced faster reproductive ageing and died sooner than low-condition males. By contrast, interactions with rival males reduced male lifespan but did not affect male reproductive ageing. High-condition in early life is therefore associated with rapid ageing in T. angusticollis males, even in the absence of damaging male-male interactions. Our results show that abundant resources during the juvenile phase are used to expedite growth and development and enhance early-life reproductive performance at the expense of late-life performance and survival, demonstrating a clear link between male condition and ageing.

  • 3.
    Lind, Martin I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolutionary consequences of epigenetic inheritance2018In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 121, no 3, p. 205-209Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Condition-dependence in life history evolution2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is the progressive physiological deterioration that appears with increasing age and eventually leads to a decline in survival and reproduction. This physiological process is omnipresent across the tree of life, but the expected trajectory can widely vary between and within species. Classic theories predict that the evolution of senescence is strongly influenced by the level of extrinsic mortality. Furthermore, variation in early-life developmental environments can shape individual condition and thus lead to alternative life-history strategies. The interplay between early-life environment and individual condition might therefore predict the trajectory of ageing and is of importance when studying life history evolution. In this thesis, I focus on condition dependent life-history strategies and how this can translate in differential ageing patterns. Moreover, I specifically investigate the influence of early-life environment on key life history traits (i.e. survival and reproduction) and how this might eventually carry-over to future generations via nongenetic inheritance. First, I used an experimental approach involving lab populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei to show that males, but not females, pay the cost for the evolution of increased lifespan (Paper I). Second, I used an empirical dataset based on 25 years of observations, to investigate the long-term effects of early-life environment on reproduction and survival (Paper II). Reproductive success of low-condition females in natural populations of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) peaks later in life, when high-condition females are already in steep reproductive decline and suffer from high mortality rates. Third, I used the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis in an experimental environment, to test whether condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits affects the life-history strategies of males (Paper III). High-condition males developed and aged faster than low-condition males, but interaction with rival males did not affect male reproductive ageing. Finally, continuing the T. angusticollis experiment, I also found that parental diet interacts with parental sex and offspring sex, ultimately affecting offspring life-histories. Parental effects can thus play an important role in shaping between-individual variation in reproductive and actuarial senescence (Paper IV). Overall, in this thesis I have explored the interaction between environment, condition and ageing in both experimental and natural settings.

    List of papers
    1. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 848-856Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

    Keywords
    heat shock, intralocus sexual conflict, life-history trade-off, senescence, sex-specific pleiotropy
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295550 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12833 (DOI)000373929000015 ()26801472 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-06-08 Created: 2016-06-08 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    2. “Silver-spoon” natal conditions increase early-life fitness but accelerate reproductive ageing in a wild bird
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Silver-spoon” natal conditions increase early-life fitness but accelerate reproductive ageing in a wild bird
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-life conditions can have long-lasting effects and organisms that experience a poor start in life are often expected to age at a faster rate. Alternatively, individuals raised in high-quality environments can overinvest in early-reproduction resulting in rapid ageing. Here we use long-term experimental manipulation of early-life conditions in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), to show that females raised in a low-competition environment have higher early-life reproduction but lower late-life reproduction than females raised in high-competition environment. We experimentally created either artificially increased (high-competition) or reduced (low-competition) broods. Reproductive success of high-competition females peaked in late-life, when low-competition females were already in steep reproductive decline and suffered from higher mortality rate. Our results demonstrate that “silver spoon” effects can increase female early-life performance at the cost of faster reproductive ageing and increased late-life mortality. These findings support the evolutionary theory of ageing and show that early-life environmental conditions shape reproductive and demographic ageing in nature.

    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347831 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-08 Created: 2018-04-08 Last updated: 2018-04-09
    3. Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 671-685Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs that limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioral secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males. We found that high-condition males developed more quickly and reached their reproductive peak earlier in life, but also experienced faster reproductive ageing and died sooner than low-condition males. By contrast, interactions with rival males reduced male lifespan but did not affect male reproductive ageing. High-condition in early life is therefore associated with rapid ageing in T. angusticollis males, even in the absence of damaging male-male interactions. Our results show that abundant resources during the juvenile phase are used to expedite growth and development and enhance early-life reproductive performance at the expense of late-life performance and survival, demonstrating a clear link between male condition and ageing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2017
    Keywords
    Condition dependence, costs of secondary sexual traits, life history, reproductive ageing, senescence, sexual selection
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320842 (URN)10.1111/evo.13172 (DOI)000396039000012 ()28067402 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Australian Research CouncilEU, European Research CouncilSwedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-26 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    4. Early-life parental diet effects on ageing depend on the sex of parents and their offspring
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early-life parental diet effects on ageing depend on the sex of parents and their offspring
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347832 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-04-09
  • 5.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hooper, Amy
    Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
    Wylde, Zacharia
    Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
    Bonduriansky, Russel
    Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Early-life parental diet effects on ageing depend on the sex of parents and their offspringManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Teplitsky, Celine
    Centre D'Ecologie Fonctionelle & Evolutive.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    “Silver-spoon” natal conditions increase early-life fitness but accelerate reproductive ageing in a wild birdManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-life conditions can have long-lasting effects and organisms that experience a poor start in life are often expected to age at a faster rate. Alternatively, individuals raised in high-quality environments can overinvest in early-reproduction resulting in rapid ageing. Here we use long-term experimental manipulation of early-life conditions in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), to show that females raised in a low-competition environment have higher early-life reproduction but lower late-life reproduction than females raised in high-competition environment. We experimentally created either artificially increased (high-competition) or reduced (low-competition) broods. Reproductive success of high-competition females peaked in late-life, when low-competition females were already in steep reproductive decline and suffered from higher mortality rate. Our results demonstrate that “silver spoon” effects can increase female early-life performance at the cost of faster reproductive ageing and increased late-life mortality. These findings support the evolutionary theory of ageing and show that early-life environmental conditions shape reproductive and demographic ageing in nature.

  • 7.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Blom, Mozes P. K.
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Department of Bioinformatic and Genetics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Digest: Life history evolution in Darwin's dream ponds2018In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 1186-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can variation in sex‐specific parental investment lead to sexual dimorphism in immune response? Keller et al. (2018) measured immune cell parameters, expression of candidate genes and composition of buccal microbiota in mouthbrooding cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika that show either maternal or biparental care. They found that maternal mouthbrooding species have increased sexual dimorphism in immune parameters, while biparental mouthbrooders exhibit an upregulated adaptive immune response, suggesting resource allocation shifts between parental investment and the immune system.

  • 8.
    Svensson, Erik I.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Goedert, Debora
    Dartmouth Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.
    Gomez-Llano, Miguel A.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nava-Bolanos, Angela
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ecol, Dept Ecol Evolut, Apdo Postal 70-275,Ciudad Univ, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Fac Ciencias, Secret Educ Abierta & Continua, CU, Ave Univ 3000, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Sex differences in local adaptation: what can we learn from reciprocal transplant experiments?2018In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, no 1757, article id 20170420Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local adaptation is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists. Traditionally, local adaptation has been studied using reciprocal transplant experiments to quantify fitness differences between residents and immigrants in pairwise transplants between study populations. Previous studies have detected local adaptation in some cases, but others have shown lack of adaptation or even maladaptation. Recently, the importance of different fitness components, such as survival and fecundity, to local adaptation have been emphasized. Here, we address another neglected aspect in studies of local adaptation: sex differences. Given the ubiquity of sexual dimorphism in life histories and phenotypic traits, this neglect is surprising, but may be partly explained by differences in research traditions and terminology in the fields of local adaptation and sexual selection. Studies that investigate differences in mating success between resident and immigrants across populations tend to be framed in terms of reproductive and behavioural isolation, rather than local adaptation. We briefly review the published literature that bridges these areas and suggest that reciprocal transplant experiments could benefit from quantifying both male and female fitness components. Such a more integrative research approach could clarify the role of sex differences in the evolution of local adaptations. 

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