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  • 1.
    Bourbour, Maryam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Högberg, Sören
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Preschool Teachers’ use of the Interactive Whiteboard to Scaffold Children’s AnalyticalThinking.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bourbour, Maryam
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Högberg, Sören
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Putting scaffolding into actions: Preschool teachers’ scaffolding actions using Interactive Whiteboard2019In: Early Childhood Education Journal, ISSN 1082-3301, E-ISSN 1573-1707Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    et al.
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Pedagogik.
    School district administrators’ perspectives on the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway and Sweden2014In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 669-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate school district administrators’ perspectives concerning the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway (n=266) and Sweden (n=290). We examine three themes drawn from a survey of practices and policies in each country: (a) the organisational arrangements in which special educators work, (b) perceived changes in special educators’ activities, and (c) ratings of special educators’ influence on the content of instruction and the availability of resources for children with special needs. Findings suggest that special educators frequently work in teams, function largely as advisors, and spend less time working with individual students than in previous years. There appears to be a more pronounced increase in special educators’ time devoted to advising and documentation in Sweden than in Norway. Swedish special educators were also more frequently described as working in multidisciplinary teams. Participants in both countries rated the influence of special educators significantly higher than that of parents and teachers on the availability and distribution of resources; and significantly higher than politicians, public officials, teachers, and parents with regard to influence over the content of instruction. We discuss these findings in relation to the goals and development of inclusive education in Scandinavia.

  • 4.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    et al.
    University of Agder.
    Tveit, Anne Dorthe
    University of Agder.
    Jortveit, Maryann
    University of Agder.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Comparative Study of Special Educator Preparation in Norway and Sweden2018In: British Journal of Special Education, ISSN 0952-3383, E-ISSN 1467-8578, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 256-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore similarities and differences between special educator preparation in Norway and in Sweden. Graduates of special education programmes at two Norwegian (n = 320) and two Swedish universities (n = 425) who completed their training between 2001 and 2012 responded to surveys. Findings indicate that both Swedish and Norwegian graduates felt prepared for their current work and that teaching approaches employed in the different programmes were similar. However, there appears to be a stronger focus on pupils’ social goals in Sweden, as well as on advising teachers, school development and promoting inclusive environments. In contrast, Norwegian participants reported a greater focus on preparation to work with specific types of learning and behavioural difficulties. Findings are discussed in relation to differing political and social structures, such as national regulations for steering special educator preparation in Sweden, which are absent in the Norwegian context.

  • 5. Enoksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ungewitter, Annika
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studier i en främmande skolkultur2019In: Didaktisk utvecklingsdialog: Lärares och skolledares professionella utveckling / [ed] Anette Olin, Jonas Almqvist, Karim Hamza & Lisbeth Gyllander Torkildsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 49-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Gäreskog, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    SENCOs and preschool teachers – their work with children in need of special support2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Research topic/Aim: This paper focuses on the division of labor regarding special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and preschool teachers who work with children in need of special support. The overall purpose of the study is to increase knowledge concerning work with children who are deemed to be in need of special support in preschool. The main study consists of two separate studies. The first study helps to visualize SENCOs´ tasks, perceptions and role. In study II, a particular focus is on how preschool teachers perceive the jurisdiction of work related to children in need of special support and how tasks negotiated in relation to the work of SENCOs.   Theoretical framework: A theory of professions, primarily based on Abbott (1988), is used to understand SENCOs´ occupational role and work, especially in the light of Abbott's reasoning concerning jurisdictional control and division of expert labor.   We are also interested in SENCOs´ perceptions, therefore it is relevant to use different perspectives on special education. In this study, we use Persson´s (1998) terms, categorical and relational perspective, to understand how SENCOs and preschool teacher explain causes of children’s difficulties.   Methodological design: The first study is part of a total population study where all SENCOs in Sweden (n= 4252) who were examined by the examination acts of years 2001, 2007, and 2008 were sent a questionnaire. In a later phase of the procedure, the responses from SENCOs working towards preschool were extracted from the 3190 responses received and reported earlier. Thus, this study consists of 523 participants (i.e. 16.4 % of the 3190 respondents).   The second study consists of interviews with preschool teachers about their work with children in need of special support and how they describe their cooperation with SENCOs.   Expected conclusions/findings: The results show that SENCOs’ working hours are primarily spent on consultation. They regard their possibilities to influence their colleagues' views on children's difficulties as high. Regarding SENCOs’ perceptions of why children have difficulties in preschools, a large number of SENCOs indicate that it is because preschool is poorly prepared to handle children's differences.   The second study is currently in the analyzing process. However, preliminary results indicate that preschool teachers have great confidence in SENCOs’ work.   Relevance for Nordic Educational Research: This study examines SENCOs’ work in Swedish preschools. It is relevant to compare and discuss their role within a Nordic context. Earlier studies  indicate that Nordic Countries are similar when it comes to the role and work of SENCOs (Takala & Ahl, 2014). However, little is known about SENCOs’ work in preschools.

  • 7.
    Gäreskog, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Working at a distance? A study of Special Educational Needs Coordinators in Swedish preschoolsIn: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education –: A total population study of Swedish special needs educators2019In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N = 3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs’ interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs’ employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • 9. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Klang, Nina
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Nilholm, Claes
    Speciella yrken?: Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning2015Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Möllås, Gunvie
    Jönköping University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among special needs educators and support teachers in Sweden2017In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 490-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special needs educators and their counterparts are expected to play a significant role in schools' work towards inclusive practices. Studies do, however, indicate a rather diversified picture regarding the occupational groups assigned to work with special support and their workroles, within and between different countries. In Sweden, one can differentiate between two such occupational groups, special needs educators (SNEs) with qualifications in special educational needs at advanced level and support teachers (SuTs) with varying teacher education and education in special educational needs. The aims of this paper are to investigate the occurrence of SNEs and SuTs within the compulsory school system in ten municipalities in Sweden and the occupational roles of those SNEs and SuTs in relation to the inclusion agenda. A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SNEs and SuTs in ten municipalities (n=511, response rate 61.6%). Main results indicate that: a) there is wide variation between municipalities regarding the extent to which SNEs or SuTs are assigned to work with special support; b) the characteristics of the occupational role of SNEs are more in line with inclusive practices than those of the role of SuTs; c) there is consensus between the two occupational groups regarding what they think should characterize the occupational role of SNEs; and d) SNEs consider, more than do the SuTs themselves, that the role of SuTs should be more in line with that of a ‘traditional special-education teacher’. Results are discussed in relation to Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) theoretical accounts of inclusive education and Abbott’s (1988) notion of jurisdictional control.

  • 11.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Voices of special educatiors in Sweden. A total population study.2015In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 287-304Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jortveit, Maryann
    et al.
    University of Agder.
    Tveit, Anne Dorthe
    University of Agder.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    University of Agder.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    A Comparative Study of Norwegian and Swedish Special Educators’ Beliefs and Practices 2019In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Klang, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Hansson, Susanne
    Karlstads universitet.
    Bengtsson, Karin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Instructional Practices for Pupils with an Intellectual Disability in Mainstream and Special Educational Settings2019In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Davidsson, Carina (Contributor)
    Sigtuna kommun.
    Flodberg, Anna-Lena (Contributor)
    Sigtuna kommun.
    Hult, Carola (Contributor)
    Sigtuna kommun.
    Hultin, Anneli (Contributor)
    Sigtuna kommun.
    Possnert, Gabriel (Contributor)
    Sigtuna kommun.
    Sandberg, Carina (Contributor)
    Sigtuna kommun.
    God inkluderande lärmiljö: Rapport från en forskningscirkel2019Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Olika yrkesgruppers syn på arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd inom förskola och skola2011In: Praktiknära utbildningsforskning vid Högskolan Dalarna / [ed] Bartholdsson, Åsa; Hultin, Eva, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2011, p. 89-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikelns övergripande syfte är att redovisa hur pedagogisk personal och rektorer i en svensk kommun ser på arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Frågor kring inflytande, påverkan och kompetens samt styrdokumentens betydelse i samband med arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd ställdes. Personalens och rektorernas syn på orsaker till att barn hamnar i behov av särskilt stöd studerades också. Samtlig pedagogisk personal tillfrågades (N=1345) varav 73 % svarade. Bland rektorerna (N=45) var svarsfrekvensen 100 % . Den teoretiska ansatsen är socialkonstruktivistisk och verksamhetsteorin har använts för att studera och analysera kommunen och skolan som system. Resultaten visar bland annat att drygt en fjärdedel av all pedagogisk personal i kommunen anser att de har små möjligheter att påverka barns måluppfyllelse, att de flesta anger att speciallärare/specialpedagoger ska ha störst inflytande över arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd samt att orsakerna till att barn hamnar i behov av särskilt stöd oftast anses bero på barnets individuella brister.

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    SENCOs: vanguards or in vain?2013In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today, special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) are educated at universities to help resolve educational problems related to children in need of special support at three levels, that is, the organisational level, the classroom level and the individual level. Before the education of SENCOs was created in the early 1990s, special teachers were the occupational group that worked primarily on an individual level. Children's school problems were then seen as individual deficits. SENCOs can be seen as vanguards in changing an educational system from primarily focusing on an individual perspective to a broader focus on the entire learning environment. How has the occupational role of SENCOs affected schools? The overall aim of this study is to investigate possible changes within a school system when the introduction of a new occupational group, SENCOs, challenges established structures. More specifically, this paper studies how different occupational groups view where and in what ways SENCOs work and should work. Three different questionnaires are the basis of this analysis of SENCOs' present situation within the Swedish educational system. A number of interesting findings were detected in this study. For example, several occupational groups respond that SENCOs should work with individually taught special education. Meanwhile, a pattern emerges in which SENCOs seem to have partly established a new work role. However, little is known about how these changes affect children in need of special support.

  • 17.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Pedagogik; Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Who Should do What to Whom?: Occupational Groups´Views on Special Needs2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of different occupational groups´ views on work with children in need of special support. This is explored in four separate studies.

    The first study investigates the views of occupational groups in preschools and schools in one municipality. A questionnaire was handed out to all personnel (N=1297) in the municipality in 2008 (72.5 % response rate). The second study explores the views of educational leaders (N=45) in the same municipality. Questionnaire # 2 was distributed in 2009. All the educational leaders responded to the questionnaire. The third study describes the views of different occupational groups concerning special educational needs coordinators´ (SENCOs) role and work. This was highlighted by comparing responses from questionnaire #1 and # 2. Responses concerning SENCOs´ work were also added using a third questionnaire. This questionnaire was handed out in 2006 to chief education officers (N=290) in all municipalities in Sweden. The response rate was 90.3%. Finally, the fourth study presents five head teachers´ descriptions of their work with special needs issues. Study four was a follow-up study of questionnaire # 2. These head teachers were selected because of their inclusive values and because they seemed to be effective according to certain criteria. They were interviewed in January 2012.

    The results reveal a number of interesting findings. For example, there are both similar and different views among the occupational groups concerning work with children in need of special support. A majority of the respondents in all groups state that children´s individual deficiencies is one common reason why children need special support in preschools/schools. Differences between the occupational groups become especially visible regarding their views of SENCOs‟ work.

    Critical pragmatism (Cherryholmes, 1988) is applied as a theoretical point of departure. Skrtic´s (1991) critical reading and analysis of special education relative to general education is specifically used to interpret and discuss the outcome of the studies. Additionally, Abbott´s (1988) reasoning concerning the “division of expert labor” is used to discuss the occupational groups´ replies concerning “who should do what to whom”.

    The findings in the studies are contextualized and theoretically interpreted in the separate articles. However in the first part of this thesis (in Swedish: Kappa), the theoretical interpretations of the empirical outcome are discussed in more detail and the results are further contextualized and synthesised. Inclusion and premises for inclusive education are also discussed in more depth in the first part of the present thesis.

    List of papers
    1. Different agendas? The views of different occupational groups on special needs education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different agendas? The views of different occupational groups on special needs education
    2011 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate how different occupational groups explain why children have problems in school, how they believe schools should help these children and the role they believe that special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. A questionnaire was distributed to all teaching and support staff in a Swedish municipality (N=1297). As a result, 938 persons (72.5%) answered the questionnaire. The answers given by (a) preschool teachers (b) teacher assistants (c) SENCOs (d) special teachers (e) class teachers and (f) subject teachers were compared. Several interesting patterns emerged from the data indicating that the occupational groups to a large extent have different ideas concerning how the school should work with children in need of special support. The SENCOs were, for example, the only group that believed that they should be involved in school development. The outcome of the study is discussed in relation to the notion of inclusive education.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2011
    Keywords
    Special needs; inclusive education; occupational groups; views; collaboration; professional roles
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381247 (URN)10.1080/08856257.2011.563604 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-08
    2. Making schools inclusive? Educational leaders' views on how to work with children in need of special support
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making schools inclusive? Educational leaders' views on how to work with children in need of special support
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Educational leaders have a comprehensive responsibility for how preschools and schools work with children in need of special educational support. The aim of this research is to study how educational leaders (a) explain why children have problems in schools, (b) consider how preschools/schools should help children in need of special support and (c) the role they believe that Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. Educational leaders (N = 45) working in preschools and regular compulsory schools in a Swedish municipality responded (100%) to a questionnaire. According to the results of this study, this group seems to view difficulties in schools as being caused primarily by individual shortcomings. Educational leaders often advocate solutions that are closely linked to the work of special educators. The educational leaders believe SENCOs should work with supervising staff and focus on documentation and evaluations. Preschool leaders attribute children's need of special support to teachers more often than their colleagues in compulsory schools.

    Keywords
    educational leaders, inclusive education, compulsory schools, preschools, special needs, views
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381245 (URN)10.1080/13603116.2011.580466 (DOI)000314152900007 ()
    Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-08
    3. SENCOs: vanguards or in vain?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SENCOs: vanguards or in vain?
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today, special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) are educated at universities to help resolve educational problems related to children in need of special support at three levels, that is, the organisational level, the classroom level and the individual level. Before the education of SENCOs was created in the early 1990s, special teachers were the occupational group that worked primarily on an individual level. Children's school problems were then seen as individual deficits. SENCOs can be seen as vanguards in changing an educational system from primarily focusing on an individual perspective to a broader focus on the entire learning environment. How has the occupational role of SENCOs affected schools? The overall aim of this study is to investigate possible changes within a school system when the introduction of a new occupational group, SENCOs, challenges established structures. More specifically, this paper studies how different occupational groups view where and in what ways SENCOs work and should work. Three different questionnaires are the basis of this analysis of SENCOs' present situation within the Swedish educational system. A number of interesting findings were detected in this study. For example, several occupational groups respond that SENCOs should work with individually taught special education. Meanwhile, a pattern emerges in which SENCOs seem to have partly established a new work role. However, little is known about how these changes affect children in need of special support.

    Keywords
    Special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs), inclusive education, municipality, occupational groups, views
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381243 (URN)10.1111/j.1471-3802.2012.01249.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-08
    4. Promoting inclusion? ‘Inclusive’ and effective head teachers’ descriptions of their work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting inclusion? ‘Inclusive’ and effective head teachers’ descriptions of their work
    2014 (English)In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6–16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and express inclusive values relative to a relational perspective. The interviews were semi-structured, and a thematic analysis was performed. Head teachers’ strategies were in focus. The theoretical point of departure is critical pragmatism. Overall the five head teachers reported similar strategies. The head teachers describe the importance of educational leadership through observation and participation in activities in the classrooms. They advocate flexibility in the solutions provided for students in need of special support preferring solutions carried out in the regular classroom by the class/subject teacher. Head teachers see special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) as important partners in their work towards more inclusive practices. Head teachers express the importance of consensus among their staff. They seem to welcome government’s increasing demands and steering concerning how head teachers should manage their schools. Finally, it is discussed whether the head teachers can be said to work ‘inclusively’ and, more generally, the methodological challenges researchers must confront in studies concerning ‘inclusive’ education.

    Keywords
    head teachers, inclusion, successful schools, leadership, strategies, methodological challenges
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381246 (URN)10.1080/08856257.2013.849845 (DOI)000343600000006 ()
    Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-08
  • 18.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Tveit, Anne Dorthe
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jortveit, Maryann
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala universitet.
    A Comparative Investigation of Special Educator Preparation in Norway and Sweden. 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning: en enkätstudie2015Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Special educators in Sweden: descriptions of their education and work2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper presentation is to provide an overview of special educators’ work in Sweden. The paper investigates special educational needs coordinators’ (SENCOs’) and special-education teachers’ perceptions of their occupational role, of their preparedness for the role and of how their role is practised. The paper also illuminates questions about special educators’ knowledge and values as well as the grounds for the occupational groups to claim special expertise related to the identification of and work with school difficulties. A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all special educators in Sweden who were examined in the years and in accordance with the Swedish Examination Acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N= 4252, 75% response rate). The study is unique in terms of three aspects. Firstly, it is unique due to the large-scale data collection. Secondly, the education of special educators in Sweden is in an international perspective unique. Swedish special educators have to study one and a half years (advanced level) following a degree in teaching in order to get a degree as a SENCO or a special-education teacher and thirdly, the Swedish school system has been long renowned for its ambition to be a school for all, i.e. for its inclusive tendencies. Thus, special educators have supposedly played an important part in this effort for a more inclusive school system. According to the results, special educators state that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counseling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that the groups are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practise in their daily work. Primarily using Abbott’s (1988) reasoning concerning jurisdictional control, we discuss SENCOs’ and special-education teachers’ authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge and thus, their chances of gaining full jurisdictional control in the field of special education. This study is part of a research project called Special professions? – A project about special-education teachers’ and special educational needs coordinators’ education and work and is funded by the Swedish Research Council.

  • 21.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Voices of special educators in Sweden: a total-population study2015In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 287-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are two occupational groups in Sweden that are expected to have

    significant impact on educational work related to children in need of special support.

    These two groups are special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special

    education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name ‘special educators’ to

    refer to both groups. Special educators are expected to have specific knowledge

    regarding the identification of, and work with, school difficulties. However, there is

    noticeably little research concerning these occupational groups. This study was

    undertaken in order to further our knowledge about special educators’ work.

    Purpose: The overall purpose of the present paper is to provide a first overview of

    special educators’ work. The paper investigates these special educators’ perceptions

    of their occupational role, of their preparedness for the role and of how their role is

    practised. The paper also illuminates questions about SENCOs’ and special education

    teachers’ knowledge and values as well as the grounds for the occupational groups

    to claim special expertise related to the identification of, and work with, school difficulties.

    Design and method: A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all SENCOs and special

    education teachers in Sweden who received their degree from 2001 onwards and

    in accordance with the Swedish examination acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008

    (N = 4252, 75% response rate).

    Results: According to the results, special educators state that they are well prepared

    to work with some tasks, such as counselling, leading development work and teaching

    children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that the

    groups are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practise

    in their daily work.

    Conclusions: Primarily using reasoning concerning jurisdictional control, we discuss

    SENCOs’ and special education teachers’ authority to claim special expertise in relation

    to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge and thus, their chances of gaining

    full jurisdictional control in the field of special education.

  • 22.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Hansson, Susanne
    Karlstads universitet.
    Bengtsson, Karin
    Karlstadsuniversitet.
    A different school?Teaching and learning in school for pupils with intellectual disability2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Klang, Nina
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Special Professions?: A Presentation of a Research Project Concerning Special Educators´ Education and Work in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal information

    The purpose of this paper presentation is to provide overall findings generated from a research project funded by the Swedish Research Council concerning special educators’ education and work. The role of special educators, and their counterparts, is discussed in relation to implications for the development of inclusive education. The overarching research question concerns how special educators identify and shape their occupational role. More specifically the research questions presented below are:

    1. According to special educators, what characterizes the professional knowledge and values they claim that they represent? (Study 1)

    2.  What tasks do special educators consider to be characteristic of their occupational role, as practiced by them? (Study 1)

    3.  On what grounds can special educators claim special expertise concerning the identification of, and work with, school difficulties? (Study 1)

    4. To what extent are special educators and to what extent are support teachers assigned to work with special support in ten municipalities in Sweden? (Study 2)

    5. What work tasks characterize/constitute the occupational role of special educators, and what work tasks characterize/constitute the occupational role of support teachers? (Study 2)

    6. What work tasks do special educators and what work tasks do support teachers believe should characterize the two occupational roles? (Study 2)

    7. What characterizes the work tasks of six special educators who pursue a typical special educator role according to their survey ratings? (Study 3)

    8. What characterizes the contexts in which the six special educators enact their professional roles? (Study 3)

      Our theoretical point of departure is Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) reasoning concerning special education as a parallel system to regular education, which in turn, counteracts the development of inclusion. We also use Abbott’s (1988) notions of division of labor and jurisdictional control in order to better understand the formation of special educators’ role as well as conditions for special educators to develop inclusive practices. In study two, Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) theoretical accounts of inclusive education, and Abbott’s (1988) notion of jurisdictional control is specifically used to gain further understanding about the formation of special educators’ and support teachers’ role in relation to implications for inclusion.  In study 3, a typology of school contexts (Ball et al., 2012) is used to describe the complex local contexts in which special educators enact their professional roles.

      From an international viewpoint, this research project is of value for several reasons. Firstly, it involves large-scale data collections. While it has long since been common to use questionnaires in special needs research in order to study the views of different occupational groups, mostly teachers, it is still uncommon to study large samples of groups that are influential in special needs work (Göransson et al., 2015). Secondly, the education of special educators in Sweden is from an international perspective not at all typical. In Sweden a special educator has to study one and a half years (advanced level) following a degree in teaching in order to get a degree as a special educator. Thus, Swedish special educators have received comparatively more education than their counterparts in most other European countries (Göransson et al., submitted). This is of special interest since, thirdly, Sweden is still considered to have one of the most ‘inclusive’ educational systems in the world (OECD, 2011).

      Methods

      The project consists of three separate, yet linking studies. The first study is a questionnaire study which investigates all special educators in Sweden who were examined in the years and in accordance with the Swedish Examination Acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N= 4252, 75% response rate). Thus, the first study is a total-population study of special educators in Sweden. The second study is a questionnaire study as well. It was distributed to all special educators and support teachers in ten municipalities (n=511, 61.6% response rate). Both questionnaires were distributed in 2012. Descriptive statistics are mostly used in the presentation of the data from the two questionnaires, since whole populations were studied. In questionnaire # 2, two independent samples t-tests were also used when data was analyzed. In study 3, case-study methodology (Merriam, 1992) was used to illustrate the complexity of enactment of special educator roles in local school contexts. Through purposive sampling, six participants were chosen from study 2 to represent typical special educators. Following criteria were used: (a) reported tasks corresponded to examination statutes (b) participants reported that they could influence the work at school. Within each case, data were collected using participant observations, diary recordings, and interviews with special educators, headmasters and teachers. Data analysis within and across cases was conducted to discern special educator roles and tasks as well as the contexts in which the roles were enacted.

      Conclusions

      According to the first study, special educators display a relational perspective on school difficulties. Regarding the mission of education they seem to represent what might be called an ‘equity discourse’ (cf. Englund and Quennerstedt, 2008), which is quite contradictory to the current education agenda, focusing excellence, increased goal attainment and accountability (Göransson et al., 2013). Special educators believe that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counseling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that they are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practice. We discuss special educators’ authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge (Abbott, 1988). Results from the second study indicate that there are wide variations between municipalities regarding to what extent special educators or support teachers work with special support. The characteristics of the occupational role of special educators are more in line with inclusive practices than the role of support teachers. Moreover, special educators consider that support teachers should work more as ‘traditional special teachers’, than do the support teachers themselves. In study 3, six categories of work tasks were discerned: teaching, social relational work, assessment, informing and following up, supporting and providing materials, school-development, and practical chores. The time devoted to these tasks varied among the six special educators. Related to Abbott’s concept of professional jurisdiction, it can be questioned whether the tasks the special educators as a group claim control over are unique to the profession. While teaching and assessment are typical across all cases, special educators’ conceptions of school-development tasks are quite different. How the role is enacted is also related to local school contexts (Ball et al., 2012), as situated school contexts, the material contexts and values and experiences of staff.

      References

    Abbott, A. (1988). The System of Professions. An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: University of Chicago.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. 1. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Englund, T. & Qennerstedt, A. (2008). Vadå likvärdighet? – studier i utbildningspolitisk språkbildning. [What Equivalence? - Studies in Education policy language education]. Gothenburg: Daidalos.

    Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G. & Nilholm, C. (2015) Voices of Special-educators in Sweden. A Total-population Study. Educational Research, 57, 287-304.

    Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Möllås, G., Almqvist, L. & Nilholm, C. (submitted) Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among Special Needs Educators and Support Teachers in Sweden. Educational Review.

    Göransson, K., Malmqvist, J. and Nilholm, C. (2013). Local school ideologies and inclusion: the case of Swedish independent schools. European Journal of Special Needs Education. 28 (1), 49-63.

    Merriam, S.B. (1992). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011). Social justice in the OECD: How do the member states compare? Sustainable Governance Indicators 2011. Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Stiftung.

    Skrtic, T. M. (1991). Behind special education.  A critical analysis of professional culture and school organization. Denver, CO: Love Publishing Company.

    Skrtic, T. M. (1995). Deconstructing/Reconstructing public education: Social reconstruction in the postmodern era. In T. M. Skrtic (Ed.), Disability and democracy: reconstructing (special) education in postmodernity, (233-273). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

  • 24.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Klang, Nina
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Special Professions?: A Presentation of a Research Project Concerning Special Educators´ Education and Work in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal information

    The purpose of this paper presentation is to provide overall findings generated from a research project funded by the Swedish Research Council concerning special educators’ education and work. The role of special educators, and their counterparts, is discussed in relation to implications for the development of inclusive education. The overarching research question concerns how special educators identify and shape their occupational role. More specifically the research questions presented below are:

    1. According to special educators, what characterizes the professional knowledge and values they claim that they represent? (Study 1)

    2.  What tasks do special educators consider to be characteristic of their occupational role, as practiced by them? (Study 1)

    3.  On what grounds can special educators claim special expertise concerning the identification of, and work with, school difficulties? (Study 1)

    4. To what extent are special educators and to what extent are support teachers assigned to work with special support in ten municipalities in Sweden? (Study 2)

    5. What work tasks characterize/constitute the occupational role of special educators, and what work tasks characterize/constitute the occupational role of support teachers? (Study 2)

    6. What work tasks do special educators and what work tasks do support teachers believe should characterize the two occupational roles? (Study 2)

    7. What characterizes the work tasks of six special educators who pursue a typical special educator role according to their survey ratings? (Study 3)

    8. What characterizes the contexts in which the six special educators enact their professional roles? (Study 3)

      Our theoretical point of departure is Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) reasoning concerning special education as a parallel system to regular education, which in turn, counteracts the development of inclusion. We also use Abbott’s (1988) notions of division of labor and jurisdictional control in order to better understand the formation of special educators’ role as well as conditions for special educators to develop inclusive practices. In study two, Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) theoretical accounts of inclusive education, and Abbott’s (1988) notion of jurisdictional control is specifically used to gain further understanding about the formation of special educators’ and support teachers’ role in relation to implications for inclusion.  In study 3, a typology of school contexts (Ball et al., 2012) is used to describe the complex local contexts in which special educators enact their professional roles.

      From an international viewpoint, this research project is of value for several reasons. Firstly, it involves large-scale data collections. While it has long since been common to use questionnaires in special needs research in order to study the views of different occupational groups, mostly teachers, it is still uncommon to study large samples of groups that are influential in special needs work (Göransson et al., 2015). Secondly, the education of special educators in Sweden is from an international perspective not at all typical. In Sweden a special educator has to study one and a half years (advanced level) following a degree in teaching in order to get a degree as a special educator. Thus, Swedish special educators have received comparatively more education than their counterparts in most other European countries (Göransson et al., submitted). This is of special interest since, thirdly, Sweden is still considered to have one of the most ‘inclusive’ educational systems in the world (OECD, 2011).

      Methods

      The project consists of three separate, yet linking studies. The first study is a questionnaire study which investigates all special educators in Sweden who were examined in the years and in accordance with the Swedish Examination Acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N= 4252, 75% response rate). Thus, the first study is a total-population study of special educators in Sweden. The second study is a questionnaire study as well. It was distributed to all special educators and support teachers in ten municipalities (n=511, 61.6% response rate). Both questionnaires were distributed in 2012. Descriptive statistics are mostly used in the presentation of the data from the two questionnaires, since whole populations were studied. In questionnaire # 2, two independent samples t-tests were also used when data was analyzed. In study 3, case-study methodology (Merriam, 1992) was used to illustrate the complexity of enactment of special educator roles in local school contexts. Through purposive sampling, six participants were chosen from study 2 to represent typical special educators. Following criteria were used: (a) reported tasks corresponded to examination statutes (b) participants reported that they could influence the work at school. Within each case, data were collected using participant observations, diary recordings, and interviews with special educators, headmasters and teachers. Data analysis within and across cases was conducted to discern special educator roles and tasks as well as the contexts in which the roles were enacted.

      Conclusions

      According to the first study, special educators display a relational perspective on school difficulties. Regarding the mission of education they seem to represent what might be called an ‘equity discourse’ (cf. Englund and Quennerstedt, 2008), which is quite contradictory to the current education agenda, focusing excellence, increased goal attainment and accountability (Göransson et al., 2013). Special educators believe that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counseling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that they are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practice. We discuss special educators’ authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge (Abbott, 1988). Results from the second study indicate that there are wide variations between municipalities regarding to what extent special educators or support teachers work with special support. The characteristics of the occupational role of special educators are more in line with inclusive practices than the role of support teachers. Moreover, special educators consider that support teachers should work more as ‘traditional special teachers’, than do the support teachers themselves. In study 3, six categories of work tasks were discerned: teaching, social relational work, assessment, informing and following up, supporting and providing materials, school-development, and practical chores. The time devoted to these tasks varied among the six special educators. Related to Abbott’s concept of professional jurisdiction, it can be questioned whether the tasks the special educators as a group claim control over are unique to the profession. While teaching and assessment are typical across all cases, special educators’ conceptions of school-development tasks are quite different. How the role is enacted is also related to local school contexts (Ball et al., 2012), as situated school contexts, the material contexts and values and experiences of staff.

      References

    Abbott, A. (1988). The System of Professions. An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: University of Chicago.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. 1. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Englund, T. & Qennerstedt, A. (2008). Vadå likvärdighet? – studier i utbildningspolitisk språkbildning. [What Equivalence? - Studies in Education policy language education]. Gothenburg: Daidalos.

    Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G. & Nilholm, C. (2015) Voices of Special-educators in Sweden. A Total-population Study. Educational Research, 57, 287-304.

    Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Möllås, G., Almqvist, L. & Nilholm, C. (submitted) Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among Special Needs Educators and Support Teachers in Sweden. Educational Review.

    Göransson, K., Malmqvist, J. and Nilholm, C. (2013). Local school ideologies and inclusion: the case of Swedish independent schools. European Journal of Special Needs Education. 28 (1), 49-63.

    Merriam, S.B. (1992). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011). Social justice in the OECD: How do the member states compare? Sustainable Governance Indicators 2011. Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Stiftung.

    Skrtic, T. M. (1991). Behind special education.  A critical analysis of professional culture and school organization. Denver, CO: Love Publishing Company.

    Skrtic, T. M. (1995). Deconstructing/Reconstructing public education: Social reconstruction in the postmodern era. In T. M. Skrtic (Ed.), Disability and democracy: reconstructing (special) education in postmodernity, (233-273). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

  • 25.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, CHILD.
    Making schools inclusive? Educational leaders' views on how to work with children in need of special support2013In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational leaders have a comprehensive responsibility for how preschools and schools work with children in need of special educational support. The aim of this research is to study how educational leaders (a) explain why children have problems in schools, (b) consider how preschools/schools should help children in need of special support and (c) the role they believe that Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. Educational leaders (N = 45) working in preschools and regular compulsory schools in a Swedish municipality responded (100%) to a questionnaire. According to the results of this study, this group seems to view difficulties in schools as being caused primarily by individual shortcomings. Educational leaders often advocate solutions that are closely linked to the work of special educators. The educational leaders believe SENCOs should work with supervising staff and focus on documentation and evaluations. Preschool leaders attribute children's need of special support to teachers more often than their colleagues in compulsory schools.

  • 26.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö University.
    Promoting inclusion? ‘Inclusive’ and effective head teachers’ descriptions of their work2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6–16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and express inclusive values relative to a relational perspective. The interviews were semi-structured, and a thematic analysis was performed. Head teachers’ strategies were in focus. The theoretical point of departure is critical pragmatism. Overall the five head teachers reported similar strategies. The head teachers describe the importance of educational leadership through observation and participation in activities in the classrooms. They advocate flexibility in the solutions provided for students in need of special support preferring solutions carried out in the regular classroom by the class/subject teacher. Head teachers see special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) as important partners in their work towards more inclusive practices. Head teachers express the importance of consensus among their staff. They seem to welcome government’s increasing demands and steering concerning how head teachers should manage their schools. Finally, it is discussed whether the head teachers can be said to work ‘inclusively’ and, more generally, the methodological challenges researchers must confront in studies concerning ‘inclusive’ education.

  • 27.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Pedagogik.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Almqvist, Lena
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Pedagogik.
    Different agendas? The views of different occupational groups on special needs education2011In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate how different occupational groups explain why children have problems in school, how they believe schools should help these children and the role they believe that special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. A questionnaire was distributed to all teaching and support staff in a Swedish municipality (N=1297). As a result, 938 persons (72.5%) answered the questionnaire. The answers given by (a) preschool teachers (b) teacher assistants (c) SENCOs (d) special teachers (e) class teachers and (f) subject teachers were compared. Several interesting patterns emerged from the data indicating that the occupational groups to a large extent have different ideas concerning how the school should work with children in need of special support. The SENCOs were, for example, the only group that believed that they should be involved in school development. The outcome of the study is discussed in relation to the notion of inclusive education.

  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Rodell, Annica
    Stöd och anpassningar: Att organisera särskilda insatser2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Vinterek, Monika
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Att utmana och stimulera barns lärande och utveckling i förskolan.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Vinterek, Monika
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Att utmana och stimulera barns utveckling och lärande i förskolan: En observationsstudie i fem förskolor2015Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Vinterek, Monika
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    The world moves in to the Everyday school. 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Vinterek, Monika
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Åskådliggörande av sätt att arbeta med olika lärandeområden i förskolan2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentationen tar sin utgångspunkt i en pilotstudie som genomfördes på en förskola i en medelstor stad i Sverige. Syftet var att med hjälp av observationer undersöka hur man i förskolan arbetar med att skapa lust och motivation samt förutsättningar för barns lärande inom kunskapsområdena: kreativitet, självuppfattning, ansvar och genomförande, tänkande och analys, kommunikation och sociala relationer samt empati. Syftet var även att undersöka möjligheten att genom observationer kunna fånga arbetet med ovan nämnda områden. I studien ingick tre förskollärare och en barnskötare som arbetade på en avdelning med 18 barn i åldrarna 3-4 år. Datainsamlingen har främst skett genom observationer under sammanlagt 10 dagar (60 timmar). Pedagogernas handlingar har registrerats genom inspelningar med diktafon samt fältanteckningar som sedan transkriberats och analyserats utifrån en hermeneutisk ansats. Intervjuer har genomförts med pedagogerna efter de tio observationsdagarna. Resultaten tyder på att det är möjligt att genom observationer fånga hur pedagoger arbetar för att skapa förutsättningar för barns lärande inom de studerade kunskapsområdena samt hur man arbetar för att skapa lust och motivation hos barnen. Vi har kategoriserat hur vi tolkar att pedagogerna gör för att skapa dessa förutsättningar: 1) ”Genom att pedagogen gör något” med underkategorierna: Förstärkande, Tillåtande, Avvaktande, Upplysande, Rolltagande, Förklarande, Konkretiserande och Närande, och 2) ”Genom att pedagogen uppmuntrar eller uppmanar barnet att göra något” med underkategorierna: Erinrande, Undersökande, Prövande, Hypotesskapande, Erfarande och Problematiserande. Ett åskådliggörande och begreppsläggande av sätt att arbeta antas kunna öka pedagogernas möjligheter att bredda sin handlingsrepertoar.

  • 33.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Olsson, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Challenges faced by national educational authorities when implementing school development: A qualitative case study about an attempt to create accessible teaching environments in a Swedish municipality’s pre-schools and schools2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University.
    Lindqvist,, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Contextualizing inclusive education in educational policy: the case of Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we regard inclusive education as a policy phenomenon that contains a range ofideas about the purpose of education, the content of education and the organization ofeducation. As a political ideal expressed in policy, inclusive education competes with otherpolitical ideals regarding education, for instance economic discourses that prioritize effectivityand attainment as educational goals. Thus, inclusive education has to be realized in contextswhere available options for action are restricted by several and often contradictory educationalpolicies on different levels of the education system. We argue that while research anddebate about inclusive education are important, both are insufficient without analyses of thecontext of national educational policy. Any interpretation of inclusive education is necessarilysituated in a general education policy, and measures of what˜inclusive schools" aredependent upon for instance, political interpretation(s) of inclusive education, resourceallocation and political discourse on both local and national educational level. Here, we willprovide support for this argument through presentation of both research on inclusiveeducation, an alignment of prior analyses of Swedish national education policies and ourown analyses of government statements.

  • 35.
    Nilholm, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Is it Possible to Get Away from Disability-Based Classifications in Education?: An Empirical Investigation of the Swedish System2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 379-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Nilholm, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Jönköping university.
    What is the problem? – explanations of school difficulties by eight occupational groups2013In: International Journal of Special Education, ISSN 0827-3383, E-ISSN 1917-7844, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four different questionnaires are analyzed.  Explanations of school problems are compared for chief education officers, principals (in municipal and independent schools), subject teachers, class teachers, special teachers, special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs), and  assistants. Explanations involving deficits tied to the individual child were by far most common. Teachers and principals were the groups least likely to view teachers as a cause of school problems. Principals were even less likely to do so than the teachers themselves, and this was also the group that was least likely to consider the functioning of classes as an explanation of school difficulties. A school-leadership paradox is identified, meaning that principals discern causes of school problems that are not within their influence.

  • 37.
    Sandström, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bureaucracies in Schools—Approaches to Support Measures in Swedish Schools Seen in the Light of Skrtic’s Theories2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 89-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, policy changes for provision of special support have been introduced, implying that teachers are obliged to provide and evaluate extra adaptations in regular classrooms prior to referring pupils to special support. The policy changes raise questions about school staffs' views of support measures and of necessary professional competence for provision of the support measures. We conducted focus group interviews with 60 school staff representatives-headmasters, general education teachers, and special educators/school welfare teams-about their understandings of the new policy. The data were analyzed qualitatively, with the objective to explore school staffs' approaches to the policy changes. Two main "ideal type approaches" were discerned, using Skrtic's theories, viz. the bureaucracy approach and adhocracy approach. In the light of Skrtic's theory, professionals' reasoning about the new policy may reflect difficulties that are encountered in the process of implementing the policy in bureaucracy-steered schools.

  • 38.
    Sandström, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    På spaning efter "Superläraren" - om synen på stödinsatser i skolan i relation till visionen om ökad inkludering2017In: Barn och Unga i Skola och Samhälle / [ed] Anders Garpelin och Anette Sandberg, Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2017, p. 178-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Olsson, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Värderingsverktyg för ökad tillgänglighet i förskola och skola : möjligheter och fallgropar i praktiken2018Report (Refereed)
1 - 39 of 39
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