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  • 1.
    Bjurman, Jonny
    et al.
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    An analysis of microclimate differences leading to sporadic mould growth in Skokloster Castle, an unheated historic building2012In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011, Gotland University Press, 2012, 236-244 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mould growth has repeatedly occurred in Skokloster Castle over the years. Visible mould was also found during a survey in September 2010. Mould has been found sporadically on walls, books and tapestries and behind paintings and within furniture in parts of the castle. Work is presented on the attempted correlation of incidence of mould growth and indoor climate recorded mainly during one year, from July 2008 to August 2009. The indoor climate is influenced to a high extent by the outdoor climate but is clearly improved by the influence of the building envelope. The absolute humidity is almost the same in the whole castle. Temperature differences between rooms are therefore decisive for the recorded differences in RH. Recorded RH differences could partly explain the location of mould growth. The results are discussed in relation to current models describing the critical levels of RH, temperature and substrates supporting mould growth.

  • 2.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Heat pumps for conservation heating2008In: Proceedings of the 8th symposium on building physics in the Nordic countries: Copenhagen, June 16-18, 2008 / [ed] Carsten Rode, Lyngby: Technical university of Denmark , 2008, 1143-1150 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation heating is used to control relative humidity in order to better preserve historic buildings and their interiors. The heating load for conservation heating when applied in a Nordic climate was characterized in order to investigate if and how air-to-air heat pumps can be used for conservation heating. Heating for conservation results in indoor temperatures that follow the seasonal variation of the outdoor temperature. Depending on the season and moisture load on the building, the indoor temperature will be 0-10 °C higher than the ambient temperature. The heating load is much smaller and more stable over the year as compared to heating for comfort. In the south of Sweden conservation heating is motivated mainly by preservation aspects, whereas in northern Sweden the potential for energy saving is considerable. Heat pumps in general and air-to air heat pumps in particular, have properties that match the requirements of conservation heating and can provide a cost effective solution. Heat pumps specially designed for conservation heating could improve the performance radically in relation to standard heat pumps.

  • 3.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Hållbarhet och byggnadsvård2011In: Energiboken: energieffektivisering för småhusägare / [ed] Eva Löfgren & Paul Hansson, Stockholm: Svenska byggnadsvårdsföreningen , 2011, 34-45 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    The Indoor Climate in Skokloster Castle2010In: Historical buildings as museums: Systems for climate control and heritage preservation / [ed] Davide Del Curto, Firenze: Nardini Editore , 2010, 84-93 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster castle is a heavy stone and brick building without any active climatization. It houses a large collection of artefacts shown in their historic environment without any showcases. The objective of this study is to analyse the indoor climate, make a risk assessment and to propose interventions to improve the indoor climate with respect to the long term preservation of the collection. Relative humidity and temperature have been monitored within the castle for more than one year. Air exchange in selected rooms has been measured quarterly using diffusive sampling. The indoor climate is characterized by extremely low temperatures and high relative humidity in the winter. Even though the building does reduce the effect of outdoor variations, the variations in the indoor climate are larger than one would prefer in a museum. The primary risks associated with the indoor climate are mould growth, mechanical damages and chemical degradation. The variations in RH can be reduced by enhancing the effective hygrothermal inertia of the building through a reduction of the air exchange. In order to substantially reduce the mould risk, conservation heating and/or dehumidification would be needed.

  • 5.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bevarandeklimat i historiska byggnader - Några kunskapsluckor2009In: Meddelser om konservering, ISSN 0106-469x, no 1, 22-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The indoor climate in a number of Scandinavian historic buildings such as churches, castles and manor houses deviates considerably from climate recommendations given for museums. Nonetheless, these buildings accommodate fragile and valuable movable and immovable objects. In the present article, a brief literature review of the risk of mechanical damages to art objects caused by fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity is given. Two cases are presented to illustrate the problems with indoor climates that deviates from common standards. The two cases were chosen because they are interesting from an energy saving perspective. The first case is an intermittently heated church in northern Sweden, typical for a Scandinavian rural church used only for services. The second case is a completely unheated building with an indoor climate closely following the fluctuations of the outdoor climate, including sub-zero temperatures in winter. The research about mechanical damages is discussed with reference to these cases. Two areas are identified where more research is needed. There is limited knowledge on the correlation between a fluctuating indoor climate and the risk of mechanical damages, i.e. the rate of temperature and relative humidity changes. Secondly, the knowledge of how low temperatures affect the risk of mechanical damages is inadequate.

  • 6.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Decision making on indoor climate control in historic buildings: knowledge, uncertainty and the science-practice gap2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Balancing use, preservation and energy use is a fundamental challenge for the whole heritage field. This is put to the point in designing and operating systems for indoor climate control in historic buildings, where competing objectives such as preservation, comfort, accessibility, energy use and cost have to be negotiated in the individual case. The overarching aim of this thesis is to explore the gap between research and practice regarding energy efficient indoor climate control in historic buildings. The thesis deals with historic buildings where both the building fabric and the movable collection are vulnerable and where the management of the building is more or less professionalized. Examples of such buildings are palaces, churches and historic house museums, ranging from the large and complex to the small and simple. A key to a more sustainable management of these buildings is to understand how scientific knowledge related to indoor climate control can become usable for the professional practitioner. The thesis comprises six published papers introduced by a thesis essay. The papers reflect a progression both in terms of the research questions and the methodology. The first three papers outline the background needed for a technical understanding of the involved matters through an identification of key knowledge gaps. The three remaining papers use qualitative case studies to understand the nature of the gap between science and practice by paying more attention to the social aspects of decisions related to indoor climate control. Generally, the results of the thesis contribute to an expanded problem definition and to a better understanding of the gap between research and practice regarding energy efficient indoor climate control in historic buildings. It is shown how the specific social and material context is crucial for enabling or limiting a transition toward more sustainable ways of controlling the indoor climate. Furthermore it is discussed how uncertainty can be managed and communicated to support decisions, and suggestions are given for how decision processes regarding indoor climate control can be supported with improved standards to facilitate a more sustainable management. A conclusion for further research is that scientific knowledge alone will not be able to guide the transition to a sustainable, low carbon future; technical esearch has to be complemented with reflexive research approaches that explore the actual practices of heritage management.

    List of papers
    1. Bevarandeklimat i historiska byggnader - Några kunskapsluckor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bevarandeklimat i historiska byggnader - Några kunskapsluckor
    2009 (Swedish)In: Meddelser om konservering, ISSN 0106-469x, no 1, 22-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    The indoor climate in a number of Scandinavian historic buildings such as churches, castles and manor houses deviates considerably from climate recommendations given for museums. Nonetheless, these buildings accommodate fragile and valuable movable and immovable objects. In the present article, a brief literature review of the risk of mechanical damages to art objects caused by fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity is given. Two cases are presented to illustrate the problems with indoor climates that deviates from common standards. The two cases were chosen because they are interesting from an energy saving perspective. The first case is an intermittently heated church in northern Sweden, typical for a Scandinavian rural church used only for services. The second case is a completely unheated building with an indoor climate closely following the fluctuations of the outdoor climate, including sub-zero temperatures in winter. The research about mechanical damages is discussed with reference to these cases. Two areas are identified where more research is needed. There is limited knowledge on the correlation between a fluctuating indoor climate and the risk of mechanical damages, i.e. the rate of temperature and relative humidity changes. Secondly, the knowledge of how low temperatures affect the risk of mechanical damages is inadequate.

    Keyword
    Historiska byggnader, mekaniska skador, relativ luftfuktighet, temperatur, intermittent uppvärmning, låg temperatur
    National Category
    Architectural Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307221 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2016-11-14
    2. Uncertainties in damage assessments of future indoor climates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncertainties in damage assessments of future indoor climates
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Climate for Collections - Standards and Uncertainties / [ed] Ashley-Smith, Jonathan and Burmester, Andreas and Eibl, Melanie, Munich, 2013, 405-418 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant amount of uncertainty is generated in the processof combining projections of future climate, building simulationsand damage functions to produce risk maps for historic buildings.The objective of this paper is to identify and qualitatively describethe main uncertainties in the production of such maps. The mainsources of uncertainty for each modeling step are identified. It isconcluded that the level of uncertainty in risk maps is so high thatdeterministic approaches have severe limitations, and that furtherresearch is needed to assess the levels of uncertainty introducedby each modeling step.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Munich: , 2013
    Keyword
    Damage functions, Climate change, Risk maps, Uncertainty
    National Category
    Building Technologies
    Research subject
    Building Conservation (HGO)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219931 (URN)978-1-909492-00-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Postprints of the Munich Climate Conference 7 to 9 November 2012
    Projects
    Climate for Culture
    Available from: 2014-03-07 Created: 2014-03-07 Last updated: 2016-11-14
    3. The Indoor Climate in Skokloster Castle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Indoor Climate in Skokloster Castle
    2010 (English)In: Historical buildings as museums: Systems for climate control and heritage preservation / [ed] Davide Del Curto, Firenze: Nardini Editore , 2010, 84-93 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster castle is a heavy stone and brick building without any active climatization. It houses a large collection of artefacts shown in their historic environment without any showcases. The objective of this study is to analyse the indoor climate, make a risk assessment and to propose interventions to improve the indoor climate with respect to the long term preservation of the collection. Relative humidity and temperature have been monitored within the castle for more than one year. Air exchange in selected rooms has been measured quarterly using diffusive sampling. The indoor climate is characterized by extremely low temperatures and high relative humidity in the winter. Even though the building does reduce the effect of outdoor variations, the variations in the indoor climate are larger than one would prefer in a museum. The primary risks associated with the indoor climate are mould growth, mechanical damages and chemical degradation. The variations in RH can be reduced by enhancing the effective hygrothermal inertia of the building through a reduction of the air exchange. In order to substantially reduce the mould risk, conservation heating and/or dehumidification would be needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Firenze: Nardini Editore, 2010
    Keyword
    Indoor climate, risk assessment, historic buildings, museums
    National Category
    Energy Systems Building Technologies
    Research subject
    Conservation
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:hgo:diva-1188 (URN)978-88-404-42 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Historical Buildings as Museums, Milano, April 2010
    Available from: 2011-12-02 Created: 2011-12-02 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
    4. Rethinking indoor climate control in historic buildings: The importance of negotiated priorities and discursive hegemony at a Swedish museum
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking indoor climate control in historic buildings: The importance of negotiated priorities and discursive hegemony at a Swedish museum
    2014 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, Vol. 4, no 0, 117-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much effort has in recent years been directed to support sustainable indoor climate control strategies in historic buildings. In this paper we show the necessity to complement the dominant technical approaches with research that take a wider interest in specific contexts, social practices, and negotiated decisions. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how the interactions between perceptions and experiences of different professional groups are pivotal for the management of the indoor climate. An ethnographic study of decision making in an historic house museum was carried out in 2009 and 2012. Interviews were made with individuals who either took part in management or were affected by the indoor climate. The findings show how discussions among social actors and the way their respective priorities are negotiated are essential features of the management of the indoor climate and have a strong impact on the ability to modify it. It turns out that a hegemonic discourse about preservation as the dominant rationale for indoor climate control in tandem with “acceptable” conditions with respect to preservation have reinforced a state of stability. This explorative study opens up for a re-framing of how a more sustainable management of historic buildings can be achieved.

    Keyword
    Environmental management, Decision making, Practices, Preventive conservation
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240317 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2014.10.005 (DOI)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2016-11-14
    5. Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches
    2016 (English)In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 13, 76-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations and institutions managing built heritage have to make use of increasingly detailed, elaborate and complex climate change impact assessments. It is a challenge to determine how, when and by whom climate predictions should be translated into risk estimates usable for decision-making. In this paper results from the Climate for Culture project are used to study how heritage decision-makers interpret future indoor climate-related risks to Swedish churches. Different sets of risk maps were presented to ten engineers, ten building conservators and five experts on indoor climate related risks. Interviews were used to understand how the interviewees made sense of the presented information and if they associated it with a perceived need for adaptation. The results show that the risks were interpreted and assessed largely dependent on their pre-understanding and familiarity with the individual risks. The magnitude of change and the lack of uncertainty estimates were subordinate to the overall impression of the information as being credible and salient. The major conclusion is that the dissemination of risk information, also from projects which at the outset have aimed at producing knowledge relevant for end-users, should be both customized and tested in collaborative efforts by stakeholders and scientists.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    Risk communication, Cultural heritage management, Sensemaking, Adaptation
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306947 (URN)10.1016/j.crm.2016.05.003 (DOI)000390813100007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 226973 FP7-ENV-2008-1
    Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
    6. Standardizing the Indoor Climate in Swedish Churches: Opportunities, Challenges and Ways Forward
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Standardizing the Indoor Climate in Swedish Churches: Opportunities, Challenges and Ways Forward
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable managementof Swedish churches. Interviews with engineersand heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context.The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

    Keyword
    Indoor climate control, Process standards, Knowledge sharing, Sustainable management
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306949 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2016-11-14Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Energideklaration – hot eller möjlighet?2007In: Byggnadskultur, ISSN 0348-6885, E-ISSN 1677-6976, Vol. 1, 16-17- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Energideklarationer och kulturvärden2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings 2002/91/EC will soon be implemented in Sweden. Legislation about energy certificates will probably take effect in Sweden during October 2006. In this thesis I try to investigate if and how cultural values in the building stock will be affected by the introduction of compulsory energy certificates for existing buildings. My aim is to find out how the procedures and methods involved in the process of acquiring the certificates can be adjusted in a way that will preserve the cultural values. The subject of energy saving and its impact on historic building is briefly presented in the first chapters. Relevant Swedish legislation is described. The new Swedish legislation about energy certificates is summarized, with focus on the parts that might be important considering historic buildings. Three case studies constitute the core of the investigation. Energy certificates are constructed for three different one-family houses. The method that is supposed to be used when constructing the energy certificates is not yet established in Sweden, but the basis is somewhat decided. The results from each energy certificate have then been discussed with preservation issues in mind. Especially the recommendations for cost-effective improvements of the energy performance that are presented in the certificates are discussed. Undoubtedly, there is a potential for energy saving in historic buildings. Most culturally valuable buildings were built with constructions which are inferior to modern when it comes to energy performance. In the case of one- and two-family houses measures that affect the building shell (i.e. retrofitting and exchange of windows) will be proven cost-effective and therefore suggested in the certificates. We know that these kinds of measures are prone to affect the cultural and aesthetic values of historic buildings. This is well known in Sweden since the 1970´s, when many careless energy saving measures were made in connection with the oil crisis. The main conclusion made is that the independent experts who are supposed to carry out the work to produce the energy certificates should have a basic understanding of the problems involved. This necessary qualification should be applied for all categories of buildings, not only monumental ones. In the case of monumental buildings, where the cultural values are more obvious, it is in fact easier to be aware of the risks involved.

  • 9.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches2016In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 13, 76-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations and institutions managing built heritage have to make use of increasingly detailed, elaborate and complex climate change impact assessments. It is a challenge to determine how, when and by whom climate predictions should be translated into risk estimates usable for decision-making. In this paper results from the Climate for Culture project are used to study how heritage decision-makers interpret future indoor climate-related risks to Swedish churches. Different sets of risk maps were presented to ten engineers, ten building conservators and five experts on indoor climate related risks. Interviews were used to understand how the interviewees made sense of the presented information and if they associated it with a perceived need for adaptation. The results show that the risks were interpreted and assessed largely dependent on their pre-understanding and familiarity with the individual risks. The magnitude of change and the lack of uncertainty estimates were subordinate to the overall impression of the information as being credible and salient. The major conclusion is that the dissemination of risk information, also from projects which at the outset have aimed at producing knowledge relevant for end-users, should be both customized and tested in collaborative efforts by stakeholders and scientists.

  • 10.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Standardizing the Indoor Climate in Swedish Churches: Opportunities, Challenges and Ways ForwardManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable managementof Swedish churches. Interviews with engineersand heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context.The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

  • 11.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Bertolin, C
    Camuffo, D
    Leissner, J
    Antretter, F
    Winkler, M
    Kotova, L
    Mikolajewicz, U
    Jacob, D
    van Schijndel, A.W.M.
    Schellen, Henk
    Broström, Tor
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Results of the EU Project Climate For Culture: Future Climate-induced Risks to Historic Buildings and their Interiors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU funded Climate for Culture (CfC) Project is finalized to forecast the impact ofclimate change on either indoor or outdoor Cultural Heritage and advise on relatedrisks. CfC has produced high-resolution thematic maps over Europe to highlight theexpected changes and related risks for a number of key materials, building types,deterioration mechanisms for the near and far future based on two emissionscenarios as developed by IPCC. The procedure to obtain a thematic map is asfollows: to simulate outdoor climate change; to pass from outdoor to indoor climatechange through building simulation and case studies measurements; to use damagefunctions and literature results to evaluate potential risk for buildings and objects; tomap the above results for advice and stakeholders use. This methodology hasproduced 55,650 thematic maps of future climate induced risks to historic buildingsand collections in their interiors. The results can be used for climate change impactassessments and for planning adaption and mitigation measures in view ofpreventive conservation or other applications, e.g. human health, energyconsumption, cultural tourism. This paper presents some of the main projectoutcomes.

  • 12.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Broström, Tor
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Decision-making on Climate Control for Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Historic Buildings2012In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011 / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2012, 70-80 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual framework for decision-making about indoor climate control inhistoric buildings is suggested and discussed. Ideas developed in environmentaldecision making are discussed, and it is argued that the two fields share a set offundamental characteristics that make the transfer of ideas legitimate. It is alsosuggested that an improved decision process is a necessary, although not sufficient,step towards sustainable management.

  • 13.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Kyrkobyggnader och klimatförändringar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att identifiera och värdera framtida inneklimatre-laterade risker i kyrkobyggnader på grund av framtida klimatförändringar samt att undersöka hur informationen om framtida risker kan användas. Vidare diskuteras styrkor och svagheter med befintlig fastighetsförvaltning med avseende på klimatanpassning. Undersökningen bygger på resultat från det europeiska projektet Climate for Culture där framtida risker, förknippade med klimatförändringar, pre-senteras i form av riskkartor. Som komplement till detta genomfördes en intervjuundersökning med ett tjugotal personer inom Svenska kyrkan som arbetar med fastighetsförvaltning.Undersökningen visar att risker för mögel och insektsangrepp ökar sig-nifikant medan andra risker, t ex mekaniska skador på bemålat trä, inte ökar. Följdfrågan blir då, vilka åtgärder kan eller bör vidtas i nuläget? För-fattarnas uppfattning är att klimatförändringarna förstärker betydelsen av förebyggande åtgärder och regelbundna kontroller för att förhindra innekli-matrelaterade skador. Vid långsiktiga insatser och investeringar, till exem-pel vid nyinstallation av uppvärmnings- eller avfuktningsanläggningar, bör kommande klimatförändringar beaktas vid dimensioneringen. Vidare borde Svenska kyrkan, i samverkan med andra nationella aktörer, överväga att införa ett program för långsiktiga uppföljningar av effekter på inneklimat och skador i kyrkor.

  • 14.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Gotland University. University of Gothenburg.
    Henning, Annette
    Rethinking indoor climate control in historic buildings: The importance of negotiated priorities and discursive hegemony at a Swedish museum2014In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, Vol. 4, no 0, 117-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much effort has in recent years been directed to support sustainable indoor climate control strategies in historic buildings. In this paper we show the necessity to complement the dominant technical approaches with research that take a wider interest in specific contexts, social practices, and negotiated decisions. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how the interactions between perceptions and experiences of different professional groups are pivotal for the management of the indoor climate. An ethnographic study of decision making in an historic house museum was carried out in 2009 and 2012. Interviews were made with individuals who either took part in management or were affected by the indoor climate. The findings show how discussions among social actors and the way their respective priorities are negotiated are essential features of the management of the indoor climate and have a strong impact on the ability to modify it. It turns out that a hegemonic discourse about preservation as the dominant rationale for indoor climate control in tandem with “acceptable” conditions with respect to preservation have reinforced a state of stability. This explorative study opens up for a re-framing of how a more sustainable management of historic buildings can be achieved.

  • 15.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    et al.
    Gotland University. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History. University of Gothenburg.
    Kjellström, Erik
    Broström, Tor
    Ashley-Smith, Jonathan
    Camuffo, Dario
    Uncertainties in damage assessments of future indoor climates2013In: Climate for Collections - Standards and Uncertainties / [ed] Ashley-Smith, Jonathan and Burmester, Andreas and Eibl, Melanie, Munich, 2013, 405-418 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant amount of uncertainty is generated in the processof combining projections of future climate, building simulationsand damage functions to produce risk maps for historic buildings.The objective of this paper is to identify and qualitatively describethe main uncertainties in the production of such maps. The mainsources of uncertainty for each modeling step are identified. It isconcluded that the level of uncertainty in risk maps is so high thatdeterministic approaches have severe limitations, and that furtherresearch is needed to assess the levels of uncertainty introducedby each modeling step.

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