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  • 1.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Balancing between the conflicting interests of different stakeholders in research2017In: European Business Ethics Network: Research / [ed] Ioannis Filos, Athens: Deree, American College of Greece College , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We in academia produce a lot of research in the form of papers, technologies, methods, medicines and so on. All those outcomes are of great importance for society and people. On the other hand, there are many stakeholders in the process of producing research outcomes nowadays. Researchers themselves are of course the main stakeholders because their career is dependent on research. However, when research projects are connected to various political goals or affect profits for industries, many other stakeholders like politicians and business people get involved to research activities as well. Especially industries offer a lot of research funds to academic projects, and actually today many collaborative research projects between industry and academia are in progress. Thus, research environments are very complex and morally challenging since many different and conflicting interests interfere. Many academic researchers believe that what they produce belongs to society, and that their work is there mainly to satisfy the interests and needs of society and people. But, at the same time, they need to fulfill the demands coming from research supporters who offer funds and research opportunities. In producing research of good quality, it is unavoidable and very important for researchers to make a fair choice between the quality of scientific research and the satisfaction of stakeholders’ demands. This paper explores how researchers make justice between these conflicting interests, what kind of ethical dilemmas and problems they face in their daily research activities, and how they solve the ethical problems. This study is the first step of a research project that focuses on how scientific research activities and outcomes become 'social' and 'valuable'.

  • 2.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Diversity in the construction of organization value2010In: Which values for which organisations / [ed] Rusconi et al., G., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Do social media generate social capital?2012In: ICT, society and human beings / [ed] Gunilla Bradley, Diane Whitehouse and Angela Lin, Lisbon: IADIS Press , 2012, 133-136 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do social media generate social capital beyond borders between the real and virtual spaces? If so, how do social media function in forming and maintaining social capital? This study is triggered by those simple questions. From the beginning of 2011, a huge number of people have seen political turmoil stimulated by use of social media and felt the inner stirrings of people’s cooperative network via social media. Thus, some people strongly stressed that social media has a great power to change authoritarian regimes from the global political issues perspective. On the other hand, we recognized how social media worked effectively from the local issues perspective, for example in the case of the massive disaster in Japan. Under the critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, TV, radio and newspapers didn’t work, the Japanese got and exchanged information through social media and in fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Both cases, political changes and massive disasters, show information transaction process has been supported by thin trust, generalized reciprocity and loosely tied people’s network, regardless of geographical borders or real/virtual spaces. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to social capital. This paper reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives through social media. It also examines how social media influences social capital by giving a few examples of social media and social issues, more specifically, the political turmoil in Tunisia and big earthquake disasters in Japan.

  • 4.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical Competence and Social Responsibility in Scientific Research using ICT Tools2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, 345-347 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how to improve and support researchers'ethical competence in scientic research and how to conduct research ethically, especially in research activities using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Refining research ethics relating to ICT is unavoidable in the highly technological society of today, for example big data is used in different scientic research activities, and systems which support our daily lives are constructed based on the existing systems. In other words, technology reproduces technology itself. And almost all research activities need to use ICT through the whole research process. Moreover, researchers are required to be able to participate and react sensibly in ethical dialogues with society and citizens. Seen in that light, this study could be applicable not only to computer science and technology but also to a broad spectrum of research areas as the constructive notions of ethics, liberty and responsibility in research activity.

  • 5.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT supported crisis communication and dialog2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, 37-41 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how people use social media under serious social conditions, and how social media affects people’s behavior after a disaster based on the case of the March 2011 disaster in Japan. In this critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, television, radio and newspapers did not work well, the Japanese exchanged and received information through social media. In fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Corresponding to people’s need, social media provided various services to support people immediately after the disaster. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to horizontal communication, critical thinking, dialog; supporting social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives and supporting democratic communication as well as the difficulties in people bonding together through social media.

  • 6.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Regulation of potentially harmful contents on minors2012In: Equity, integrity and beauty in information law and ethics / [ed] Maria Botti, Kerkyra, Greece: Ionian Academy , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies, freedom of expression is the indispensable right and duty of citizens. Although there are a few exceptions, it is generally considered that governments should not intervene and regulate this right. Both in digital and analog environments, sexual and violent descriptions are usually regulated by self-censorship of participants. However, trying to protect minors from potentially harmful contents by controlling and regulating them is very difficult. The definition of what is “potentially harmful contents on minors” varies depending on the values and on the culture of each social group. Moreover, along with the rapid spread of mobile phones and smartphones, it becomes more difficult for parents and teachers to control children’s access to harmful contents; something that might have been easier regarding the use of personal computers. Access to the Internet provides huge opportunities not only of visiting websites but also of participating in online communication such as Social Networking Service (SNS). An incredible surge of SNS evokes some issues in considering juvenile access to SNS, categorized roughly into three types. One is the very old and new problem in accessing the Internet, which is how to shield minors from harmful contents. Second is how to block inappropriate contact with a pedophile. Third is cyber bullying. SNS is a very new medium and its market and technology are evolving drastically and are constantly changing. Thus the agent of taking the lead in making and enforcing rules or self-regulation is still absent. Additionally, SNS services utilize the function of social graph actively, and third parties can provide contents and applications using open API. In response to these situations, European Commission implemented Safer Social Networking Principle for the EU, and United States released the guideline for SNS users and worked on SNS companies and users to promote voluntary efforts for using SNS properly. In Japan, mobile contents companies built the Content Evaluation and Monitoring Association (EMA) as a voluntary reviewing entity. However those measures don’t include any severe legal penalty. Those remain self-regulation relying on voluntary activities of private sectors. On the other hand, self-regulation itself is regulated by laws, social norms, market conditions and technological architectures. In this paper we discuss the conditions of regulation and self-regulation, and we explore some ideas about what would be the best way to regulate SNS.

  • 7.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Responsibility and Competence in Political Ethics2014In: Proceedings International Political Science Association, 23rd World Congress of Political Science, 2014: Challenges of contemporay governance, Montreal, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, our society is globalized, chaotic, changing, and also highly affected by individualization. That is, it is more difficult for out society to reach goals or conclusions collectively as one nation or one society. Under the situation, society needs political leaders to gather individual values, interests and opinions, and to take a lead in making collective decisions in the proper manner. Political leaders are required to have ability of making decisions and acting in the best way for society. Their responsibility is high even for future generations. According to Weber there are two categories of ethics pertaining to politics and to political leaders. One is the "ethic of ultimate ends" and the other is the "ethic of responsibility". "Ethic of responsibility" of political leaders is considered as a critical element. It is perceived as a kind of ability to consider possible social options and their impact, and also to take responsibility of their consequences in the future. In this context, it is very well compatible to the idea of ethical competence. It binds together philosophy and modern empirical research on ethical decision making, opening up for interventions like training and education for political leaders. 

  • 8.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots as companions in feelings and discussions2017In: Retfærdighed – Justice, Robophilosophy / [ed] Martin Mose Bentzen, Copenhagen, 2017, 42-42 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are used in emotional relationships. On the other hand, it is not very common to think that robots can be used as partners in a philosophical dialog. It would be challenging to find the conditions under which a robot can be one of the parts in an emotional relationship or in a Socratic dialog. Robots usable as emotional or philosophical companions need probably to function well at both dimensions, providing continuous and interchanging support for feelings and reasoning. Our aim here is not to investigate the technical possibilities for such a machine but the theoretical requirements and ethical conditions for its creation and use.

  • 9.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social movement and social media2012In: Critique, democracy and philosophy in 21st century information society: Towards critical theories of social media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, 76-77 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do social media affect the process of building a democratic society? Information and communication technology (ICT) made it possible for people to communicate beyond national borders and other obstacles. Social media in particular play an important role in creating a place where people communicate with each other, for example Facebook, MySpace, YouTube and so on. In other words, under these circumstances, social media function as the third place in addition to home and workplaces, which contributes not only to unite people in commu- nities but also to the resolution of various problems and crises. Therefore, the third place nurtures relationships and mutual trust under internet access conditions, and it is open for free discussions, and becomes a ground for democracy.

    In face-to-face communication, participants’ behavior is affected by social context cues, and users let their behavior adjust to particular communication manners. However, in online communicati- on, it is more difficult for participants to understand static and dynamic cues surrounding other participants compared to face-to-face communication. Because, in many cases, whereas social media makes it possible for users to communicate with others easily regardless of physical dis- tance, national boundaries and time difference, it limits the number of characters and the amount of data that they can post and use. However, participation in online communication, especially in social media, is seen as the key element in the recent trend toward democratization. In fact, millions of users send and receive a huge amount of information via social media in order to cultivate a relationship with others and strengthen mutual exchange beyond borders. Generally it is recognized that social media advance participation through exchanging information with minimal social context cues.

    However, communication through social media has some problems. Firstly, exchanged informa- tion via social media minimizes social context cues under severe restricted or censored internet access conditions; because simplified messages can be more understandable and impressive for other users in communicating. Therefore information tends to be extreme, and it could evoke a risk of group polarization. Secondly, in social media, information receivers gather fragmented information in borderless cyberspace, for any purpose. Following this they try to transform infor- mation into something they can understand, something closer to their own experience, or they try to perceive the feelings and experience of the senders of information. Through this process, users develop a sense of solidarity and share expectations and norms, which bring them together as one community. Therefore, social norms have a considerable influence on users in particular communities and advance self-stereotyping among them as solidarity and social identity are en- hanced. This situation carries the social risk of exclusion of others. Some people call Middle-east political change “Facebook revolution” or “twitter revolution” on the internet. Is this naming really pertinent? Indeed, social media has played an important role as “hub for information” and as the third place in political change. Still, social media has to contribute to the development of skills for dialog in order to achieve a really democratic society. 

  • 10.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    The paradoxical nature of privacy2012In: Privacy in the social networked world / [ed] Andrew A. Adams, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy appears to be a very important issue today when ICT permeates more and more aspects of our life. Mainly this is understood as a risk of breaking the privacy of persons, and possibly the privacy of groups, organizations, corporations and states. It is therefore interesting to investigate the main definitions of privacy, try to grasp its nature and to discern its features, and to discuss the possible ways of suitable and needed activities.

     

    There are essentially two types if definitions. One is focused on the protection of information and on the rules that govern openness and protection. Moor (1997), defines privacy like “the expression of a core value, viz., the value of security” or “sometimes used to designate a situation in which people are protected from intrusion or observation by natural or physical circumstances.... In addition to natural privacy there is normative privacy. A normatively private situation is a situation protected by ethical, legal, or conventional norms.” A similar definition is given by Edmund Byrne (1998): Privacy as a “zone of inaccessibility”.

     

    A different approach to the definition of privacy is focused on the control of information, and the main example of this kind of definition is given by Charles Fried (1968): “Privacy is not simply an absence of information about us in the minds of others, rather it is the control we have over information about ourselves”. In the same wavelength we find the definition given by Quinn (2011): “Privacy is a social arrangement that allows individuals to have some level of control over who is able to gain access to their physical selves and their personal information”.

     

    Which of the two lines of definitions is more accurate and fruitful, regarding its power to guide our activities toward the achievement of desired goals? If we make an effort to describe the nature of privacy we can easily and rather fast come to the conclusion that privacy is not only something that has to be protected. Although this is important, underlined by both lines of definitions, it seems that privacy sometimes has to be diminished or invaded in order to satisfy important interests and values. One is to create a bond to another person, group or organization. To achieve this one has to give access to private information, or even to give up part or all limitations toward this special person or organization. It is a matter of trust between each other. The other situation, which is the most common one, is that a person, group or organization, which we may call a separate entity, has always another important interest added to the interest of protecting its own privacy: To break, diminish or invade the privacy of any other entity that is a prospective or actual partner in any sense. It is very important for any entity to acquire access to the information about any other entity that is of some interest.

     

    If we now go back to the definitions of privacy, and look upon them through the glasses of our observations of its nature we may have good arguments to maintain that a definition focused on the control of information is more plausible. Given the controversial nature of privacy (protect it and break it at the same time) and the clashes arising constantly between all entities in a social interaction, the focus cannot be on normative solutions which if they work are always limited to a certain situation, but on the ways skills, methods and tools we use to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, rules and principles to manage the issues of privacy.

     

    References

    Byrne, E. F. (1998). “Privacy”. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, 3, 649-659.

    Fried, C. (1968). “Privacy: A moral analysis”. Yale Law Journal, 77, 475-493.

    Moor, J. (1997). “Towards a theory of privacy in the information age”. Computer and Society, 27, 27-32.

    Quinn, M. J. (2011). Ethics for the Information Age. Boston: Pearson.

  • 11.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Virtue as ethical competence2011In: EBEN Annual Conference 2011 / [ed] Luc Van Liedekerke, Antwerp: Universiteit Antwerpen , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations active in an environment of increasing internal and external diversity and change need the guidance of suitable moral values. This implies many challenges. However, focus on processes is unavoidable and necessary. Particularly, regarding ethical aspects this is the only possible way for the construction and applicationof right values. In achieving that, skills and processes are very helpful because they provide a good base for the promotion of personal and organizational ethical competence, a competence referring to the ability using the right ways to handle ethical issues and which is not constrained by normative aspects. Since it is not possible to create moral values once and for all, in the diverse and changing conditions of today, continuous moral value creation and interpretation is the only way. Consequently, the focus must be on the process itself, and on the skills and structures behind this process, i.e. on personal and organizational ethical competence. Ethical competence is therefore a virtue.

  • 12.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    The revival of natural and cultural identity through social media2011In: The computational turn: Past, presents, futures? / [ed] Charles Ess and Ruth Hagengruber, Münster: MV-Wissenschaft , 2011, 329-331 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has played an important role as hub for information in political change. It can contribute to the development och psychological and social preconditions for dialog and democracy.

  • 13.
    Björk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots, ethics and language2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, 268-273 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the classical philosophical definition of ethics and the psychological research on problem solving and decision making, the issue of ethics becomes concrete and opens up the way for the creation of IT systems that can support handling of moral problems. Also in a sense that is similar to the way humans handle their moral problems. The processes of communicating information and receiving instructions are linguistic by nature. Moreover, autonomous and heteronomous ethical thinking is expressed by way of language use. Indeed, the way we think ethically is not only linguistically mediated but linguistically construed – whether we think for example in terms of conviction and certainty (meaning heteronomy) or in terms of questioning and inquiry (meaning autonomy). A thorough analysis of the language that is used in these processes is therefore of vital importance for the development of the above mentioned tools and methods. Given that we have a clear definition based on philosophical theories and on research on human decision-making and linguistics, we can create and apply systems that can handle ethical issues. Such systems will help us to design robots and to prescribe their actions, to communicate and cooperate with them, to control the moral aspects of robots’ actions in real life applications, and to create embedded systems that allow continuous learning and adaptation.

  • 14.
    Cajander, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Eriksson, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Användbara IT-stöd: En utvärdering av ett forskningsprojekt vid CSN, Centrala studiestödsnämnden2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingsrådet för den statliga sektorn har tagit ett initiativ för att stödja myndigheternas arbete med att förbättra arbetsmiljön och sänka sjukfrånvaron. Därför startades programmet Satsa friskt. Programmet ger stöd i form av ekonomiskt bidrag och experthjälp till olika projekt inom statliga myndigheter. Ett av Satsa Friskts insatsområden är Människa IT . Inom detta område har det sedan 2004 bedrivits ett antal olika projekt vid flera statliga verk. Vi har från MDI (avdelningen för människa-datorinteraktion, institutionen för informationsteknologi) vid Uppsala universitet varit mer omfattande inblandad i tre olika sådana projekt: vid CSN, Migrationsverket och SMHI. Syftet och innehållet har varierat en del mellan de olika projekten, men ett huvudsakligt fokus har varit hur man kan se till att de framtida IT-stödda arbetena inom myndigheterna blir effektivare och arbetsmiljön bättre. Genom att bättre beakta användbarhets- och arbetsmiljöaspekter vid kravställande, utveckling och införande av IT-stöd kan man stödja en positiv utveckling av verksamheten som sådan liksom av arbetsinnehåll och arbetsmiljö för den enskilde individen. Resultatet kan då bli effektivare verksamhet, bättre service till kunder och ett hälsosammare och hållbarare arbete för de anställda. Denna rapport beskriver det arbete som under åren 2005-2007 genomförts i samverkan mellan CSN, Centrala studiestödsnämnden, och MDI, Uppsala universitet. Förutom en kort beskrivning av innehållet i det arbete som gjorts inom projektet redovisar denna rapport en utvärdering av resultatet, de lärdomar som vi gjort från projektet, de råd vi kan ge till andra som vill ta del av dessa lärdomar samt en förteckning av de rapporter av olika slag som producerats.

  • 15.
    Coghill, Ken
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethics, parliaments and members: learning to think ethically2014In: Challenges of contemporay governance, Montreal: The International Political Science Association , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parliamentary democracies are conceptualised as complex evolving socio-political systems in which the parliament is the apex institution through which the community determines the rules and standards applying to individuals, executive government, business, other organisations and relationships within the community and across its borders. As the apex institution, assessing the failings of the parliament provide an opportunity to examine the functioning of the system as a whole. A key factor affecting parliament’s reputation, effectiveness and legitimacy is ethical conduct by its elected members. Whilst members of the political Executive bear heavier responsibilities, all members of a parliament have a duty to behave in ways that enhance rather than detract from the parliament’s performance of its roles and its legitimacy. Compliance with accepted ethical standards of conduct relies on a culture of acceptance and compliance, detection of breaches and sanctions for wrong-doing. The realisation of the prospects of detection and of sanctions facilitates a culture of compliance. A culture of compliance reduces the transaction costs of social exchanges, leaving more resources available to the institution of parliament and its elected members to fulfil the roles of the institution. Accordingly, it is in the long-term interests of both the parliament and its members that individual members practice high levels of ethical competence in the conduct of their parliamentary responsibilities. The paper reports research findings in an international study of formal induction and further development programmes in representative parliaments. Information was collected from members of national parliaments and trainers through surveys (including an innovative measure of ethical competence) and via interviews. Approaches to training relating to ethical conduct were found to vary widely, with some parliamentary induction programmes giving it considerable attention whilst others eschewed the topic. The paper concludes with comments on further research into how elected office holders (such as members of parliament) acquire, develop and sustain ethical competence, including the effectiveness of learning techniques focused on ethical behaviour.

  • 16.
    Coghill, Ken
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Thorton, Julia
    Monash University.
    Neesham, Cristina
    Monash University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Parliamentary integrity systems: Parliamentarians’ ethical conduct, accountability and transparency2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that ethical conduct by a parliament’s members is fundamental to the institution’s performance of its functions. Assurance that members are conducting themselves ethically requires that they are accountable for their conduct, which in turn requires that there is transparency around that conduct.

    Parliaments vary widely in their approaches to ethical conduct, including the nature and extent of accountability and transparency by their members. This paper compares such approaches across a range of legislatures.

  • 17.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Palm, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Struntar regeringen i rätten till personlig integritet?2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. 1 nov.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Daniels, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Petre, Marian
    Using a Real-Life Setting to Combine Social and Technical Skills2000In: IEEE Frontiers in Education conference, 2000, F4C6-F4C9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our students are highly competent in the technical area, but have little training in the non-technical area. This paper describes a course that is designed to increase the students' ability to apply their technical skills in a professional way. Projects with real, low in IT skills, users are used to make the issue of being professional concrete. The aspect of communication, both between colleagues and between users of a product, is chosen as a theme. Relevant theory is introduced as close to the point in time when needed in the real project. This paper give the general setting of the course and observations from students and teachers about how well the goals are achieved.

  • 19.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Autonomy method: Acquiring skills for ethichal analysis of computerisation in car driving2005In: ETHICOMP 2005: Looking back to the future, 2005, CD-ROM p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many moral aspects to the introduction of new technology, such as car navigation systems, and there are different approaches to deal with these. Here we do not use normative moral theory to argue about what is morally right or wrong, in fact we do not even attempt to find an answer. The primary purpose is not to generate answers to particular problems, but rather to acquire a comprehensive view of the problem at hand and also to document the information on which one base the decision making. No matter what the final decision is, this method summarises all aspects considered during the decision-making process. A successful inclusion of moral aspects in car navigation systems analysis, decision making and decision application can easily fail. The cause of this failure may be found in the way thinking, problem solving and decision making are performed by, for example, a car manufacturer. People use different ways to handle moral problems. Psychological theory and research differentiate between two different moral functions, heteronomy and autonomy, which decide a person’s ability to handle moral problems. In this paper we suggest a tool that can aid people, who are not informed about ethical theories, when making decisions related to ethical aspects. This tool can increase the level of ethical competence before a decision is taken, by simply describing all relevant values and aspects for all involved parts in a structured way. By iteratively considering how each possible action or decision affects each possible value for each involved person, company, organisation, etc, a broader and more complex view of the moral dilemma is achieved. The output from this tool works both as a decision support, but also as a kind of documentation for future reference, for continuous dialog and for argumentation reasons. If someone later questions a decision then the documentation can work to explain it, or if additional aspects of the dilemma are revealed then the documentation can be extended with this.

  • 20. Garefalakis, Giannis
    et al.
    Gougoulakis, PetrosKavathatzopoulos, IordanisUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Education in Greek language in Scandinavia2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Eriksson, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    User-Centred Systems Design as Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Action Research Project to Improve Usability and the Computerized Work Environment in a Public Authority2009In: International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, ISSN 1548-3908, E-ISSN 1548-3916, Vol. 5, no 3, 13-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hardenborg, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Performing the Vision Seminar Process2007Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Kalimikeraki, Katerina
    et al.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computer assisted second language learning2005In: Open and Distance Education and Education Technology, ISSN 1790-3254, Vol. 1, no 2, 74-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To teach Greek and to teach in Greek are two different things. Children who learn Greek as a second/foreign language are expected to manage both conditions simultaneously. That is, to learn the language as well as all the curriculum taught in this language: history, geography, religion, science etc. Compared to their classmates, who are native speakers, these children have to work double as hard to keep up with the rest of the class. Different approaches have been applied in recent years to facilitate second language acquisition in elementary schools all over the world. Pioneers in the field of education have argued that educators must find stimulating methods to mobilize their students’ intelligences in order to achieve their pedagogical goals. Based on the indisputable assumption that children today are enveloped by the world of high-tech media and that computer games can be highly addictive, educators can borrow from the entertainment industry and create engaging and successful gateways to learning. In the appealing environment of the “virtual classroom” and with the appropriate “mind tool” at hand, both learning of a second language and learning in that second language can be effectively enhanced. Based on psychological research on language and learning we will discuss different ways to use certain ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems in Greek language education and to create a home language environment at distance. Our main hypothesis is that learning and using Greek presupposes real activities in a Greek language environment and that information technology systems have the ability to create such an environment. The paper describes a number of computer assisted project-based lessons on second language learning and presents their theoretical background.

  • 24. Kalimikeraki, Katerina
    et al.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computers as thinking tools for the acquisition of second language2006In: Educator as researcher, 2nd Bureau of Elementary Education of East Attica, Koropi GR , 2006, 139-149 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many different approaches have taken place recently to facilitate second language learning in elementary schools throughout the world. Research in this area shows that teachers have to use the suitable motivators to stimulate pupils' thinking in order to achieve their educational goals. Children live in a world dominated by information technology therefore computer games may be used for educational purposes and to create a successful and pleasant learning environment. Our main hypothesis is that learning and use of Greek language demand real activities in a Greek language environment, and that systems of information technology have the ability to create such an environment that supports learning.

  • 25. Kalimikeraki, Katerina
    et al.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Υπολογιστές ως Εργαλεία Μυαλού για την Απόκτηση Δεύτερης Γλώσσας2006In: Διδακτική της Ελληνικής Γλώσσας ως Δεύτερης Ξένης / [ed] Άννα Χατζηπαναγιωτίδη και Ειρήνη Σεχίδου, Θεσσαλονίκη: University Studio Press , 2006, 215-230 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The students who are taught Greek as a second or foreigner language are in many cases expected to face two educational processes simultaneously. They have to learn the language as well as all the school subjects taught in this language: history, geography, religion, physics etc Compared to their schoolmates, who are functioning in the familiar environment of their mother language, these students should make double the effort and work twice as hard in order to keep pace with the rest of the class. A lot of different pedagogic approaches have been applied over the years in order to facilitate the learning of a second language in the elementary schools around the world. The experts in the field of education support that the teachers should find suitable motives in order to mobilise their students’ potentials so that their academic objectives are achieved. Based on the reality that the children today are surrounded by numerous high technology media and that the fashionable computer games can be particularly addictive, the teachers can borrow from the industry of entertainment and create pleasant and effective conditions of teaching. In the attractive environment of the "virtual class" and with the suitable "mind tool" accessible to the students, so much the learning of a second language as well as the learning of the subjects taught in this language can be promoted successfully. Moreover, the Greek school teachers that travel in many different countries in order to teach the Greek language to the children of immigrants, can surely benefit from such educational software and facilitate their mission by participating in the "school-twinning" networks of the world. After briefly reviewing the psychological theories of language learning and acquisition, we will discuss the possibilities and weaknesses of using certain technical systems in the classroom for the conquest of a second language. Our main hypothesis is that the learning and the usage of the Greek language presupposes real activities in a Greek linguistic environment and that the systems of technology and information have the possibility of creating such an environment that will strengthen the learning. The presentation will try to address the issues generated above.

  • 26.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Arbetsorganisatoriska överväganden vid installation av konditionsövervakning vid Norrsundets Bruk: En utvärdering1996Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Assessing and acquiring ethical leadership competence2012In: Leadership through the Classics: leadership and management in a changing world - lessons from ancient eastern and western philosophy / [ed] Gregory P. Prastacos, Fuming Wang, Klas Eric Soderquist, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 389-400 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders need the ability to handle any moral problem that may arise 5during their professional activities; they need ethical competence. Ethical skill is, in 6psychology and in accordance to the classical philosophical position, understood as 7the basis and the aim of ethical competence of leaders. Based on that, we can 8construct valid assessment tools and training programs that support the acquisition 9and use of ethical competence and skills.

  • 28.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Assessing and training ethical competence as a psychological ability in business organisations1999In: Building moral competence: in organisations, in business schools, in public sector institutions, Sandvika, Norway: Norwegian School of Management , 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers in organisations, need a capacity to cope with moral conflicts which arise in their ordinary activities, that is, they need high ethical competence. This competence means (a) high ethical awareness, the ability to anticipate ethical problems in real life and to perceive them in time, (b) the skill to analyse and solve them in an optimal way, (c) the capability to discuss and handle moral problems at group and organisation level, and together with significant others formulate ethical guidelines, (d) the power to argue convincingly for preferred actions or decisions made, and (e) the strength to implement controversial decisions.

  • 29.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Assessing usability of IT systems2012In: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hägg, Göran M., Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal skills and group processes are necessary in the production of knowledge to design and manage usable systems. AvI is a questionnaire that correlates these parameters of usability to utility and work environment. The main goal of AvI is to create a description of the processes that are necessary to achieve good usability: user participation, knowledge support, networking for coordination and cooperation etc, defined as philosophizing processes at personal and group levels. AvI’s ambition is to indicate whether the preconditions for these processes are present in an organization, to allow these to arise and to function in a satisfying and fruitful way. The evaluation of AvI showed that reliability coefficients and correlations to independent criteria were high, supporting the original hypothesis: AvI can be used to acquire information about the above parameters of an IT system’s usability in an easy and quick way. Although AvI only provides an indicative value, such a diagnosis of the usability of an organization’s IT infrastructure is valuable as an alert and to determine the extent of further initiatives.

  • 30.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Autonomi och etisk kompetensutveckling: Utbildnings- och utvärderingsverktyg för personer och organisationer2000Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    AvI-enkäten: Ett verktyg för att mäta användbarhet, stress och nytta av IT-stöd2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att utveckla ett index för att beskriva användbarheten hos IT-verktyg och hur användbarhet påverkar effektivitet. Enkäten prövades inom CSN och gällde IT-verktyget STIS2000. 498 personer svarade på enkäten, 68% av alla användare av verktyget. Sammanhållningen av enkätens delar och frågor är tillfredsställande. Tillförlitligheten är också tillfredsställande. Enkätens struktur och innehåll utgör en bra grund för att konstruera ett användbarhetsindex. Svaren visar också att deltagarna är ganska positiva när det gäller användningen av STIS2000 inom CSN.

  • 32.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    AvI-index: A tool to assess usability2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AvI-index is a usability measurement questionnaire to assess IT systems  usability as a factor dependent on efficiency, effectiveness and work environment. It is focused on how personal skills and organizational processes contribute to successful user participation and through that to higher usability, to better work environment, and to higher effectiveness and efficiency. Reliability coefficients and correlations to objective criteria were high confirming the original hypothesis. AvI-index can be used to acquire information about an IT system s usability in an easy and quick way. It can be used to evaluate interventions and changes of IT systems. It is also a suitable method to apply continuously over a longer period of time. Although AvI-index only provides an indicative value, such a diagnosis of usability in an organization s IT infrastructure is valuable as an alert and to determine the extent of further initiatives.

  • 33.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Communication and learning in on-line courses2006In: Lifelong Open & Flexible Learning in the Globalized World, 2006, 137-144 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a course, given through the internet without any face-to-face meetings, several techniques were adopted to promote communication. The hypothesis was that these facilitated cognitive coordination which is needed for internalization of instruction and for learning. The results showed that the discussion forum and e-mail to teachers failed as a tools for communication. The students communicated among themselves by e-mail mostly regarding peer evaluation of their assignments. Explanations of these results have to be based on the particular features of internet courses, i.e. the wish to work alone and manage difficulties alone.

  • 34.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computers for ethical competence2005In: ETHICOMP 2005: Looking back to the future, 2005, CD-ROM p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology has certain advantages that can contribute positively in moral problem solving and decision making. It is necessary, however, to adjust those computer tools to the psychological process of handling moral problems. Previous efforts to construct ethical support systems have focused on moral philosophy, certain principles, or normative values, leading to the presentation of solutions or to the identification of moral risks of different solutions. Such programs are not directly concerned with humans’ ethical decision processes and, therefore, run the risk of not giving optimal support to moral problem solving and decision making hindering the usability of the ethical program. In the present paper some ideas are presented and discussed on how computer systems can be constructed such as to adapt to the psychological factors which are critical for the emergence of ethical competence. This is an area of current interest and increasing importance. It is an interdisciplinary effort to combine the advantages of computer machines and the psychological processes of handling moral problems. It opens up for useful computer applications.

  • 35.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing and using ethical autonomous agents2014In: Sweden – Kyoto Symposium, Kyoto: Kyoto University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Development of a cognitive skill in solving business ethics problems: The effect of instruction1993In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 12, no 5, 379-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in business ethics focuses mainly on the improvement of ethical awareness, on philosophical issues, or on the transfer of moral content. However, serious problems with the effectiveness of these methods have been reported. In line with the psychological theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Kohlberg, and in order to avoid the above problems, the educational effort in the present study was concentrated on the stimulation of development of the underlying autonomous cognitive ability to solve moral problems. Adults were trained to solve business ethics problems according to the autonomous function. The problems were presented in the form of moral conflicts introduced by hypothetical stories. The results showed that simple instructions were sufficient to promote a significant shift in the subjects' mode of solving the problems towards the autonomous moral function. Both the educational method and the test device are promising. Issues concerning the scoring instrument as well as questions about the transfer and application of the cognitive skill in real situations are discussed.

  • 37.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Education and ethical competence in information technology design1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Education and moral autonomy1989In: Panorama: International Journal of Comparative Religious Education and Values, ISSN 0937-8219, Vol. 1, 52-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Education for leaders’ ethical competence2017In: European Business Ethics Network: Research / [ed] Ioannis Filos, Athens: Deree, American College of Greece College , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders’ ethical competence and confidence is defined in this work as the use of a decision-making and problem-solving cognitive ability, independent of particular normative moral values. In two studies based on Piaget’s theory of moral development a training method for ethical autonomy has been examined. The study investigated a two-day education program on real life political ethics issues. The results showed clearly that political leaders and others who participated in the training program improved their ability to cope with ethical problems and retained it over a time of several years. That was shown both as a higher score on Ethical Competence Questionnaire – Political, and through a self-evaluation questionnaire

  • 40.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical competence and confidence for IT users and designers2000In: Ethics in the age of information technology, Linköpings universitet, Linköping , 2000, 301-309 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical Competence Questionnaire-Political & Ethical Autonomy Questionnaire-Working Life and Business2000In: Commissioned reviews of 250 psychological tests, The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY , 2000, 827-831 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical competence training for individuals and organizations2002In: Moral Leadership in Action: Building and Sustaining Moral Competence in European Organizations, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham UK , 2002, 293-303 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical leadership in business: The significance of Information and Communication Technology2017In: Information and Management: Connect Things, Humans, Management / [ed] Murata, K. et al., Tokyo: Japan Society for Information and Management , 2017, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In business it is necessary for leaders to have the ability to handle all kinds of different moral problems that may arise during their professional activities. Difficult ethical issues arise today, not least because of the possibilities and risks of ICT. Failure to address moral issues properly has significant impact on an organization’s life, affecting profits and public relations as well as internal processes of the organization and the well being of the leader and the employees. Competence in handling moral problems in a satisfying way is therefore very important for any leader. Education in ethics should equip leaders for difficult decisions, and ethical competence is therefore the most important goal of training programs. We need reliable and effective methods to stimulate and support leaders’ ethical competence. Proper ICT tools developed and used in accordance to philosophical theory and to empirical research on ethical decision-making, can contribute to the development of leaders’ ethical competence.

  • 44.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Etisk kompetens viktigare än lag och moral2006In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 19 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Moralpredikningar och flummigt etikprat tjänar ingenting till, så långt håller jag ned Mats Qviberg. Det leder definitivt inte till att man handlar rätt, eller slipper skandaler och ekonomiska förluster. Predikningar kan t o m vara direkt farliga om de uppfattas som det enda alternativet. Predikningar och flummigt prat ger, rättmätigt, dåligt rykte till etiken och kan faktiskt förhindra sunda åtgärder som verkligen skulle kunna göra nytta. Men, etik är inte nödvändigtvis flummig. Och jag håller inte med Mats Qviberg om att etiken inte behövs. Lagen räcker i många fall inte till. Inte ens moralen räcker till. Att det blir fel ibland beror inte bara på psykopaterna utan på att normala människor gör fel. Visst finns det lagar och moralprinciper och visst har de allra flesta människor en sund känsla för vad som är rätt och fel, men det räcker inte alltid i en konkret situation. Det som är generellt rätt kan vara fel i ett särskilt fall. En lag kan ibland stå mot en annan lag, en moralprincip mot en annan moralprincip, och ett intresse mot ett annat intresse. Vi blir alltså tvungna att hantera sådana situationer själva, och vi måste göra det rätt. Här kan etiken bidra. För att undvika att göra fel måste vi koncentrera oss på att göra det som behövs och inget annat. Jag talar då om att främja förmågan att hantera moraliska problem. Alltför ofta kopplar vi ihop den etiska kompetensen med en eller annan moralisk princip eller ideologi som därmed upphöjs till den godaste principen eller ideologin. Men är inte frågan om vilken princip eller ideologi som skall styra beslutsfattandet en fråga som bara den direkt berörde beslutsfattaren och dennes organisation ska besvara? Det handlar inte bara om att visa respekt för dem som tar emot etisk hjälp. Det är en förutsättning för att hjälpen ska fungera. Beslutsfattare behöver etiska färdigheter och organisationer behöver lämpliga etiska processer. De behöver verktyg för att själva bestämma vilka principer de ska ha och hur de ska tillämpa dem. Forskning och praktisk erfarenhet har visat att etikåtgärder med fokus på just det leder till bättre etiskt insikt, högre etisk kompetens, övertygande etisk argumentationsförmåga och etiskt självförtroende. Ansvariga personer och organisationer är inte betjänta av andras tolkningar och färdiga svar. Sådant fungerar helt enkelt inte. Det som händer är bara att etikexpertens och beslutsfattarens moral kommer i konflikt med varandra.

  • 45.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Etisk utveckling: En fråga om rätt utbildning1996In: Essäer om etik i arbetslivet, Stockholm: Civilekonomernas riksförbund , 1996, 24-30 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ett förbättrat verktyg för mätning av användbarhet, stress och nytta: Andra försöket inom CSN2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att utveckla ett index för att beskriva användbarheten hos ITverktyg och hur användbarheten påverkar effektiviteten. Enkäten prövades inom CSN först på STIS2000. Resultaten ledde till en förbättrad version av enkäten som prövades hösten 2006 på E-posthandläggningen. 427 personer deltog i undersökningen. Sammanhållningen av enkätens delar och frågor samt tillförlitligheten har blivit bättre vilket gör det lättare att utveckla ett användbarhetsindex. Svaren visar också att deltagarna är i stort neutrala när det gäller användbarheten av E-posthandläggningen inom CSN.

  • 47.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    How business organizations manage their problems2006In: Ethics in the world of enterprises, Grada Publishing, Prague , 2006, 57-60 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    How to handle issues of security and privacy2013In: ICT-ethics: Sweden and Japan, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2013, 54-60 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ways to approach privacy and security are critically examined. The main question is how definitions may help us in our efforts to handle these issues in real life and allow us to create suitable and working system designs and policies. Given the controversial nature of privacy and security, and based on philosophical theory and psychological research, we have to focus on the ways, skills, methods and tools we adopt in order to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, designs, rules and principles.

  • 49.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT and sustainability: skills and methods for dialogue and policy making2015In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 13, no 1, 13-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and to discuss the following issues: most often, discussions about Information and communication technology (ICT) sustainability focus on environmental issues; however, there are other aspects referring to ICT internal sustainability and to its role as a tool in managing general sustainability issues. The way to handle ICT sustainability issues is also significant.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses and investigates various aspects of ICT sustainability, and of methods to handle these issues and make decisions.

    Findings: Classical philosophy and psychological empirical research on decision-making demonstrate the way to take care of ICT sustainability issues. This way is philosophizing, which has to be trained and supported for people and organizations involved to acquire the necessary skills and to use suitable methods.

    Originality/value: The paper highlights other significant aspects of ICT sustainability rather than the environmental impact alone. It also proposes focus on the way ICT sustainability issues are handled rather than focus on normative or ideological aspects of it.

  • 50.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT as a horsefly2012In: Critique, Democracy and Philosophy in 21st Century Information Society: Towards Critical Theories of Social Media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, 38-38 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way we solve problems and make decisions has been at the focus of philosophy. Since ancient times the issue has been how to think in the right way. Skills, abilities, methods and processes have been investigated. According to Platon philosophers do not have the right answers but they can find the right answers. They have the skills and they can use the right tools to discard false ideas (aporia). Philosophers think and act in a democratic way among themselves. But anybody who has the ability to philosophize, to think self-critically, systematically, scientifically, i.e. has the Aristotelian virtue of phronesis or the Kantian skill of autonomy, and acts according to this, belongs to a democracy together with other like people. Unfortunately, this is not the only definition of democracy. Although democracy itself is a process, the common sense definition is either result oriented or focused on formalistic aspects, or a combination of both. The first means that societies providing high living standards, security, tolerance, good environment and other goods are called democratic. The second definition is based on the existence of certain procedures, institutions, roles and processes, like elections. The presence of formal procedures is sufficient for a democracy definition. But if democracy is a process neither the result of it nor its formal surface characteristics should have the highest significance. Maintaining and running the democratic process is the important aspect as well as the conditions supporting it. By saying this we are back to the philosophical discussion. In essence democracy is dialog between people. That means that people search for solutions to their problems by thinking together with others. But that presupposes that each person has a dialog with himself and that each person starts with the position that own ideas and beliefs need to be better (aporia). This makes it possible to listen to others. Each participant in a democratic process, or a dialog, feels always the need of other participants because he is expecting them to help him and together with other able people find a better idea (phronesis, autonomy).ICT can contribute to this process by making information accessible and therefore facilitating citizens’ participation in political decision making. It can support openness and by that invite people to be more aware and active. Furthermore, it can support horizontal communication among citizens. Issues that are of interest to few people or to people that for some reason have difficulties to contact each other by traditional means may be neglected in the political process even though they are important. ICT can easily overcome such difficulties and provide a powerful tool to connect, inform and coordinate people’s actions. Most important, ICT can support self-critical and systematic thinking, which is the base for successful democratic dialog. ICT systems are currently used to create aporia and to stimulate autonomy during a process of problem solving and decision making. Advanced games simulate the complexity of reality in micro worlds, broadening the spectrum of opportunities and possibilities to support dialog.

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