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  • 1. Alenius Wallin, Linn
    et al.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    With a little help from my friends: Gender and intimacy in two friendship research projects2016Ingår i: LIR.journal, E-ISSN 2001-2489, nr 7, s. 55-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendship is an undertheorized but increasingly important relationship in late modernity. In this article, the authors present findings from two ongoing research projects about friendship, gender and age in contemporary Sweden. They argue that discourses about gender and friendship are very relevant for how friendship is conceptualized both among men and women, but that the well-known ideas about men’s inability and women’s capacity to be close friends ought to be problematized further, from feminist perspectives. Furthermore, they discuss friendships practices, problematizing the frequent equation of friendship and “deep”, intimate dialogues. Intimate dialogues are important but may overshadow other friendship practices, like various kinds of support, but the authors show that support is negotiated in relation to ideas of ideal friendship, permeated by reciprocity and equality. The authors call for further feminist research about friendship, arguing that a feminist perspective can destabilize gendered dichotomies and make it possible to problematize power relations, vulnerabilities and exclusions in friendships.

  • 2.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Among bros, buddies and BFFs: Gender, subjecthood and intimacy in men’s friendships.2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Men’s friendships have, within feminist studies, been seen as relations where, on the one hand, sexism and homophobia might be re/produced, or where, on the other hand, new, caring and relationship-oriented masculine positions could be developed. Men’s friendships are thus connected to gender relations and constructions of masculine positions, but despite their cultural and political significance, they remain undertheorized in Swedish research. Using cultural representations and in-depth interviews with men, I discuss men’s friendships with special attention to meaning-making processes around subjecthood, intimacy, relationality and masculinity, which I claim are closely related. I argue that a better understanding of friendships between men not only deepens the understanding of which subject positions, relationships and feelings that are made im/possible and un/available when it comes to men’s friendships in a Swedish context, but also opens up for new ways of imagining and exploring potential intimacies and solidarities between men.

  • 3.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Att leva på gränsen: om maskulinitetsskapande, missbruk och mellanpositioner2011Ingår i: Queera intersektioner: queerseminariet vid Uppsala universitet 2008-2010 / [ed] red.: Ann-Sofie Lönngren ; delred.: Malin Ekström & Maria Margareta Österholm, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2011, s. 109-121Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    “Doing” friendship, gender and power: The politics of interviewing men2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Homosocial relations between men have been widely discussed in feminist research. Men’s friendships, more specifically, have been regarded as double-edged by feminists – relations where sexism and homophobia might be re/produced, or where new, caring and relationship-oriented masculine positions can be developed. In my doctoral thesis I use individual and pair interviews with men to investigate meaning making processes and negotiations regarding love, vulnerability, touch, homoeroticism, homophobia and power in friendships among well-educated, urban, white men with positive attitudes towards gender-equality and feminism. In this paper I focus on the interview interaction and discuss “doings” of friendship, gender and power between me, a female PhD-student, and the male interviewees.

    Scrutinizing meta-information, like the interviewees’ reasons for participating in the project, I discuss the temporary intimacy of interviewing, and the gendered emotional work performed by both me and the interviewees during our interaction. I use intersectional theories to discuss processes of inclusion and exclusion, highlighting that the many similarities between myself and the interviewees (along the lines of class, education and race) sometimes lead to a temporary, friendship-like intimacy between us. At other times the interviews turn into troubling situations where power and privilege are reproduced, and which question the view of the researcher as always having the “upper hand” during the research process. Well-known “axes of difference” like gender, sexuality, class, race and age are invoked together with subtle, micro-political situational factors.

    A better understanding of men’s friendships deepens the knowledge about which subject positions, relationships and feelings that are made im/possible and un/available when it comes to friendships between men, but friendship, gender and power should not only be seen as subject matter but also as parts of ongoing, situational and interactional methodological and meta-methodological processes, that can provide insight into the micro-politics of doing research with and about men.

  • 5.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap. Centre for gender research, Uppsala university.
    Friendship – a matter of time?: Temporalities of friendship among Swedish, straight men.2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While often implicitly overlooked in studies about close relationships and within gender studies, friendship is an increasingly important relationship in many Western countries (Roseneil, 2006). Focusing on friendship may contribute to decentring heterosexuality as well as familial relationships, and studying friendships between men can open up for discussing masculine positions and intimacies between men where homoeroticism, homosociality and homophobia may be renegotiated and thought about in new ways.     

    In this paper, departing from individual and pair interviews with well-educated, urban, straight, white men about their friendships, I focus on the interviewees’ descriptions of friendship as important while also being a relationship constantly pressed for time. The stories are dilemmatic and open up for discussing friendship in relation to other close relationships, such as familial or romantic relationships, and in relation to time and temporalities. I scrutinize the stories through the lens of Halberstam’s (2005) thoughts about queer temporalities, and argue that the narratives about the start and continuation of the interviewees’ friendships as well as stories about every-day friendship activities can be connected to normative temporalities of friendship and to friendship’s secondary position in relation to, for instance, the heterosexual couple. I discuss strategies for making time for friendship among the interviewees, which include turning friendship into a flexible relationship that can be fitted around the demands of every-day life and conducted parallel to other activities.

    The stories about friendship are ambiguous and highlight important tensions, the better understanding of which deepens knowledge about how friendship and other relationships are negotiated in relation to each other and in relation to time. Ultimately, a better understanding of them opens up for new ways of imagining and exploring potential intimacies and solidarities between men but also for problematizing friendship as well as other intimacies and relationships.

  • 6.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Friendship temporalities and gender politics among Swedish, straight men2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendship is gaining attention as narratives about family and heterosexuality are increasingly questioned.  While friendships between (certain groups of) women have sometimes been approached as empowering and important to political solidarity, friendships between straight men have been seen as arenas where sexism and homophobia may be reproduced or where hidden sexual desires are negotiated.

     

    In this paper, I discuss negotiations about friendship, homoeroticism, gender constructions and politics among a group of middle-class, white and straight Swedish (cis)men, critical of “traditional” ways of being a man as well as homophobia among men. Making use of Jack Halberstam’s notion of  “queer temporalities”, I argue that while friendship is crucial to the men’s attempts to question gender constructions, they do not to the same degree see friendship as a radical tool to decentre the family, the couple and heterosexuality. Instead, the narratives about the start and continuation of the interviewees’ friendships as well as stories about every-day friendship activities can be connected to normative temporalities of friendship and to friendship’s secondary position in relation to, for instance, heterosexual coupledom. Thus, friendship is lived alongside and adjusted to the demands of heterosexual life schedules. Despite this, cracks and contradictions are discernible in the interviewees’ stories, rendering friendship, romantic and familial relations contested and unclear. 

     

    The stories about friendship are ambiguous and highlight important tensions, the better understanding of which deepens knowledge about how friendship and other relationships are negotiated in relation to each other and in relation to time, as well as about how gendered subject positions, relationships, feelings and attachments are made im/possible and un/available. Ultimately, a better understanding of these stories opens up for new ways of imagining and exploring potential intimacies and solidarities between men but also for problematizing friendship as well as other intimacies and relationships. 

  • 7.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Hugs, lads and homies: Intimacies, subjectivities and feminisms in men’s friendships2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Homosocial relations between men have been widely discussed in feminist research. Men’s friendships, more specifically, have been regarded as double-edged by feminists – relations where sexism and homophobia might be re/produced, or where new, caring and relationship-oriented masculine positions can be developed (Messner, 1997). In a Swedish context, however, friendship research is a small field, and feminist research about friendships between men is very scarce.

    In my doctoral thesis I use individual and pair interviews with men to investigate meaning making processes and negotiations regarding vulnerability, touch, homoeroticism, homophobia and power in friendships among well-educated, urban, white men with positive attitudes towards gender-equality and feminism. In this paper I focus not only on the political implications of the interviewees’ discussions about friendship between men, but also on the recurring and explicit referrals to feminism, gender-equality and a need for change among men and men’s friendships made during the interviews. I argue that these utterances must be understood as situated in the interactional, gendered, classed and national context of the interview, where my role as a gender researcher is highly relevant (cf. Egeberg Holmgren, 2011). They constitute expressions of frustration with what is perceived as the status quo and of longings for change, both on a collective and personal level, but can also be seen as positioning the interviewees as exceptionally emotional and relationship-oriented (Swedish) men (cf. Nordberg, 2005; Gottzén & Jonsson, 2012). Various feminist discourses were visible, predominantly liberal feminist ones, together with negotiations about homophobia and homoeroticism. The hug as an embodied and discursive practice took on a special significance, just like laddishness, and these discussions formed part of multi-faceted, gendered negotiations of subjectivity, intimacy and power.

    The stories about friendships between men as political are ambiguous and highlight important tensions, the better understanding of which deepens knowledge about processes where subject positions, relationships, feelings and attachments are made im/possible and un/available. Ultimately, a better understanding of men’s friendships may open up for new ways of imagining and exploring potential intimacies and solidarities between men but also present important tools to problematize and scrutinize these from a feminist perspective.

  • 8.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    I dåligt sällskap: Om rädsla och maskuliniteter i kriminella grupperingar.2006Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att utreda rädslans betydelse för dynamiken i kriminella manliga ungdomsnätverk i en nordisk kontext. Jag har med utgångspunkt i R.W. Connells maskulinitetsteori och Michael S. Kimmels tankar om maskuliniteter kopplade till rädsla, skam och homofobi läst forskning om dessa ungdomsnätverk och frågat mig om detta perspektiv kan tillföra något till bilden av dessa nätverk.

    Den forskning som konsulterats har kommit från olika håll: kriminologiska och psykologiska artiklar och avhandlingar, polismyndigheters rapporter, studier från Brottsförebyggande rådet och journalistiska texter.

    Resultatet har blivit en analys av dessa texter där dynamiken inom och utom dessa grupper, där strävan mot en godkänd maskulinitet och den rädsla som finns implicit i denna strävan synliggörs. Texterna visar sig i de flesta fall sakna genusperspektiv trots försök att studera sociala faktorer bakom nätverksbildning. Synliggörande av genus som social kategori berikar tolkningen av texterna, och min undersökning visar att både maskuliniteter och rädsla är parametrar i identitetsbygget. Jag menar att ett synliggörande av detta kan berika och nyansera den bild som finns av kriminella nätverk. Även förebyggande åtgärder påverkas naturligtvis när uppfattningar om problemet nyanseras.

  • 9.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap. Linköpings universitet.
    ”I like him so much and he has meant so much to me”: The complexity of intimacy in men’s friendships2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Homosocial relations between men have been widely discussed in feminist research. Men’s friendships, more specifically, have been seen as threatening but also promising to the feminist project – relations where, on the one hand, sexism and homophobia might be re/produced, or where, on the other hand, new, caring and relationship-oriented masculine positions could be developed. In a Swedish context, men’s relationships within the family and within homosocial groups in organizations have often been studied, but men’s friendships remain under-theorized. Using individual and pair interviews with men, I investigate meaning making processes and negotiations regarding love, care, vulnerability, touch, homoerotism and homophobia in men’s friendships with men. I discuss how men’s friendships are made meaningful in the tension between images of men’s friendships as emotionally shallow, competitive and homophobic, and ideas of Swedish men as more equity- and relation-oriented, emotional and caring than ”Other” (e.g. classed and racialized) men. I argue that a better understanding of friendships between men not only deepens the understanding of which subject positions, relationships, feelings and attachments that are made im/possible and un/available when it comes to men’s friendships in a Swedish context, but also opens up for new ways of imagining and exploring potential intimacies and solidarities.

  • 10.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    ”... jag gör inte det här längre, för jag är en bra kille”: unga män som tagit sig ur missbruk och kriminalitet –en intervjustudie om maskulinitetsskapande2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis a category of men otherwise often taken for granted is examined: noncriminal,non-violent men. With the help of in-depth interviews with young men who havepreviously lived a life with drugs and criminal behaviour, I examine the young men's identityand masculinity projects. To do this, I use theories by researchers R.W. Connell and MichaelS. Kimmel, among others. It turns out that the young men use othering, distancing anddichotomization in their identity projects, and that they work very hard to build a newmasculinity, constructed as totally separated from their former one. They also work very hardto dichotomize their identities, separated in now/then, followed by dichotomies such aspure/impure, honest/criminal, good/bad, deep/shallow and communicative/closed-off. Theirpresent masculinity projects must be seen in a context of what can be called a regionalSwedish masculinity, where equality, fatherhood, communication and respect for women arecentral features. I claim that the young men in their masculinity projects work exceptionallyhard to reach this kind of masculinity, and that they, in their struggle to do this use discoursesof embodiment, class, (dis)ability, sex, and authenticity.

  • 11.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap. Centre for gender research, Uppsala university.
    Making Friends: Constructions of Change, Masculine Positions and Friendships Among Former Drug Users2016Ingår i: Critical Perspectives on Masculinities and Relationalities: In Relation to What? / [ed] Häyrén, Anneli; Wahlström Henriksson, Helena, New York: Springer, 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many facets of relationality are explored in this chapter, which highlights meaning-makings around men’s friendships, processes of change – relating a perceived “new” self to an “old” one – and the relationship between interviewer and interviewee. The author explores narratives of friendship among a group of young men involved in exit processes, leaving a life of crime and drug-abuse and starting to build a non-criminal and non-drug abusing life. The chapter is based on interviews and the performative aspects of the interview situation are underscored; thus, talking about changing one’s life can be understood as performing or doing change(dness) during the interview. The interviewees’ narratives of themselves and their friendships are structured by turning-points and temporal dichotomies, where “now” is separated from “then”, and “new” from “old”. A new, caring, communicative self who is capable of having real friends is contrasted against an old, violent, manipulative, aggressive and friendless self. Arguing that one is capable of to uphold “real friendship” is vital when positioning as changed during the interview, and the author argues that this is a part of a dramatic reorientation in the men’s masculinity projects, which can be understood in relation to ideas of Swedishness, gender-equality and “new”, caring masculinities.

  • 12.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Making friends: Understanding changing (?) intimacies in friendships between men.2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    "Other Guys Don't Hang Out Like This": Gendered Friendship Politics Among Swedish, Middle-Class Men2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of men’s friendships, in relation to gender, sexuality, power, masculine positions, feminisms and gender equality. The thesis draws upon in-depth interviews conducted individually and with pairs of men, between 25 and 49 years old, predominantly well-educated, white, straight and working white-collar or cultural jobs, twenty in total. Through analysis from feminist perspectives, the thesis approaches men’s friendships as ambivalent, as both holding radical promises and potentially reproducing and normalising existing discourses, gender figurations and power relations.

    In the thesis, friendship is discussed in relation to research about queer temporalities, showing that friendship is expected to be deprioritised in relation to familial and romantic relationships, associated with constructions of “adult life”. Research about therapeutic discourses and disclosure dominating contemporary views of intimacy are used to analyse the role of conversations. Conversations are central to the stories about friendship and closely associated to authenticity and courage to be open about feelings, and are also relevant to how the interviewees talk about themselves as gendered. It is shown that friendship is connected to gender politics and to the production of masculine positions, where allegedly stoic, competitive and homophobic friendships between “laddish” men function as contrast to the interviewees’ friendships. It is also shown how the interview is an important arena for performing masculine positions as well as certain kinds of friendships. In-depth scrutinising of the interview situation shows complex negotiations about what the interview is and should be, as well as gendered emotion work between interviewer and interviewee(s).

    Using feminist and poststructuralist approaches, which have thus far been uncommon in studies of friendship, the thesis shows how meaning-makings around friendships are interrelated with the production of masculine positions, discourses around sexuality and class, as well as Swedish ideologies of gender equality. Friendships are explicitly politicised and seen as a tool of social change, negotiations which form a gendered friendship politics. The gendered friendship politics contribute to reproducing, normalising and disrupting gender relations and expectations on men. This complicates and deepens discussions about men’s friendships and men’s relationships to processes of social change. 

  • 14.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap. Centre for gender research, Uppsala university.
    Riktiga vänner och andra män: Äkthet, känslor och beröring i mäns vänskapsrelationer.2016Ingår i: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 77-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist researchers have had an ambivalent relation to friendships between men.They have been seen as both threatening and promising, as relationships in which gendered power relations can be either reproduced or challenged. This article draws upon interviews with heterosexual men about their friendships with other men, and the role of emotional and physical closeness in these friendships. The interviewees distinguish between “real” and less real friendships, and argue that they are capable of recognizing and having “real” friendships. They see friendship as gendered, and argue that men in general have difficulties with friendship. Physical closeness, especially hugging, is also discussed. The interviewees distinguish between “real” hugs and back pat hugs, arguing that most men engage in the latter out of fear of closeness and homophobia, but that they themselves prefer the former kind of hug. These narratives are analysed as rhetorical tools making the interviewees stand out as exceptional in relation to other men, who are depicted as shallow or scared of getting close to male friends. By drawing on ideas about “real friendship” and authenticity, they position themselves as anti-homophobic and anti-laddish; as a certain kind of men, aware of gender constructions and different from various “Others”. The article highlights the construction of an anti-homophobic and anti-laddish masculine position in a contemporary Swedish context, focusing on ideas about friendship and authenticity. The interview is theorized as an arena for doing positioning work, where boundaries are drawn and categories are re/produced, one of which is the idea of “real” friendship, used for distinguishing between different kinds of men and relationships. The discussions about friendship are complex, as well as filled with longing for and envisionings of new kinds of friendships and intimacies between men.

  • 15.
    Goedecke, Klara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    With a little help from my friends: Intimacies and solidarities in men’s friendships2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Goedecke, Klara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för genusvetenskap.
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Rekryteringar vid samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten 1999-2009: En kvantitativ kartläggning och en kvalitativ analys2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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