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  • 1.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    After Fukushima: nuclear power and societal choice2015In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 291-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of article is to evaluate nuclear power in relation to alternative energy sources. A central claim is that the accident in Fukushima does not change the challenges facing the global system for electricity production. Given the need to minimize climate change and that nuclear power provides electricity with lower carbon emissions than fossil fuels, it is impossible to replace both nuclear power and fossil fuel plants in a few years. These plants provide a substantial part of our total generating capacity and cannot be easily substituted. However, if we made significant but non-radical reductions of our electricity consumption, the process of replacing both nuclear power and fossil fuels with renewable sources becomes easier. Reduction can be motivated by an egalitarian theory of justice which claims that it is wrong to maintain a lifestyle that threatens present humans and transfers risks unto future generations. Finally, it is concluded that our total electricity consumption is as important as its production when we plan for our society’s energy future.

  • 2.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Climate change, justice and the right to development2011In: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary human rights documents of the United Nations claim that every human has a right to development, a right that also includes continuous improvement of each person's living conditions. On one interpretation, this implies a right to a never-ending improvement of living conditions. According to the author, this interpretation faces several counterintuitive implications. First, it seems reasonable that we cannot have a right to improvement without regard to environmental sustainability; improvements must instead focus on well-being, a concept that is partially unrelated to material improvements. Second, if development is a human right, there are several distributional problems with this right. The paper discusses three different responses to the idea that everybody has a right to continuous improvement and concludes that the best solution is to reject the idea that everyone has such a right. This does not imply that we must reject a right to a certain minimum level of well-being; it just means that this right cannot include claims for never-ending improvement.

  • 3.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Ethics and Philosophy of Religion.
    Ethics Beyond Finitude: Responsibility towards Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation has three aims: 1. To evaluate several ethical theories about responsibility towards future generations. 2. To construct a theory about responsibility towards future generations. 3. To carry out an ethical evaluation of different nuclear waste management methods.

    Five theories are evaluated with the help of evaluative criteria, primarily: A theory must provide future generations with some independent moral status. A theory should acknowledge moral pluralism. A theory should provide some normative claims about real-world problems.

    Derek Parfit’s theory provides future generations with full moral status. But it is incompatible with moral pluralism, and does not provide reasonable normative claims about real-world problems. Brian Barry’s theory provides such claims and a useful idea about risk management, but it does not provide an argument why future generations ought to exist. Avner de-Shalit’s theory explains why they ought to exist; however, his theory can not easily explain why we ought to care for other people than those in our own community. Emmanuel Agius’ theory gives an ontological explanation for mankind’s unity, but reduces conflicts of interests to a common good. Finally, Hans Jonas’ theory shifts the focus from the situation of future generations to the preconditions of human life generally. However, his theory presupposes a specific ontology, which might be unable to motivate people to act.

    The concluding chapters describe a narrative theory of responsibility. It claims that we should comprehend ourselves as parts of the common story of mankind and that we ought to provide future generations with equal opportunities. This implies that we should avoid transferring risks and focus on reducing the long-term risks associated with the nuclear waste.

  • 4.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management2010In: Ethics, Energy & the Future: Technology for a Sustainable Society, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, June 24-26, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Humanitarianism: Between Realism and Utopia2017In: Antae Journal, ISSN 2523-2126, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 102-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main claim in this article is that humanitarianism can be depicted as an attempt of establishing a realistic utopia. The claimed is supported by comparison between More’s Utopia and Dunant’s A memory of Solferino. Despite the differences in style and context, both authors show a sensitive analysis of human nature and war as a phenomenon. They both show that war should be conducted in a way that reduces suffering. It is also important that several of their ideas that were far flung at the time have become political mainstream. This in turn illustrate that some utopian depictions can turn out to be realistic. Dunant’s text illustrates this by making concrete proposals that brought about long lasting changes in the conduct of war. Despite coming short of abolishing war his text represent a realistic utopia that expanded the field of what was politically possible.

  • 6.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Is there a universal human right to electricity?2019In: International Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1364-2987, E-ISSN 1744-053XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers three answers to the question whether electricity access should be a universal human right. A first position is that there is no human right to electricity but perhaps contractual rights related to various societies. A second position is that electricity is a derived human right, a right based on other rights, grounded on rights such as the right to adequate housing. A third position is that there is a universal human right to electricity. It is argued that the second position is the strongest since it supports the idea that humans often need access to electricity but avoids the stronger claim that all humans must have this access. The latter claim faces the challenge that rights language should focus on the needs of humans and not be extended too far to include everything that could be beneficial for humans. Such an extension might diminish the attention on the actual aim of human rights: That all humans should have a good enough life.

  • 7.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Kärnavfall och etik: metoder och principer2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur man än ställer sig gentemot kärnkraften måste dess avfall hanteras på något sätt. Hanteringen är delvis en etisk fråga eftersom flera av de mål som den skall uppnå, eller styras av, är moraliskt motiverade. I artikeln redogörs fyra etiska principer för hantering: icke-skada, icke-spridning av kärnvapen, förorenaren betalar samt återtagbarhet. Principerna används sedan för att utvärdera fyra olika metoder för att ta hand om avfallet: ytförvar, slutförvar i tunnlar, slutförvar i djupa borrhål samt separation och transmutation. Eftersom vi inte bör utsätta framtida generationer för fler risker än nödvändigt är författarens slutsats att separation och transmutation framstår som den bästa metoden eftersom den kan minska tidsperioden som avfallet är skadligt. Avslutningsvis betonas att kärnkraften måste utvärderas i relation till andra energisystem, en bedömning som går utöver en etisk utvärdering av avfallshanteringen.

  • 8.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Lärdomar från en simulering av humanitär förhandling2017In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 76-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Recension av Ole Jensen På kant med klodens klima: Om behovet av et ændret natursyn2011In: Svensk teologisk kvartalskrift, ISSN 0039-6761, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 187-187Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    The Future of Nuclear Power: Some implications for global energy consumption and energy production2013In: Assessing energy futures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, January 28-February 1, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Tillväxtens framtid : introduktion till utvecklingsetik2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta av oss delar tanken på att samhället kan bli bättre. Vi vill bekämpa fattigdomen, öka rättvisan, förbättra välfärden och skydda miljön. Problemet är att dessa mål inte automatiskt går att förena och att vi ibland måste välja ett framför andra.

    Den här boken presenterar flera olika sätt att se på samhällets utveckling och vilka mål som vi bör eftersträva. Boken har ett etiskt perspektiv och fokuserar på utvecklingens moraliska dimensioner och frågor som: Är det möjligt att utrota fattigdomen utan att öka jämlikheten? Vad innebär ett ökat krav på rättvisa?Vad innebär det om naturens gränser sätter stopp för fortsatta materiella förbättringar?

    Tillväxtens framtid är en introduktion till utvecklingsetik och är tänkt att användas inom miljö- och utvecklingsstudier vid universitet och högskola. Den kan även användas för vidareutbildning inom offentlig biståndsverksamhet samt hjälp-och frivilligorganisationer.

  • 12.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Virtue Ethics and Disasters2018In: Basic Concepts and Normative Theories in Disaster Ethics / [ed] Dranseika, Vilius; Gordijn, Bert; O’Mathúna Dónal P., Springer Publishing Company, 2018, p. 203-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtue ethics studies the character traits of good persons. This includes analysis of how ordinary persons can emulate moral role models in order to improve their moral character. This chapter investigates the link between virtues and disasters by relating classic and contemporary virtue ethical thinking to the character traits of humanity and resilience. The article finds ample support for the claim that these two character traits can be analysed as virtues and that classical virtue theorists can help us articulate the content of these traits. The contemporary discourse about virtues and disasters includes the long-standing analysis of the role of reason and emotions in virtues but the discourse also considers what kind of virtues that are relevant in disaster situations. Two important examples of the latter are the virtues of humanitarian workers and the virtues of those who suffer disasters. The chapter conclude that that future research should consider how training can strengthen individual resilience and how the pursuit of moral excellence can be included in the humanitarian field as a complement to minimum standards.

  • 13.
    Löfquist, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Virtues and Humanitarian Ethics2017In: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional.

  • 14.
    Löfquist, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Pellegrini-Masini, Giuseppe
    Corvino, Fausto
    Energy justice and intergenerational ethics: theoretical perspectives and institutional designs2019In: Energy Justice Across Borders / [ed] Gunter Bombaerts, Kirsten Jenkins, Yekeen A. Sanusi, Wang Guoyu, Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we discuss how both contractualism, in the Western tradition, and communitarianism, in the African interpretation based on the idea of Ubuntu, conceptualise intergenerational justice. Even though both philosophical theories, taking into account differences and shortcomings, provide theoretical answers to intergenerational justice dilemmas, the implementation of actual policies in the interest of future individuals does not follow straightforwardly. Accordingly, in the second part of the chapter, we analyse what policy tools have been implemented or conceived to deliver intergenerational justice and we advocate a pragmatic approach pointing towards a mix of different policy tools.

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