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  • 1. Bartlett, Jennifer L.
    et al.
    Pallas, Josef
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
     Reputation and Legitimacy: Accreditation and Rankings to Assess Organizations2013In: The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation / [ed] Craig E. Carroll, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, 1, 530-544 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Borglund, Tommy
    et al.
    De Geer, Hans
    Sweet, Susanne
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lerpold, Lin
    Nordbrand, Sara
    Sjöström, Emma
    Windell, Karolina
    CSR and Sustainable Business2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Borglund, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    De Geer, Hans
    Sweet, Susanne
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lerpold, Lin
    Nordbrand, Sara
    Sjöström, Emma
    Windell, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    CSR: En guide till företagets ansvar2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 4. Borglund, Tommy
    et al.
    De Geer, Hans
    Sweet, Susanne
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lerpold, Lin
    Nordbrand, Sara
    Sjöström, Emma
    Windell, Karolina
    CSR och hållbart företagande2017 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Borglund, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Windell, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Effekterna av hållbarhetsredovisning: En studie av konsekvenserna av de nya riktlinjerna om hållbarhetsinformation i statligt ägda företag2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen beslutade under 2007 om nya riktlinjer för extern rapportering för de statligt ägda företagen. Dessa ska från och med räkenskapsåret 2008 hållbarhetsredovisa enligt Global Reporting Initatives (GRI:s) riktlinjer. Krav på hållbarhetsredovisning ger staten som ägare möjlighet att följa upp att styrelserna har tagit sitt ansvar enligt statens ägarpolicy, dvs att statligt ägda företag ska vara föredömen vad gäller socialt och miljömässigt ansvarstagande. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om och i vilken utsträckning regeringens utökade krav på hållbarhetsinformation har fått effekter på statligt ägda företagens hållbarhetsarbete. Studien fokuserar på förändringar i strukturer eller processer i företagens hållbarhetsarbete som kan härledas till tillämpningen av regeringens riktlinjer och de nya prioriteringar som följer av att riktlinjerna tillämpas. Studien bygger på intervjuer och enkäter till CSR- och hållbarhetschefer i 49 statligt hel- eller delägda företag samt till styrelseordförandena i dessa företag. Sammantaget visar resultaten att införandet av de nya riktlinjerna påverkat företagen i varierande grad. De företag som tidigare saknat erfarenhet från hållbarhetsredovisningar har genomgått en större förändringsprocess än de som redan sedan tidigare redovisat sina hållbarhetsfrågor. Riktlinjerna har därmed haft störst effekter på de företag som sedan tidigare inte haft större erfarenheter från hållbarhetsarbete. Resultaten visar att riktlinjerna bidragit till att skapa uppmärksamhet och medvetenhet kring hållbarhetsfrågor i företagen samt att generera ny kunskap om hållbarhetsfrågor. I synnerhet har kunskapsnivån ökat hos de företag som sedan tidigare ansåg sig ha begränsad kunskap och bristande erfarenhet från att arbeta med hållbarhetsredovisning. Nya hållbarhetsfrågor har därmed prioriterats i vissa företag. Framförallt har företagen medvetandegjorts om vikten av hållbarhetsfrågor. Vidare visar resultaten att riktlinjerna om hållbarhetsredovisning främst bidragit till förbättrade rutiner för att redovisa hållbarhetsfrågor snarare än skapat stora förändringar av hållbarhetsarbetet som praktik. I viss mån har det skett en ökad systematisering av hållbarhetsarbetet i stort. I vissa företag har nya hållbarhetsfrågor prioriterats och nya rutiner och riktlinjer för kärnverksamhetenhar utarbetats. Studien visar att affärsstödjande processer förändras i vissa företag. Dessa processer handlar främst om miljö och inköp, även om mycket få företag rapporterar egentliga förändringar av det de upplever vara kärnverksamheten. Strukturförändringar – att den formella organisationen i företagen ändras – förekommer i begränsad utsträckning och kan i så fall hänföras till organiseringen av hållbarhetsarbete. Överlag har dock riktlinjerna främst påverkat företagens sätt att rapportera och redovisa hållbarhetsfrågor snarare än själva hållbarhetsarbetet. Det leder oss fram till slutsatsen att redovisningen av hållbarhetsfrågor i första hand stärker och förbättrar redovisningsprocedurer, medan steget till förändrad praktik är längre. Av studien framkommer att hållbarhetsredovisning handlar om en lärprocess. Att använda GRI:s riktlinjer är inte helt okomplicerat. I flera fall upplevts det som svårt att arbeta enligt riktlinjerna i synnerhet när det gäller att välja ut och styra efter relevanta GRI-indikatorer. I vissa fall anser företagen att indikatorerna inte är anpassade efter deras bransch – och att de flesta indikatorerna därmed inte är applicerbara på deras verksamhet. Företagen har lärt sig att anamma GRI i olika utsträckning. Tydligt är att GRI anpassas till företagens egen verksamhet genom att GRI:s indikatorer översätts till relevanta nyckeltal i företagen.

  • 6.
    Borglund, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Windell, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Increasing responsibility through transparency?: A study of the consequences of new guidelines for sustainability reporting by Swedish state-owned companies2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the Swedish government introduced new guidelines requiring state-owned companies to provide sustainability reports in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). The reform was part of an active ownership policy of the Swedish government with an ambition to promote sustainability in state-owned companies. Given the lack of empirical studies on the effects of GRI reporting this explorative study examines the consequences of new requirements on GRI reporting on state-owned companies in Sweden. The purpose of the paper is to investigate if and to what extent the government’s augmented sustainability information requirements have had effects on the sustainability activities at state-owned companies. The study is based on questionnaires sent to CSR and sustainability managers at state-owned companies and to the chairmen of these companies. The questionnaires were complemented with interviews with the sustainability managers of a selection of these state-owned companies. The results show that the introduction of the new guidelines affected the companies to varying degrees. The companies that lacked previous experience of sustainability reporting have gone through a more extensive process of change than those that were already submitting sustainability reports. The results also show that the guidelines contributed mainly to improved procedures for reporting on sustainability issues rather than bringing about far-reaching changes in sustainability activities in practice. This leads us to the conclusion that the reporting of sustainability issues in the first instance strengthens and improves reporting procedures, whereas the next step – to changes in practice – is a greater one.

  • 7.
    Borglund, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Windell, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Increasing responsibility through transparency?: A study of the consequences of new guidelines for sustainability reporting by Swedish state-owned companies2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. De Geer, Hans
    et al.
    Borglund, Tommy
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Anglo-Saxification of Swedish Business: Working paper within the project 'Scandinavian Heritage'2003In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 12, no 2, 179-189 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. De Geer, Hans
    et al.
    Borglund, Tommy
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Interpreting the International Firm: Going Beyond Interviews2004In: Handbook Of Qualitative Research Methods For International Business, Edward Elgar , 2004, 324-341 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    De Geer, Hans
    et al.
    SSE Riga.
    Borglund, Tommy
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reconciling CSR with the Role of the Corporation in Welfare States: The Problematic Swedish Example2009In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 89, no Supplement 3, 269-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses the Swedish example to illustrate how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is understood and interpreted when it enters a welfare state context where social issues have traditionally been the domains of the state and of politicians. Among the implications one finds a relative scepticism of traditionally strong actors on the labour market, such as the state, trade unions and employers. This relative scepticism is primarily explained by an enduring idea of the role of business in society which stands in contradistinction to the idea expressed in the corporate centred idea of CSR. Still, CSR gains a foothold in the welfare state context, mainly because of the flexibility of the concept which allows for 'escape routes' - an understanding of CSR that focusses on issues at arm's length from the traditional welfare context. CSR also benefits from being codified in soft regulation, thereby becoming a legitimate super- national point of reference for all relevant actors. The possibility of developing new global arenas for espousing ideals partly in conflict with traditional ones also explains why CSR has become an established concept. In Sweden, such arenas have been created through the activities of multinational corporations, NGOs, investors, the media, consultants and other actors.

  • 11. De Geer, Hans
    et al.
    Borglund, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reconciling CSR with welfare state actor roles: The problematic Swedish example2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Englund, Hans
    et al.
    Örebro University School of Business.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Managing performance evaluation uncertainties in schools: When teachers become struggling performers2017In: European Educational Research Journal, ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 16, no 6, 885-906 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performative technologies are increasingly relied upon as a means of controlling the work of teachers. As noted in the literature, one possible outcome of this trend is the performer, a teacher identity that presupposes the internalization of, and adaptation to, a performative logic. Based on the findings from an empirical study of a Swedish upper secondary school, we suggest that teachers who actually submit to the underlying logic of performative technologies – i.e. who intentionally strive towards a performative identity – will encounter a number of performance evaluation uncertainties, due to how performative technologies may: (a) reflect and recognize teacher performances based on qualitative judgements, (b) fail to take into account their entrepreneurial endeavours, (c) depict essentially collective effects as individual performances, and (d) reflect and recognize performances in a relativizing way. Such performance evaluation uncertainties will, in turn, provoke perceived tensions as performative teachers want to be (perceived as) performers but become uncertain as to when and why they did (not) perform well. And importantly, we find that such tensions tend to turn the ongoing reproduction of a performative identity into a cognitive struggle. Based on this, we introduce and elaborate on a particular type of performative teacher identity; the struggling performer.

  • 13.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    A Consent and Knowledge Perspective on Normative Control2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a couple of decades, the idea of normative control has been challenged for not paying due respect to employee self-determination, self-actualization, autonomy, integrity and freedom to make moral decisions. Despite well-articulated criticism, few scholars problematize the functionality and nature of normative control given varying employee perceptions of it. This article adopts a perspective where both employee consent and knowledge of aspects and components of normative control are taken into account. Through such an approach, four different states related to normative control are identified and discussed. By doing so, the article shifts focus from the recurrent obsession with the pros and cons of value alignment to the internal legitimacy of the person(s) exercising normative control and to employee knowledge of what normative control actually brings about.

  • 14.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Att arbeta med CSR2010In: Bonniers ledarskapshandböcker: Ekonomistyrning, kapitel 7.6 / [ed] Göran Nilsson, Stockholm: Bonnier Business Publishing , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Att förstå det unika: Samverkan mellan privata och offentliga aktörer i slutförvarsprojektet2010In: Samhällsforskning 2010: Betydelsen för människorna, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle, Stockholm: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB , 2010, 52-67 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Att förstå företagsetik2011 (ed. 1:1)Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bortom argumenten - etiska grunder och moralisk legitimitet i den svenska slutförvarsdiskussionen2008In: Samhällsforskning: betydelsen för människorna, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle, Stockholm: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB , 2008, 40-63 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    CSR as Managerial Knowledge: But of What and For What?2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    CSR reser in i organisationen2011In: Företagsansvar: CSR som managementidé / [ed] Mats Jutterström & Peter Norberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1:1, 133-146 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    CSR travels into the organization2013In: CSR as a Management Idea: Ethics in Action / [ed] Mats Jutterström & Peter Norberg, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, 1, 126-140 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Den förminskade medarbetaren: En intressent bland andra?2011In: Ta ansvar: En idé- och debattantologi om företagens ansvar / [ed] Lars Jederlund, Stockholm: Unionen , 2011, 25-37 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Den styrda läraren: Om vem och vad som egentligen styr lärarens arbete i gymnasieskolan2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    En professionsreform med förhinder: Lärarlegitimationens följdverkningar på lokal nivå2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det svenska skolsystemet införs så kallad lärarlegitimation. Denna artikel undersöker följdverkningarna av reformen ur lokalt styrperspektiv. Även om legitimationen är statlig är en stor del av hanteringen decentraliserad till huvudmanna- och skolnivå. Konferensbidraget bygger på intervjuer med skolledare och identifierar hur dessa agerar för att förverkliga reformen i sina organisationer. Den organisatoriska aktivitet som följer på lokal nivå tolkas som decentralisering, prioritering och förhandling. Detta innebär att genomförandeansvaret stegvis skjuts längre ned i organisationerna, att skolledare aktivt prioriterar och selekterar lärare för exempelvis fortbildning och att en viktig del av det lokala reformarbetet handlar om att i förhandlingar, framför allt med de lokala fackföreningarna, fastställa villkor för genomförandet. Ur ett professionsperspektiv illustrerar studien övergripande tendenser som kan knytas till reformen, nämligen (organisatorisk) autonomisering, professionsreformering utan professionens medverkan och särskiljning (mellan skolor).

  • 24.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Örebro universitet.
    Etiken i butiken: Recension av Tomas Bryttings bok2015In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, Vol. 1, 34-35 p.Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Etisk argumentation i slutförvarsfrågan: Etiska värderingskonflikter i diskussionen om det svenska kärnavfallet2008Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Diskussionen om frågan om slutligt omhändertagande av använt kärnbränsle handlar framför allt om tre områden: vilken plats som ska väljas, vilken metod som är tillräckligt säker och hur

    beslutsprocessen ska se ut. Meningsskiljaktigheterna är stora mellan olika aktörer i slutförvarsfrågan. Rapporten förstår dessa främst som processdrivare, observatörer, processkritiker och

    kärnkraftsmotståndare. Det som miljöorganisationerna framför allt hävdar är att alternativa platser och metoder bör utredas ytterligare och att processen kring det svenska slutförvaret bör

    präglas av större öppenhet och demokrati.

    Rapporten slår fast att de olika aktörerna, fastän de står långt ifrån varandra i diskussionen, delar flera viktiga etiska värderingar, framför allt principen att inte skada, föreställningen om rättvisa mellan generationerna, producentansvarsprincipen och principen om medbestämmande. Ett viktigt resultat är dock att en stor underliggande tvistefråga handlar om relevansen av så

    kallade funktionella värderingar i förhållande till etiska värderingar. Detta handlar om att det finns olika synsätt på relevansen av processeffektivitet i fråga om tid, ekonomi och allmänna socioekonomiska effekter i slutförvarsfrågan.

  • 26.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Etiska koder: Vem angår de och varför?2012In: Etik och integritet / [ed] Hans De Geer och Claes Trollestad, Stockholm: Etikkollegiet , 2012, 1, 80-96 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Flexibilitet och avprofessionalisering: Om elevers val och lärares (o)frihet2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Företaget och hållbarheten2013In: Controllerhandboken / [ed] Nils-Göran Olve & Fredrik Nilsson, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 10, 590-604 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    How Consultants Contribute to CSR Innovation: Combining Competencies and Modifying Standards2010In: Innovative CSR: From Risk Management to Value Creation  / [ed] Céline Louche, Samuel O. Idowu and Walter Leal Filho, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing , 2010, 382-404 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Örebro University School of Business.
    Humility in business: A contextual approach2016In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 138, no 1, 91-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The virtue of humility is often considered to be at odds with common business practice. In recent years, however, scholars within business ethics and leadership have shown an increasing interest in humility. Despite such attention, the argument for the relevance of humility in business could be expanded. Unlike extant research that focuses on humility as a character-building virtue or instrumentally useful leadership trait, this article argues that humility reflects the interdependent nature of business. Through such an approach, the article gives an extrinsic motivation of the relevance of humility in business, and, from a theoretical point of view, links the intra-personal and intra-organizational perspective on humility to an inter-organizational one. The article contextualizes the virtue of humility by relating it to the economic, cognitive, and moral aspects of business practice and managerial work. It claims that the assumption of self-sufficiency in business is a grave misrepresentation of what business is—a practice characterized by interdependency. Potential links between virtue ethics, leadership, and contextually oriented theories of business, such as stakeholder theory, network theories, and resource dependence theory, are also identified.

  • 31.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ideological and functional CSR: Two different logics of legitimacy2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common explanation for why companies engage in CSR is that they aspire for external legitimacy. Companies try to prove themselves responsible through different activities and strategies that may meet with moral approval in a wider social context. A corollary of such approval is said to be the granting of legitimacy or a licence to operate. Although a possible explanation, this article analyses such a proposition as inadequate to capture the general functionality of CSR. The article claims that even though CSR may be seen as a legitimacy-seeking activity aimed to exhibit ideological correspondence with external social norms, many CSR activities have functional aims and follow another logical path. Such functional CSR tends to be employee-oriented and focuses on practical aspects of business rather than ideological ones. Another feature of functional CSR is that it is more oriented towards internal than external legitimacy. An implication of this is that ideological and functional CSR build on contrarian logics and processes for legitimation.

  • 32.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internal Legitimacy for Change in Mergers and Acquisitions2013In: Mergers and Acquisitions: The Critical Role of Stakeholders / [ed] Helén Anderson,Virpi Havila & Fredrik Nilsson, London: Routledge, 2013, 1, 82-100 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Judging the Manager in Media2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Legitimating CSR: Exclusivity through values2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Legitimationskontrollen: en studie av etiska värderingars roll i gränsöverskridande förvärv och fusioner2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From an employee perspective, the study examines the intra-firm role of ethical values in four cases where Swedish firms are acquired by or merge with foreign comptetitors. This is done by using the conceptual tool of internal legitimacy, adding up to the research question on what grounds internal legitimacy is created for changes regarding work content, work routines, and organization in the Swedish firms under study.

    A model for understanding internal legitimation in an organizational context is developed, defining internal legitimacy as an internal license to operate, understood in relational terms, given by the employees on the basis of common values, meaningfulness, self-interest, and emotional grounds. Different forms of internal legitimacy are identified. Moral (normative) legitimacy rests upon common (ethical) values, cognitive legitimacy builds on meaningfulness, pragmatic legitimacy has its roots in self-interest, while the emotional context warrants its own form of legitimacy that can be understood in identificational terms.

    The four cases differ in substance from each other. The first case concerns an Internet firm taken over by a German competitor. The second case is about a consultancy firm that is acquired by a British multinational. The third case describes an American acquisition of an industrial firm, while the fourth case focuses on a merger of equals between a Swedish and a Finnish firm within raw material extraction and manufacturing.

    Changes in work content are found to be more detrimental to internal legitimacy than changes in work routines and organization. This is due to the challenge that externally imposed changes in work content pose to the basic meaning of work as understood by the employees.

    Five factors, understood as facilitators for internal legitimacy, are identified. The autonomy factor, the competence factor, the identification factor, the market logic factor, and the instrumental factor. These factors have a strong bearing on the creation of internal legitimacy in the examined firms.

    The autonomy factor signifies a claim for relative organizational autonomy and independence from the new owners and respect for the individual need for self-realization at work. In ethical terms, both these aspects build on elements of freedom, equality, tolerance, diversity, and co-determination, ethical concepts that are closely knit together in the minds of Swedish employees and provide the basis for how they want to be treated by the new owners.

    The competence factor refers to employee expectations on the new owners' knowledge and competence. This factor can be understood as instrumental, building on self-interest, in the way that there is a strong expectation that the new owners contribute with knowledge that is good for business. But it can also be understood in value terms, signifying a respect for professional knowledge as a value, shared for example in technically oriented engineering cultures.

    The identification factor has to do with what the employees are, want to be, and to what extent the new owners facilitate their endeavor to become this. This factor is multi-faceted. Elements of narcissicstic self-interest, correspondence between employee values and the perceived values of the new owners, and emotional factors all contribute to identification, not the least in terms of status.

    The market logic factor refers to the fact that acceptance of evolutionary market logic warrants legitimacy for relatively harsh measures in terms of, for example, downsizing. The degree to which the employees consider evolutionary market logic to be valid in a functional sense is crucial since it implies the level of cognitive acceptance of the rules of the game of the market and, also, their natural consequences on a micro-level.

    The instrumental factor builds on self-interest and has to do with the degree to which personal interests, for example career interests, are furthered by the order established by the new owners.

    Ethical values play an important role in the sense that they are fundamental to trust, which must be enjoyed by a foreign owner to gain acceptance from an internal Swedish employee force. Trust is manifested in the autonomy factor and the identification factor. Knowledge can also be seen as a value, however not an ethical one, that is also vital to trust and is manifested in the competence factor.

    One important finding is that there seems to be a common Swedish understanding of the ethical values at stake. Autonomy, expressed as freedom, is linked to participation, equality, and respect for the individual. Another important finding is that, contrary to intuitive expectations, there is no connection between conventionally understood macro-level national cultural similarity and micro-level internal legitimacy for changes in terms of work content, work routines, and organization. Internal legitimacy is virtually absent in the German-Swedish case and relatively low in the Finnish-Swedish case. To some degree it exists within the British-Swedish case while it is high in the U.S.-Swedish case. This shows that assumptions of macro-level cultural similarity are not good predictors when it comes to micro-level outcomes concerning the human side of mergers and acquisitions. Rather, the five factors mentioned above have more significance in terms of internal legitimacy creation.

  • 36.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Läraren som konkurrensmedel: Kunskapskälla, stödperson eller icke-person?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med konferensbidraget är att empiriskt visa hur gymnasieskolor beskriver, förstår och presenterar lärare i sin externa kommunikation. Ambitionen är att visa vilken betydelse läraren egentligen har i profileringen av enskilda skolor. En innehållsanalys görs av svenska gymnasieskolors egengenererade material för extern publik. Kommunala och fristående gymnasier jämförs. Till studiens slutsatser hör att lärare i mycket begränsad utsträckning profilerar skolorna i den externa kommunikationen. Andra aspekter än lärarnas kompetenser framhålls. När lärare väl omnämns är det oftast som avpersonifierad allmän kategori vars funktion – till exempel vilken roll läraren ska spela i det pedagogiska koncept som skolan använder – är det som skolorna lyfter fram. I stort sett finner studien inga skillnader mellan kommunala och fristående gymnasier i kommunikationen kring lärarens roll. Förståelsen av lärarens roll i skolan tycks vara ungefär densamma att döma av kommunikationen. Resultaten av studien kan bland annat förstås i förhållande till diskussionen om lärarnas status. Genom att de förvandlas till ”icke-personer” i skolornas kommunikation förstärks bilden av lärarna som en grupp med låg yrkesstatus som får begränsat utrymme i skolornas informations- och marknadsföringsmaterial. 

  • 37.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Läraren som konkurrensmedel: kunskapskälla, stödperson eller icke-person?2011In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 20, no 2, 27-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to show empirically how upper-secondary schools describe, understand and present teachers in their external communication. The ambition is to demonstrate to what extent and how teachers’ competencies are stressed by local school management in a competitive setting. Swedish upper-secondary schools’ Internet communication to external audiences is content analyzed. Private and public schools are compared. The study finds that teachers’ qualities and competencies are rarely communicated. Other aspects are emphasized. When teachers are mentioned, it is usually as a depersonalized category whose function is stressed, for example the role of the teacher in the pedagogical concept or idea that the school adopts. In practice, no differences between private and public schools are found. The findings of the study can be understood in the context of the ongoing discussion on teachers’ status. By being “non-existent” in the external communication, the image of the teachers as a group with low professional status is sustained.    

  • 38.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lärarlegitimationen som organisationsfråga: Strategisk respons och professionella konsekvenser2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 2, 45-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish teacher certification reform can beseen as a professional reform introduced to enhance the status and knowledge level of the teaching profession. However, a high degree of autonomy is granted to local schools when it comes to organizing and preparing for the reform. The article identifies different strategic responses of schools and discusses their professional consequences. Strategic responses include, for example, organizational selection and prioritization between certified and non-certified teachers, unwanted re-organization of schools and emergency solutions. It is argued that such responses imply a stronger division between certified and non-certified teachers as well as a clash between formalized competence and ideals relating to professional practice.

  • 39.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lärarnas avprofessionalisering och autonomins mångtydighet2012In: Nordiske organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 14, no 2, 49-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reforms of the school system in the last decades have, according to many researchers, contributed to increased deprofessionalization of teachers. This is very much a matter of lost professional autonomy, i.e. the professional control of the contents, form, knowledge base and criteria for evaluation of professional activity. The article problematizes deprofessionalization through defining theoretically and studying empirically professional autonomy at the practice level. Three levels of autonomy are identified; professional, collegial and individual. Despite the challenge of professional autonomy, it is argued that many teachers still enjoy substantial collegial and individual autonomy. Thus, the article shows that challenges of professional autonomy may strike differently at different levels, paradoxically enough as a consequence of decentralization and increased organizational autonomy following decentralization. A general conclusion is that a fragmentation of the teaching profession evolves, which can be explained by the degree of autonomy that is given to the teachers. The control ambitions and pedagogical ideals of the local school management and the principal organizers of education explain to what extent the teachers are granted autonomy in their everyday work.

  • 40.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Medarbetare och CSR: En rapport om de interna följderna av företags sociala ansvarstagande2007Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten behandlar frågan om vilka interna konsekvenser som följer av företags CSR-arbete. Ett internt inriktat CSR-arbete kan medföra att kraven på medarbetarna ökar. Medarbetarna förutsätts skaffa sig kunskap om CSR, relatera begreppet till den egna arbetssituationen, prestera konkret i fråga om CSR och bejaka företagets normativa ställningstaganden. Dessa krav medför fyra grundläggande problem som företagen behöver kunna hantera i sitt internt inriktade CSR-arbete. Kunskapsproblemet innebär att medarbetare och chefer i organisationer ofta är omedvetna om de begrepp som används och vad den allmänna diskussionen kring företagens sociala ansvar handlar om. Relevansproblemet innebär att det är svårt att knyta etiskt laddade begrepp och idéer om ett socialt ansvar till den egna arbetssituationen. Prestationsproblemet handlar om att kraven på medarbetarna att prestera ökar, bland annat som en följd av ökade krav på rapportering. Det normativa problemet uppstår om medarbetarna inte är överens med företagsledningen om vad som bör ses som etiskt rätt och riktigt. I de två fallstudierna visar sig kunskaps- och relevansproblemen vara de största. Att knyta begrepp som ansvarsfullt företagande, mission, vision och värderingar till den dagliga arbetssituationen är inte okomplicerat, särskilt inte i de fall då de chefer som kommunicerar ut dessa begrepp långt ifrån alltid själva tycks ha en förståelse för vad de innebär och vilken relevans för det praktiska arbetet som de har. Samtidigt visar det sig att CSR-arbetet också får positiva följder. Det kan nämligen bidra till att medarbetarna identifierar sig på ett tydligare sätt med företagets verksamhet och sätter in den i en större helhet.

  • 41.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Moraliskt bjudande frågeställningar i slutförvarsfrågan2007In: Samhällsforskning 2007: Betydelsen för människorna, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle, Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Stockholm , 2007, 24-45 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    När chefer talar etik och medarbetare lyssnar (?)2009In: Etik i arbetsliv och affärer, Stockholm: SNS Förlag , 2009, 98-114 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet berör de interna processer som uppstår när företag tar initiativ till etikprogram och CSR-strategier. Fyra centrala problem diskuteras: kunskapsproblemet, relevansproblemet, formaliseringsproblemet och det normativa problemet. Dessa problem uppstår när programmen och strategierna implementeras i organisationen och kan utgöra allvarliga hinder för ett framgångsrikt etikarbete. Möjligheten att hantera dessa problem ligger i att fördjupa och bredda den etiska reflektionen. Det är viktigt att låta etikarbetet ta sin utgångspunkt i organisationens egen vardag. Detta förutsätter att medarbetarna involveras i processen och att cheferna, för att kunna leda etikarbetet, aktivt arbetar med sin egen professionella yrkesetik.

  • 43.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Organisatoriska åtgärder på skolnivå till följd av lärarlegitimationsreformen2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport identifierar organisatoriska åtgärder som följer av lärarlegitimationsreformen på skolnivå. Rapporten besvarar frågan om vilka organisatoriska åtgärder med relevans för lärares arbetssituation som skolledningar vidtar med hänvisning till införandet av lärarlegitimation. Studien genomförs i gymnasieskolan, dels via en enkät skickad till skolledare i samtliga svenska gymnasieskolor, dels via en kvalitativ intervjustudie. Studien visar att kompetensutvecklande insatser för att lärare ska uppnå ämnesbehörighet är de vanligaste. En annan viktig åtgärd är att låta legitimerade lärare sätta betyg för klasser och undervisningsgrupper där legitimerad lärare saknas. Andra vanliga åtgärder är kompetensutvecklande insatser för att säkerställa pedagogisk behörighet, nyrekrytering av lärare för att leva upp till legitimationskravet, samt att rektor får sätta betyg när undervisande lärare saknar legitimation. Mindre vanligt är exempelvis organisatorisk samordning med skolor med andra huvudmän och nedläggning av verksamheter för vilka legitimerade lärare inte finns att tillgå. En övergripande slutsats är att legitimationsreformen tvingar skolor och huvudmän till omfattande organisatoriska åtgärder där det är osäkert om intentionerna med reformen kan förverkligas inom existerande ramar.

  • 44.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Political Justification of CSR in the Scandinavian Context: Self-Idealization and Normative Wishful Thinking?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas much research has discussed the cultural conditioning of CSR practices and understandings, this article adopts a cultural perspective on the justification of CSR. The article illustrates the normative and instrumental justification of CSR in political rhetoric, using the Swedish case as an example. By analyzing the underlying assumptions of political CSR justification, it goes beyond present illustrations of CSR justification in normative and instrumental terms. The article points to the strong role of culture as a self-reflective phenomenon in the justification of CSR. A political conviction found in the case is the belief in a reliable, robust and attractive welfare state value base in Scandinavian companies that can be exported to remote countries through trade and business activities. In justifying CSR and in defining its functionality, politicians in Scandinavia assert the uniqueness and superiority of their own cultural values in a questionable way. CSR justification becomes a way of contrasting cultures against each other. 

  • 45.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reaktiv offentlig organisering: Kommunal organisering i förhållande till slutförvar av använt kärnbränsle2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Örebro universitet.
    Redovisningsteori2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Slutförvaret som industriellt projekt: Fyra sidor av att organisera ett system2009In: Samhällsforskning 2009: Betydelsen för människorna, hembygden och regionen av ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle, Stockholm: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB , 2009, 36-51 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Slutförvarets industriella organisering: Fallgrop eller följdriktighet?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

  • 49.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Stakeholder Theory and the 'Black Box Problem': Internal Clarity or Confusion?2009In: Philosophy of Management, ISSN 1740-3812, Vol. 8, no 3, 37-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Örebro University.
    Teaching Issues-Driven Stakeholder Theory2015In: Journal of Business Ethics Education, ISSN 1649-5195, E-ISSN 2044-4559, Vol. 12, 43-52 p., JBEE12-0SIA2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching stakeholder theory may be difficult because of the constant calls for real-life relevance and application. The article argues that one way of overcoming the difficulty is to focus more on stakeholder issues than on stakeholders as actors. In education, materiality analyses, like the ones often present in sustainability reports, are probably a better way of approaching stakeholder theory than actor-centered approaches that end up in the identification of foreseeable groups of stakeholders. Focusing on specific stakeholder issues also gives better possibilities to identify relationships and dependencies between stakeholders, which is of high relevance to managerial decision-making.

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