uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 49 of 49
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Sex år av lärande: Några resultat från LärNoT-projektetConference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Situations and artefactsConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, researchers from a cognitive science tradition respectively a sociocultural perspective on learning have been discussing students’ mental models of the earth. In the study reported here, we elaborate questions discussed in this debate in relation to meaning making in educational settings. The aim is to develop and use an approach for analysing the role of earlier experiences in students’ meaning-making processes. In video recordings of twenty pairs of 8-11 year olds, we study what they discern as relevant questions, information etc. and what they re-actualise when answering questions. In their work, the children had access to various artefacts, as globes or maps. The analyses take point of departure in pragmatism and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s works. The results show that some of the problems that children have according to previous research do not appear as problems in our material. For example, that people can live on the other side of the earth is not problematic. They rather discuss where the other side is located. Also, our analyses illustrate that the meaning of artefacts is constituted within people’s actions. Differences between our and previous findings can be understood as differences between the situations that the children are working in.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Vad man kan lära sig av att studera elevers samtal om/i naturvetenskap: Några resultat från sex års forskning i LärNoT-projektet2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Regler i praktikenConference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching content and national tests in Science Education2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    What content is assessed in the Swedish national tests in biology, chemistry and physics?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All students in year nine in the Swedish compulsory school take a national test in biology, physics or chemistry. The ambition of these tests, which were given for the first time as late as in the spring semester 2009 is to measure the Swedish students’ knowledge in science, but also to provide an aid in teachers’ development of their teaching in order to support equal and fair assessment and grading. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the content of the national tests in biology, physics and chemistry. The paper highlights and discusses similarities and differences between the three subject tests carried out 2009-2012. The study presented in the paper has clarified five categories of content.The analysis shows that a student, to pass the tests, need to show evidence that he or she can answer correctly on questions about (a) scientific concepts, models theories, (b) the scientific ways of thinking about the world and (c) the scientific method. For higher grades, however, the students need to be able to give correct answers on questions about (d) the use of science in relation to everyday problems and also (e) the use of science in relation to political and moral issues. In the paper we discuss what the privileging of content measured can lead to in teachers’ planning of teaching and for the assessment of students’ knowledge, but also in relation to prerequisites for students’ participation in decision making where scientific knowledge is a central part of the problem at hand.

  • 7.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Orpwood, Graham
    University College, London.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices

  • 8.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Orpwood, Graham
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Analysing validity: The case of Swedish national tests in year 6 science2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss standardized tests in biology, physics and chemistry with a special focus on their content validity. In the article we describe and discuss three different tensions between the Swedish curricula and standardized tests in science: (1) Curricular intentions and assessment choices, (2) The ‘knowledge requirements’ specified in the curriculum and the marking scheme used in the assessment and (3) The intention of the evaluation system and its actual result. These tensions have consequences for the validity of the tests. Hence, it is necessary to regard these tests as only one of many resources teachers can use in their teaching and assessment practices.

  • 9.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Constructions of power and knowledge in the technology classroom2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Storylines in the physics teaching content of an upper secondary school classroomIn: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Berge, Maria
    Uppsala University. Umeå universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Knowledge and power in the technology classroom:: a framework for studying teachers and students in action2018In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytical framework for exploring how relations between knowledge and power are constituted in science and technology classrooms. In addition, the empirical purpose of this paper is to explore how disciplinary knowledge and knowledge-making are constituted in teacher–student interactions. In our analysis we focus on how instances of teacher–student interaction can be understood as simultaneously contributing to meaning-making and producing power relations. The analytical framework we have developed makes use of practical epistemological analysis in combination with a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power, assuming that privileging of educational content needs to be understood as integral to the execution of power in the classroom. The empirical data consists of video-recorded teaching episodes, taken from a teaching sequence of three 1-h lessons in one Swedish technology classroom with sixteen 13–14 years old students. In the analysis we have identified how different epistemological moves contribute to the normalisation and exclusion of knowledge as well as ways of knowledge-making. Further, by looking at how the teacher communicates what counts as (ir)relevant knowledge or (ir)relevant ways of acquiring knowledge we are able to describe what kind of technology student is made desirable in the analysed classroom.

  • 12.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    A bridge to understanding? An approach for analysing the construction of power/knowledge in a technology classroom.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Power and Knowledge in the Technology Classroom: The Development and Illustration of a Conceptual Framework.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the constitution of power and knowledge in science and technology classrooms. A deepened examination of the teaching of science and technology is partly motivated by these subjects high status in society, how they portrayed as crucial both for the individual, in order to function in an increasingly technologically advanced society, and for the society at large, while finding it increasingly difficult to attract interest among the youth . In the Swedish context, where this research is carried out, it can further be noted that while the country is top-ranked on a number of equality indices and in general has a reputation that highlights its commitment to eradicating social inequalities, the labour market is still highly gender segregated and in university educations focused on the physical sciences and engineering men are substantially overrepresented (Nyström 2009, Alexandersson 2011). This somewhat paradoxical situation further motivates studies of how science and technology are constructed in and beyond the classroom in Sweden, since often cited reasons to women’s underrepresentation in science and technology in, for example, the U.S., such as the legislation regarding parental leave and the tenure clock (Rosser 2012), is much less applicable to the Swedish context. In our research project we take a particular interest in a period where research show that many students lose interest in science and technology, namely the last years of compulsory schooling (cf. Lindahl 2003, Archer et al. 2010). By a deepened exploration of how power and knowledge interrelate in moment-to-moment interactions in the classroom we therefore hope to provide some additional clues as to how micro-inequalities, adding up to patterns of exclusion in science and technology (Rosser 2012), occur in the classroom context.

    The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate the use of a conceptual framework for exploring how power relations are constituted in the technology classroom – in terms of what Foucault (1982/2002) conceptualises as ‘actions upon actions’ (p. 340) – by the research questions:

    1)      How are teacher actions communicating how and what knowledge is privileged in the classroom?

    2)      How is this knowledge privileging establishing power relations, in terms of possibilities for student actions?

    The conceptual framework makes use of practical epistemological analysis (Wickman & Östman 2002) as an analytical tool for describing teacher actions that involves a privileging of a certain educational content. In short, practical epistemology is a description of what students and teachers use in action as relevant or irrelevant knowledge and appropriate ways to attain knowledge. In a practical epistemology analysis epistemology is understood as a result of human beings functional coordination with their environment. It explores how a conversation or other actions take a certain direction and continue in a specific way, i.e. explores how meaning making result in a more developed and specific repertoire of actions (Lidar et al. 2006).  In addition, our conceptual framework also utilises an adaptation of Brousseau’s (1997) concept ‘didactical contract’ that includes a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power. Central to Foucault’s conceptualization of power is the idea that power is exists in a net-work of micro powers, rather than being located in a few individuals and organisations (Foucault 1980:98). A key concept in Foucault’s theoretical build, in particular when applied to an educational context, is power/knowledge. This concept communicates the idea that power and knowledge are always intertwined and can never be separated: ’there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations’ (Foucault 1977:27).

    Methodology or methods 400 words

    The empirical design relies on a purposive sampling of teachers and classrooms, documenting classroom activities using video recordings and field notes. This paper will illustrate the use of the conceptual framework, by an analysis of a case of three one-hour lessons in one Swedish technology classroom in grade 8. The topic of these lessons concerns ‘solid and stable constructions’ (The Swedish National Agency for Education 2011). The pupils work in smaller groups with construction of models of bridges, with certain specifications, a very common activity when working with this topic in Swedish classrooms. The lessons were video recorded, using multiple cameras. The analytical process was initiated by several viewings of the video recordings, in order to acquaint ourselves with the empirical material. Next, sequences judged to be of particular importance to our research question, i.e. sequences where to teacher interacted with the groups, were transcribed. The first stage of the analysis focused the actions initiated by the teacher, through the identification of epistemological moves (Lidar et al. 2006), such as instructional or confirming moves. The teacher’s actions were coded in relation to the students’ interaction, following how practical epistemological analysis considers interactions as a language game where people create meaning together. In a second stage, the analysis focuses on how the epistemological ‘moves’ are functional in constituting a ‘didactical contract’, that is ‘the (specific) set of behaviours of the teacher which are expected of the students and the set of behaviours of the student which are expected by the teacher’ (Brousseau & Warfield 1999:47). The understanding of classroom practices, regarding both content and form, as constituted reciprocally by teacher and students opens up for a parallel understanding of classroom power relations, as a relational phenomenon. Consequently, inspired by a Foucauldian conceptualization of power, we argue that power relations are, and must be, integral to the didactical contract. Gore (1995) has explored the potential of Foucault’s analysis of power for investigating pedagogical sites, in an empirical study of four such sites. In her work she makes use of eight techniques of power, distilled from Foucault’s work, in order to do demonstrate the micro-level workings of power. In this paper we apply Gore’s (1995) techniques of power as a way to operationalise the Foucauldian power perspective in our analysis.

    Conclusion, expected outcomes or findings 300 words

    The main outcome of the study is the development of a conceptual framework for analysing the simultaneous constitution of knowledge and power in the classroom. This framework utilises practical epistemological analysis (Lidar et al. 2006) as the means of describing teacher and student action, and then uses an adaptation of Brousseau’s didactical contract to deepen the exploration of how power and knowledge are co-constitutive. In particular, we see the integration of a Foucauldian perspective on power, drawing on the work of Gore (1995), into Brousseau’s (1997) notion of ‘didactical contract’ as a fruitful avenue for further theoretical development and empirical explorations. The paper will present the conceptual framework, and provide empirical illustrations of how a didactical contract is constituted. In doing so, we demonstrate how the epistemological moves contribute to frame the expected behaviour of students and teacher. To exemplify, as long as the teacher-student interactions continues in the expected way the didactical contract is largely invisible, and it is not until it someone is perceived – by the teacher – as violating it that it is made explicit. In the classroom we have observed, teacher utterances that explicitly name the didactical contract are surprisingly abundant. The teacher repeatedly brings didactical contract to the foreground, by signalling how knowledge ought to be constituted in this technology classroom, e.g. by not basing knowledge claims on ‘who is your friend’. In summary, we argue that an increased understanding of the processes of knowledge and power constitution, and the relationship between them, in the classroom is important in what it can tell us about conditions for different students for engaging with science and technology. The ultimate aim of the research is to inform the ways in which an increased engagement in science and technology of a more diverse student body may be encouraged.

    References

    Alexandersson, M. (2011). Equivalence and choice in combination: the Swedish dilemma. Oxford Review of Education, 37(2), 195–214. Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B. &Wong, B. (2010) "Doing" Science Versus "Being" a Scientist: Examining 10/11-Year-Old School children's Constructions of Science Through the Lens of Identity'. Science Education, 94(4),617-639. Brousseau, G. (1997). Theory of Didactical situations in mathematics 1970-1990, [Edited and translated M. Cooper, N. Balacheff, R. Sutherland and V. Warfield.] Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Brousseau G. & Warfield V.M. (1999). The case of Gaël. The study of a child with mathematical difficulties. The journal of mathematical behaviour, 18(1), 7-52. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: the birth of the prison. New York: Pantheon Books. Foucault, M. (1980). Two Lectures. In: Power/knowledge: selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977, ed. G. Gordon. New York: Pantheon Books. Foucault, M. (1982/2002). The subject and power. In: Essential Works of Foucault 1954-1984. Volume 3, Power, ed. D. Faubion, 326-348. London: Penguin Books. Gore, J. (1995). On the continuity of power relations in pedagogy. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 5(2), 165-188. Lidar, M., Lundqvist, E. & Östman, L. (2006). Teaching and learning in the science classroom. The interplay between teachers’ epistemological moves and students’ practical epistemology. Science Education, 90, 148-163. Lindahl, B. (2003). Lust att lära naturvetenskap och teknik? En longitudinell studie om vägen till gymnasiet. Ph.D. diss. Gothenburg University. Nyström, E. (2009). Teacher talk: producing, resisting and challenging discourses about the science classroom. Gender and Education, 21(6), 735–751. Rosser, S. V. (2012) Breaking into the Lab: Engineering Progress for Women in Science. New York: New York UP. The Swedish National Agency for Education (2011). Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre. Downloaded February 1st 2014, from www.skolverket.se Wickman, P-O. & Östman, L. (2002). Learning as discourse change: a sociocultural mechanism. Science Education, 86, 601-623.

  • 14.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Studying Power and Knowledge in the Technology Classroom: Towards a Conceptual Framework.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an empirical exploration of the constitution of power and knowledge in science and technology (S&T) classrooms. A deepened examination of the teaching of S&T is partly motivated by high status of these subjects in society, how they are portrayed as crucial both for the individual, in order to function in an increasingly technologically advanced society, and for the society at large, while finding it increasingly difficult to attract interest among the youth. The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate the use of a conceptual framework for exploring how power relations are constituted in the technology classroom – in terms of what Foucault (1982/2002) conceptualises as ‘actions upon actions’ (p. 340) – by the research questions: 1) How are teacher actions communicating how and what knowledge is privileged in the classroom? 2) How is this knowledge privileging establishing power relations, in terms of possibilities for student actions? The conceptual framework makes use of practical epistemological analysis (Wickman & Östman 2002) as an analytical tool for describing teacher actions that involves a privileging of a certain educational content. Furthermore, it also utilises an adaptation of Brousseau’s (1997) concept ‘didactical contract’ that includes a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power. The empirical design relies on a purposive sampling of classrooms, documenting classroom activities using video recordings. This paper will illustrate the use of the conceptual framework, by an analysis of a case of three lessons in one Swedish technology classroom in grade 8. The topic of these lessons concerns solid and stable constructions. The pupils work in smaller groups with construction of bridges, a very common activity when working with this topic in Swedish classrooms. The first stage of the analysis focuses the actions initiated by the teacher, through the identification of epistemological moves (Lidar et al. 2006), such as instructional or confirming moves. In a second stage, the analysis focuses on how these ‘moves’ are functional in constituting a ‘didactical contract’, that is ‘the (specific) set of behaviours of the teacher which are expected of the students and the set of behaviours of the student which are expected by the teacher’ (Brousseau & Warfield 1999, p. 47). In summary, we argue that the investigation of how power and knowledge interrelate in moment-to-moment interactions in the classroom may provide additional clues to how micro-inequalities, adding up to patterns of exclusion in S&T (Rosser 2012), occur in the classroom context. 

  • 15. Enoksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ungewitter, Annika
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studier i en främmande skolkultur2019In: Didaktisk utvecklingsdialog: Lärares och skolledares professionella utveckling / [ed] Anette Olin, Jonas Almqvist, Karim Hamza & Lisbeth Gyllander Torkildsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 49-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hedefalk, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Meaning making and the development of action competence2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze children’s possibilities to develop action competence for sustainable development while participating in in everyday life in preschool. In order to develop action competence for sustainable development, it is important to be able to critically explore different problems and then have the will and confidence to act upon them.  In educational settings, children learn different action competences depending on different manners of teaching. There are differing views on the purpose of teaching and, consequently, what contents and methods teaching should address. These views can be categorized into different teaching traditions within ESD. The analysis is done in two steps. Firstly, the meaning making in everyday preschool situations is analyzed using practical epistemology analysis of video recordings. Secondly, a comparison is made between the preschool practice and three teaching traditions. The consequences of the actions performed are then discussed as possibilities for the children to learn to act for a sustainable development. The analyses show that different actions become relevant in different traditions; i.e.in the fact based teaching tradition the ability to pay attention to the relevant information is central; in the normative teaching tradition to act according to predefined values is privileged and finally, in the pluralistic teaching tradition the skills to value different facts and thoughts of action are privileged.

  • 17.
    Hedefalk, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching for action competence2014In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, ISSN Online ISSN: 2158-2440, Vol. 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is to explore preschool children’s possibilities to learn to act for sustainable development. The purpose is to describe and analyze which actions are privileged when children participate in preschool activities. Analyses of video recordings of everyday preschool activities show how children experience activities where they critically discuss and make value judgments about actions. The results of the analyses also show how different actions become relevant in different practices. Furthermore, comparisons are made between the preschool practices and three teaching principles within education for sustainable development (ESD). In ESD, action competence is the ability to critically make value judgments about different alternative ways to act for a sustainable future. The result shows how children make value judgments in situations where facts are not sufficient for solving a problem.

  • 18. Lidar, Malena
    Betyg och nationella prov i skolår 6 – hur påverkas undervisningen i NO?2018In: Resultatdialog 2018, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2018, p. 63-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Erfarenhet och sociokulturella resurser: Analyser av elevers lärande i naturorienterande undervisning2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the knowledge about the role of sociocultural resources in students’ learning in Science Education. In the analyses, both individual experiences and situation are taken into account. Different sociocultural resources – the teacher, artefacts and texts – that students encounter in educational settings are focused with the aim to study what role they play for which meaning making is made possible and relevant. To study these encounters, a pragmatist approach called practical epistemology analysis i.e. an analysis of what students use as relevant information, valid questions and relevant attentiveness – is used and advanced. The empirical material consists of video recordings from Science Education classrooms in Swedish compulsory school.

    The first paper is an introduction to the line of work subsequently performed. In the second paper, a method for analysing the role of teaching for students’ meaning making – epistemological moves analysis – is developed and illustrated. This method focuses on those actions of the teacher that have a function of influencing what direction students’ learning takes. In the third paper, the practical epistemology approach is applied in order to clarify, within a sociocultural understanding of learning, the role of the interplay between students’ prior experiences and the use of artefacts in students’ meaning making. In the fourth paper, the practical epistemology approach is applied as a method for investigating the role of instructional texts in laboratory settings for students’ meaning making.

    The thesis shows how individual continuity can be understood and analysed within a sociocultural perspective on learning. The developed methods make it possible to study learning as constituted in action without ascribing teachers, artefacts or texts a pre-determined meaning prior to their use in a practice. The results show that the way sociocultural resources are made intelligible by the students shapes the conditions for further meaning making.

    List of papers
    1. Laborationen som innehåll: en analys av elevers lärande
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laborationen som innehåll: en analys av elevers lärande
    2003 (Swedish)In: Erfarenhet och situation i handling: en rapport från projektet Lärande i naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Leif Östman, Uppsala: Pedagogiska institutionen , 2003, p. 13-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Pedagogiska institutionen, 2003
    Series
    Pedagogisk forskning i Uppsala, ISSN 0348-3630 ; 147
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121224 (URN)91-89444-14-0 (ISBN)
    Projects
    Lärnot-projektet
    Available from: 2010-03-19 Created: 2010-03-19 Last updated: 2010-04-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers' epistemological moves and students' practical epistemology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers' epistemological moves and students' practical epistemology
    2006 (English)In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The practical epistemology used by students and the epistemological moves delivered by teachers in conversations with students are analyzed in order to understand how teaching activities interplay with the how and the what of students' learning. The purpose is to develop an approach for analyzing the process of privileging in students' meaning making and how individual and situational aspects of classroom discourse interact in this process. Here we especially focus on the experiences of students and the encounter with the teacher. The analyses also demonstrate that a study of teaching and learning activities can shed light on which role epistemology has for students' meaning making, for teaching and for the interplay between these activities. The methodological approach used is an elaboration a sociocultural perspective on learning, pragmatism, and the work of Wittgenstein. The empirical material consists of recordings made in science classes in two Swedish compulsory schools.

    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98105 (URN)10.1002/sce.20092 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-11 Created: 2009-02-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. A Pragmatist Approach to Meaning Making in Children's Discussions About Gravity and the Shape of the Earth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Pragmatist Approach to Meaning Making in Children's Discussions About Gravity and the Shape of the Earth
    2010 (English)In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 689-709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, researchers from a cognitive science tradition and a sociocultural perspective on learning have discussed how to understand students’ conceptions of the earth. In this article, some of the questions discussed in this debate are elaborated in relation to meaning-making in educational settings. The aim is to illustrate how an approach built on pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s works makes it possible to take the role of both situation and experiences into account within a sociocultural perspective on learning. In video-recordings of second and fourth-fifth graders working in pairs meaning-making is studied using practical epistemology analysis, i.e. what children talk about as relevant and what experiences they re-actualize when answering questions. By analyzing the role of re-actualization of experience, the role of re-actualization and situation in making questions and problems intelligible and the individuals’ encounters with artifacts and the consequences of this in meaning-making, we elucidate why it is important to consider meaning making in situ as an empirical question. It is concluded that the way questions are made intelligible will direct the meaning-making and when using an artifact to answer questions, it is not the artifact in itself, but the specific use of the artifact that mediates action.

    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Research subject
    Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-113105 (URN)10.1002/sce.20384 (DOI)000278957200005 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-19 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    4. Classroom meaning making with text: Practical epistemology analysis of lab work instructions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classroom meaning making with text: Practical epistemology analysis of lab work instructions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In this article, a method for investigating the role of texts in student meaning making is developed. A central methodological standpoint in the article is that texts get their meaning in encounters with the users and it is shown how this can be studied by using practical epistemology analysis. The practical epistemology approach is combined with a transactional theory of reading, a theory that puts emphasis on the contributions of both text and the reader in the two-way, dynamic process of reading.

    The texts analyzed empirically in this study are laboratory instructions. The empirical material is made up of video recordings from a Science Education class in year 7 and 8, doing laboratory work from the written instructions. On many occasions in practical work, the laboratory guide plays an important role for the students’ activities and the opportunities for learning they get. Instructional texts are often supposed to be easy to understand and unproblematic to use. However, by focusing on different problematic situations that may arise when students are expected to follow laboratory instructions it is possible to discuss the different meanings that can arise in the encounters between student and text.

    In laboratory work, many more actions than those comprised in the instructional text are necessarily performed. Consequently, the way students are able to make the instructions intelligible will direct their further meaning making. With analyses of practical epistemology we can show that students need to know the procedures, certain attentiveness and to re-actualize relevant knowledge.

     

     

     

    Keywords
    science education, learning, meaning making, laboratory work, reading
    National Category
    Didactics
    Research subject
    Curriculum Studies; Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121390 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-03-22 Created: 2010-03-22 Last updated: 2016-05-15
  • 20.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Undervisningstraditioner i naturvetenskaplig undervisning i relation till utbildningsreformer i NO i årskurs 62019In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 15, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we survey different teaching traditions in Swedish Science Education. The purpose is to map and investigate patterns in teachers’ views of what constitutes “good” Science education in the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden. This is done with the background of a new curriculum with national testing and grading being introduced, which could potentially alter teachers’ views of what is relevant content. A web-based questionnaire to teachers all throughout Sweden (response rate 43%, N=796) was used. The results show that groups can be formed with teachers emphasizing different teaching objectives including emphasis on; scientific facts and concept, laboratory work, everyday knowledge, and political and moral questions, even though the groups had a lot of similarities. The teachers indicate that they changed their instruction to a considerable extent after the three parallel reforms carried out 2011-13.

  • 21.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    A Pragmatist Approach to Meaning Making in Children's Discussions About Gravity and the Shape of the Earth2010In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 689-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, researchers from a cognitive science tradition and a sociocultural perspective on learning have discussed how to understand students’ conceptions of the earth. In this article, some of the questions discussed in this debate are elaborated in relation to meaning-making in educational settings. The aim is to illustrate how an approach built on pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s works makes it possible to take the role of both situation and experiences into account within a sociocultural perspective on learning. In video-recordings of second and fourth-fifth graders working in pairs meaning-making is studied using practical epistemology analysis, i.e. what children talk about as relevant and what experiences they re-actualize when answering questions. By analyzing the role of re-actualization of experience, the role of re-actualization and situation in making questions and problems intelligible and the individuals’ encounters with artifacts and the consequences of this in meaning-making, we elucidate why it is important to consider meaning making in situ as an empirical question. It is concluded that the way questions are made intelligible will direct the meaning-making and when using an artifact to answer questions, it is not the artifact in itself, but the specific use of the artifact that mediates action.

  • 22.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Classroom meaning making with text: Practical epistemology analysis of lab work instructions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a method for investigating the role of texts in student meaning making is developed. A central methodological standpoint in the article is that texts get their meaning in encounters with the users and it is shown how this can be studied by using the pragmatist approach practical epistemology analysis. The practical epistemology approach is combined with a transactional theory of reading, a theory that puts emphasis on the contributions of both text and the reader in the two-way, dynamic process of reading. The texts analyzed in this study are laboratory instructions. The empirical material is made up of video recordings from a science education class in year 7 and 8, doing laboratory work from written instructions. On many occasions in practical work, the laboratory guide plays an important role for the students’ activities and the opportunities for learning they get. Instructional texts are often supposed to be easy to understand and unproblematic to use. However, by focusing on different problematic situations that may arise when students are expected to follow laboratory instructions it is possible to discuss the different meanings that can arise in the encounter between student and text. In laboratory work, many more actions than those comprised in the instructional text are necessarily performed. Consequently, the way students are able to make the instructions intelligible will direct their further meaning making. With analyses of practical epistemology we can show that students need to know procedures, a certain attentiveness and to re-actualize relevant knowledge to be able to follow the instruction in a way that leads to the expected and relevant results in terms of learning.

  • 23.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Classroom meaning making with text: Practical epistemology analysis of lab work instructionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In this article, a method for investigating the role of texts in student meaning making is developed. A central methodological standpoint in the article is that texts get their meaning in encounters with the users and it is shown how this can be studied by using practical epistemology analysis. The practical epistemology approach is combined with a transactional theory of reading, a theory that puts emphasis on the contributions of both text and the reader in the two-way, dynamic process of reading.

    The texts analyzed empirically in this study are laboratory instructions. The empirical material is made up of video recordings from a Science Education class in year 7 and 8, doing laboratory work from the written instructions. On many occasions in practical work, the laboratory guide plays an important role for the students’ activities and the opportunities for learning they get. Instructional texts are often supposed to be easy to understand and unproblematic to use. However, by focusing on different problematic situations that may arise when students are expected to follow laboratory instructions it is possible to discuss the different meanings that can arise in the encounters between student and text.

    In laboratory work, many more actions than those comprised in the instructional text are necessarily performed. Consequently, the way students are able to make the instructions intelligible will direct their further meaning making. With analyses of practical epistemology we can show that students need to know the procedures, certain attentiveness and to re-actualize relevant knowledge.

     

     

     

  • 24.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Methodological considerations in the analysis of the co-production of knowledge and power in secondary school physics classrooms2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Kings' college London, UK.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    Kunskap och makt i fysikundervisningen2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta bidrag handlar om inkluderings- och exkluderingsprocesser i fysikundervisningen. Forskning visar att många elever har svårt att identifiera sig med fysik och väljer bort naturvetenskap som en möjlig karriärväg.  Vi undersöker därför fysikundervisning på högstadiet, eftersom det är där många elever tappar intresse för ämnena, och gymnasiet då eleverna väljer om de vill fortsätta med vidare studier inom ämnet, med forskningsfrågan att se hur kunskapsutveckling och maktrelationer är sammanlänkade i klassrummet.

    När någon deltar i undervisning i fysik, lär de sig potentiellt mycket mer än kunskapsinnehållet som undervisas; de lär sig vad som räknas som relevant kunskap i fysik, de lär sig om normer och värderingar i fysik, och vem som kan vara en fysiker. Vilket innehåll och vilka metoder som privilegieras får konsekvenser för vad eleverna ges möjlighet att läsa sig, och kan således betraktas som aspekter av makt. Vi analyserar maktaspekter genom att identifiera handlingar som vägleder eller styr andras handlingar, och därefter analysera likheter och skillnader i olika klassrum i fråga om hur styrning sker och vilka potentiella konsekvenser denna styrning kan få.

    Analyserna görs på videoinspelningar och fältanteckningar från klassrumsaktiviteter i tre högstadieskolor i årskurs 8 och 9, samt i en gymnasieklass i år 1. Resultaten visar att vid en första anblick ter sig undervisningen i alla fyra klassrummen inkludera ett ganska traditionellt fysikinnehåll. Men en mer ingående analys visar att eleverna i de olika klassrummen ges väldigt olika möjligheter att delta i undervisningen och skapa relationer till innehållet. Vad som framstår som önskvärda sätt att handla på ger olika förutsättningar för meningsskapande. Därmed ges olika förutsättningar för deltagande i ett allt mer individualiserat, senliberalt samhälle där människor förväntas vara aktiva, reflekterande och göra val för sitt eget personliga bästa.

  • 26.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Danielsson, Anna T.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå universitet.
    What is construed as relevant knowledge in physics teaching? Similarities and differences in how knowledge and power are staged in three lower secondary classroomsIn: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The content that is privileged in teaching has consequences for what the students are given the opportunity to learn, and can thus be regarded as an aspect of power. We analyse power aspects in the teaching of physics by identifying actions that guide or direct other people's actions, and then analyse similarities and differences in different classrooms in terms of how governance is staged and what potential consequences this can have. The analyses are made on data from classroom activities, documented through video recordings and field notes, in three lower secondary schools in Y8 and Y9 respectively. At first glance, teachers from all three schools adhere to a traditional interpretation of a physics curriculum. But a more in-depth analysis shows that the students in the different classrooms are given quite dissimilar opportunities to participate in teaching and create relationships with the content. What appears to be a desirable way of acting offers different conditions for meaning-making. In an increasingly individualised society where people are expected to be active, reflective and make choices for their own personal good, the students in these three classrooms are offered very different conditions to practice and learn to take part in knowledge-making, connect physics content to their everyday life and exercise informed citizenship.

  • 27.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Engström, Susanne
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Teaching traditions in science education and the impact on educational ereform2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different policies for what contents teaching should include and how it should be conducted shapes different presuppositions for teaching and for what the pupils have opportunity learn. In Science education, Roberts (2007) describe two main vision of how science education should be formed in order to make the pupils scientific literate. Vision I is describes science as teaching concepts, laws, theories and methods. Vision II accentuate that education must include facts of the subject but it must also include knowledge and skills that make the pupils able to use scientific knowledge in practical, existential, moral and political contexts.In this paper we survey different teaching traditions in Swedish Science Education. This means the purpose is to map and investigate patterns in teachers’ views of what constitutes “good” Science education in the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden. This is done with the background of a new curriculum with national testing being introduced, which potentially alter teachers views of what is relevant content. A web-based questionnaire was developed and sent to teachers at 1924 schools all throughout Sweden. Research on traditions/visions in Science education was used to explicate different aspects of content, and the primary form of questioning was through closed-form response alternatives. A number of free text response alternatives were also included. The response rate was 43% (N=830). Using cluster analysis (hierarchical, Ward's method, Euclidean distance) four teacher profiles representing different views on Science emerged. These profiles are partly in agreement with results from earlier research that show different traditions in teaching and differences in defining Science among teachers.

  • 28.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Engström, Susanne
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    The influence on teaching and assessment practices from national tests in Science in Y62016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    In this paper we survey different approaches to teaching in Swedish Science Education. This means the purpose is to map and investigate patterns in teachers’ views of what constitutes “good” Science Education in the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden, in a context where these views are potentially at stake. The background for our interest in studying approaches to teaching is that a new curriculum has been established and applies in Sweden from 2011. New to this curriculum is that standardized control of student achievements are introduced in more subjects and at lower ages than before. National tests in Physics, Chemistry and Biology became mandatory in Y6 in 2013 along with marking of pupils from and including Y6. Notably for teachers in Y6 is that they could be educated and working either in a Y4-6-classteacher system, or in a Y6-9-subject specialist teacher system. Standardized testing has been proven in many cases to create norms about what types of teaching and what types of teacher are considered to be accurate (e.g. Au 2009, Stobart 2008). Some researchers argue that standardized testing tends to narrow teachers instructional practice, both concerning content and methods, while others mean that, depending for instance on how the tests are designed, tests could also increase teachers teaching repertoires in different ways (Au 2009).

    What the main contents of teaching in different subjects should be is a question that is and ought to be problematized. Different policies for what contents teaching should include and how it should be conducted shapes different presuppositions for teaching and for what the pupils have opportunity learn (cf. Fensham, 2009). Analysing Science syllabuses and Science textbooks, Roberts (1994) (in North America) and Östman (1995) (in Sweden) found different patterns concerning ‘curriculum emphases’ in Science Education: correct explanation, structure of science, solid foundation, scientific skill development, self as explainer, everyday coping and science, technology and decisions. The curriculum emphases can be connected to Roberts’ (2007) two main visions (I & II) in western societies of how science education should be conducted in order to make the pupils scientific literate. Vision I is described as science reproducing its own products of concepts, laws, theories and methods. In Vision II it is accentuated that education must include facts of the subject but it must also include knowledge and skills that make the pupils able to use scientific knowledge in practical, existential, moral and political contexts.  Even though teachers are working to meet the same goals in the Science curriculum, emphasis in teaching can be made differently.

    There is reason to believe that the introduction of grades and national tests can change these teachers’ perceptions of what counts as good science instruction, and effective teaching and assessment practice. However, it is not certain that all teachers’ instruction is affected in the same way.

    If teachers aligning with different visions of teaching understand a reform in different ways, this will have consequences for how policy makers need to work to effectively implement reforms. Through knowledge of different approaches to teaching, we have the possibility to better understand teachers' reactions to new elements in teaching.

    Methods/methodology

    A questionnaire was developed using research of curriculum emphases and visions in science education and curriculum emphases (e.g. Roberts 2007) to explicate different aspects of content. The questionnaire contained background questions along with questions of selection of methods for teaching, the teacher’s views of science and the aim of science teaching and assessment but also questions of their opinions about the new directives of testing and grading.

    Of Sweden's 2523 schools covering Y6, 1348 schools were selected. These schools were distributed across the country and different sized schools with different operating forms were studied. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 1924 teachers and contained 103 questions/positions. The primary form of questioning was through closed-form response alternatives. A number of free text response alternatives were also included. The response number after three remainders was 830 (43%), including 34 no-thank answers.  

    The answers were analysed with SPSS both for descriptions and classification (using cluster analysis: hierarchical, Ward's method, Euclidean distance), the aim being to detect a variety of patterns within the material (Sjöquist et al., 2010). Within the cluster analysis, the clustering was based on answers to eight specific statements/variables (the most important and most characteristic of teaching in Science) and four clusters were created.

    From a first step in the cluster analyses, four different teacher profiles in relation to different views on science emerged. Nevertheless, to a great extent teachers teaching Y6 in Sweden represent a homogenous group. This conclusion was drawn since there were no strong similarities or differences between the groups, and no clear pattern in the relationship between views of teaching science and reforms.

    In a second step, the clustering was based specifically on answers to statements about national tests. In this analysis, two distinct clusters were made, where one group contained teachers that are more positive to the tests. Group 1 consists of 532 teachers and group 2 of 231, where Y4-6-teacher have higher representation in group 1. Subsequent analyses were made by comparing how teachers in these two groups answered to all questions.

     

    Expected outcomes/results

    In the comparisons between group 1 and group 2, the results also are rather homogenous. Common features that stand out, are for example the valuation of: teaching in whole class and group work in pairs, to give students an understanding of the relationships in nature and the world around us and to relate to students' questions and experiences.

    Generally, we can see a positive approach to tests, grades and the new curriculum. There is an acceptance towards being "controlled" and guided. For many teachers, national testing has meant that teaching has evolved to make students more aware of their own learning. Many teachers seem to believe that the tests helped to make the subject content more clear. Many use matrices, support materials, etc. from the Swedish National Agency for Education, which they have not done before, but many also believe that tests and grading criteria changed and control their teaching. The items where the largest differences are seen in changes in teaching after the reform includes to argue scientifically, to evaluate investigations, to plan investigations and to use concepts models and theories. This is found at higher levels in group 1, teachers for years 1-6, with a teacher education that includes less depth subject content.

    We can conclude that many teachers emphasis a positive approach to reforms even though there is a group of teachers that also stress a clear criticism of the new system. We will discuss this from the point of view of who is the the professional: is it someone who acts in line with management expectations or in line with values connected to the profession?

    References Au, W (2009). Unequal by design. High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. New York and London: Routledge.

    Fensham P.J. (2009). The link between policy and practice in science education: the role of research, Science Education, 93, 1076-1095.

    Roberts, D. A. (1994). Developing the concept of "curriculum emphases" in science education. Nordisk Pedagogik, 14, 10-25.

    Roberts, D. A. (2007). Scientific literacy/science literacy. I S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.). Handbook of research on science education (pp. 729-780). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Sjöqvist, E., Almqvist, L., Åsenlöf, P., Lampa, J., Opava, C H., and The Para Study Group (2010). Physical-activity coaching and health status in rheumatoid arthritis: A person-oriented approach. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(10), p. 816-825.

    Stobart, G. (2008) Testing Times. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Östman, L. (1995). Socialisation och mening: No-utbildning som politiskt och miljömoraliska problem Uppsala Studies in Education, 61. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. 

  • 29.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching Traditions in Science Teachers’ Practices and the Introduction of National Testing2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 754-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our main interest in this article is to explore whether Swedish teachers changed their teaching and assessment practices in relation to the new national tests in science education that were introduced 2009. Data was collected using a web-distributed questionnaire, which was answered by 407 teachers. The concept of teaching traditions is used to capture patterns of what is emphasised by teachers in terms of goals and content in teaching and the design of the questionnaire was based on the concept of curriculum emphases. The results show two distinct groups of focus, which is compared with two traditions within science education: the Academic and the Moral tradition. The main content where teaching have been changed is in making science more applied than before, where applied not only mean the application of science knowledge to practical technical issues but also to moral and political issues.

  • 30.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karlberg, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Avdelningen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik .
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Manner of teaching and teaching traditions in Science Education: What do teachers emphasize?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    What the main contents of teaching in different subjects should be is a question that could and ought to be problematized. Different policies for what contents teaching should include and how it should be conducted shapes different presuppositions for teaching and for what the pupils have opportunity learn (cf. Fensham, 2009). That every pupil should be scientific literate to be able to take part in society have in many countries become a prominent goal in Science Education (Roberts, 2007). At the same time, there are goals in Science Education stating that pupils should be prepared for future studies in science, something that is relevant only for a minority of the pupils (Roberts, 1988). The difference between these goals for a teacher in Science Education could either be to put emphasis on the contents of the traditional academic subjects physics, chemistry and biology (to give the pupils a solid foundation for future education) or to focus more on the role of science in questions of ethical, social and political character in connection to questions about for example air pollution or global warming. These different purposes in science education create tensions concerning the subjects character (Ryder & Banner, 2011). Even though teachers are working to meet the same goals in the Science syllabuses, emphasis can be made differently, forming different manners of teaching (Munby & Roberts, 1998) that can be connected to different teaching traditions (Lundqvist, Almqvist & Östman, in press).

    The purpose of this study is to survey different manners of teaching practiced in Swedish Science Education in upper secondary schools and to qualify what features are characteristic in these manners, connected to teaching traditions.

     

    Teachers develop different manners of teaching that characterise their actions in the classroom (Munby & Roberts, 1998). The concept “manner of teaching” describes teachers’ actions in relation to epistemology since teachers are in a position to show privileged knowledge and values within the practice. The concept of curriculum emphases (Roberts, 1982) was invented to identify and describe the regularity within the epistemological dimension in teaching. Analysing Science syllabuses and Science textbooks, Roberts (in North America) and Östman (in Sweden) found different patterns concerning curriculum emphases in Science Education: correct explanation, structure of science, solid foundation, scientific skill development, self as explainer, everyday coping and science, technology and decisions (Roberts 1982, Östman, 1996). The curriculum emphases can in turn be connected to Roberts’ (2007) two main visions (I & II) in western societies of how science education should be formed in order to make the pupils scientific literate. Vision I is describes as science reproducing its own products of concepts, laws, theories and methods. In Vision II it is accentuated that education must include facts of the subject but it must also include knowledge and skills that make the pupils able to use scientific knowledge in practical, existential, moral and political contexts (e.g. Zeidler, 2003,Wickman et al., forthcoming).

     

    Methodology

    This investigation is done by constructing a questionnaire which aims at elucidating teachers teaching practice according to teaching goals, choice of content and methods used in the classroom including the assessment of students. The alternatives in the questionnaire have been elaborated emanating from the concept of curriculum emphases. In the questionnaire, the teachers were asked to rate several alternative goals, contents, methods, and form of assessment in a five point Likert scale from “not important” to “very important”. The questionnaire was sent to ~1000 teachers teaching grades 6-9 all over Sweden.

    The answers to the questions concerning teachers’ goals and contents in teaching were analysed in order to see if it was possible to find patterns in the collected materials. Factor analysis was used in order to estimate the patterns among the indicators of the teacher’ goals and contents in teaching.  Descriptive analyses of what qualifies the different factors in how the respondents combine alternatives for goals, contents and mode of operation were performed. Furthermore we look in to other aspects e.g. gender, teaching experience and assessment principles to see how these vary within the different manners of teaching.

    Expected outcomes

    The data was suitable for factor analysis (Kaiser’s MSA=0,81). The factor analysis resulted in four distinctive clusters; emphasizing goals and contents concerning 1) scientific methods and ways of reasoning, 2) application of societal, political, moral and existential questions, 3) to prepare pupils for future studies, the future every day and working life, and 4) facts and contents of science. Furthermore, the analysis show that there are statistic significant differences regarding goals and contents depending on gender. It was however no statistic significant differences regarding how many years the teachers had been in the profession.

    With a comparative approach, we find that the four clusters coincide in good measure with the teaching traditions found from analyses of subject content, subject focus and curriculum emphases in the Science syllabuses and Science textbooks (cf. Östman 1996), but not entirely. We attribute the clusters to be a constructivist tradition, a moral tradition, an applied tradition and an academic tradition. The paper discusses central features of teachers’ manners of teaching practice in the different traditions.

  • 31.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning a New Attentiveness2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Nationella prov i biologi, fysik och kemi - hur påverkas undervisningen?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National tests in biology, physics and chemistry: potential influence on teachers’ teaching practices

    National tests in biology, physics and chemistry are now introduced in year 9 in Swedish comprehensive school. These tests aim at supporting teaching, learning and development of school practice in direction towards the goals in national curriculum. The introduction of national tests is used by the government in order to raise the standards, make more students reach the goals by strengthening the follow-up of student knowledge and at the same time create a more equal and fair assessment and grading of students. This is described as necessary since Swedish students’ results are cut back in national measurements and they achieve lower scores relatively to students in other comparable countries (e.g. TIMSS). We propose a project that will investigate if and in which way the introduction of national tests in science education influence teachers’ opinions of what is ‘good’ education in science and how this effects teachers’ instruction and assessment of students. This paper will be devided in two parts. The first part present an outline for a research project and the second part present the results of a pilot study with the aim to study how two focus groups of teachers have experienced the try-outs of national tests in 2009. The outlined project would firstly conduct a survey identifying different teaching traditions, or selective traditions, among the Swedish teachers. This is done by constructing a questionnaire which aims at identifying teachers teaching practice according to teaching goals, choice of content and methods used in the classroom. Secondly, elected teachers from different teaching traditions will be interviewed and observed when teaching. Analyses from the material will be made with the concept of ‘curriculum emphases’ to identify what is considered to be important knowledge. Analyses of the actual national tests will be carried out using the same tools. The results of the investigations will be discussed in relation to research on ‘scientific literacy’, which relates to socioscientific issues. This project will make it possible to identify potential systematic differences in teachers’ opinions and practice between teachers belonging to different teaching traditions regarding the effects of national tests. In the pilot study carried out during autumn 2009, groups of teachers in two different schools were given the task to discuss their experiences from performing try-out national tests in physics, chemistry or biology. They were asked questions about if and how they imagined theirs and others teaching would be affected by the introduction of national tests and if the content of instruction would change as a consequence. Preliminary results show that the group of teachers that preformed the chemistry test, identified everyday knowledge as privileged. These teachers used textbooks in their teaching, which according to them do not use this emphasis, they expressed the students were insufficiently prepared. The teachers made the prediction that the textbooks will probably change as a consequence. The teachers who have carried out the physics test expressed that the test helped them to see what had been missing in their teaching, according to both content and teaching methods. They also state that the national tests might function as a model when constructing questions concerning higher order thinking (MVG). The preliminary results from the pilot study will provide a background to find relevant and precise questions to a future survey, give insight into different positions teachers may take on and point to which changes are possible.

  • 33.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    New national tests and teachers' professional development in science education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ responses to the introduction of grading and national testing in Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reforms to the assessment system in Swedish schools were implemented in 2012.  The reform requires that pupils receive grades, rather than comments only, at Y6 (age 12-13). Previously this happened from Y8. Also, national tests were introduced in Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The national tests, marked locally using a marking scheme, are intended to support teachers in the assessment of students’ knowledge and to be supportive of consistent grading between schools. This study investigates whether, and if so in what way, the introduction of this centralized control influences the local teaching and assessment practices in science.

    Interviews were conducted with 12 teachers exploring their teaching practice after the first round of local grading and national tests. In some Swedish schools pupils are taught science by subject specialist teachers; in others by a ‘generalist’ teacher. Questions explored what they considered as characteristic about science teaching, how they select teaching content and assessment approaches, in addition to their thoughts on the reforms.

    Our theoretical framework is based on curriculum theory and research on educational traditions, showing that there are often patterns in the choices made by teachers in classroom teaching, and the purposes underlying these (i.e. Fensham  2009, Lundqvist et al 2012, Roberts 2011). For example, some teachers demonstrate a tradition of more emphasis on introducing pupils to scientific concepts and relations, while others focus on using scientific knowledge to explain, and deal with, situations in everyday life.    

    In the interviews, teachers expressed different teaching goals. For example, some teachers simply talk about the goal of enabling students to understand the world around them. Other teachers focus on enabling students to draw upon scientific knowledge to inform decisions around socio-scientific issues, e.g. environmental sustainability. Other teachers focus on preparing students for future science study or careers. Teachers also value the content in the national tests differently, e.g. in terms of agreeing /not agreeing with what they consider to be valid knowledge at Y6. This was expressed either as the tests being examples of good practice that a teacher aims to match, or that the tests were fragmenting the science content and detaching it from its social context.  These differing responses resulted in shifts in local teaching and assessment practices.

    Our study has implications for the reform of national testing regimes in other countries. This includes the UK, where a variety of national testing systems are in place, with ongoing changes.

  • 35.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Transformation of Teaching Habits in Relation to the Introduction of Grading and National Testing in Science Education in Sweden2017In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a new curriculum and new methods of assessment (grading of students and national tests) in science education were introduced in grade six in 2012/2013. We have investigated what implications these reforms have for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in order to explore the question of how teachers transform their teaching habits in relation to policy reforms. Interviews with 16 teachers teaching science in Y6, over three years after the reforms were introduced, were analyzed. Building on the ideas of John Dewey, we consider teachers’ talk about their everyday practice as expressions of their habits of teaching. Habits of teaching are related both to individual experiences as well as institutional traditions in and about teaching. A categorization of educational philosophies was used to teachers’ habits of teaching to a collective level, and to show how habits can be transformed and developed over time in specific sociocultural contexts. The teachers were categorised as using essentialist and/or progressivist educational philosophy. In the responses to the introduction of grading and national testing, the teachers took three approaches: their habits being reinforced, revised or unchanged in relation to the reforms. Although the responses were different, a striking similarity was that all teachers justified their responses with wanting to do what is best for students. However, how to show care for students differed, from delivering scientific knowledge in alignment with a essentialist educational philosophy, to preparing students to do well on tests, to supporting their development as individuals, which is in alignment with a progressivist educational philosophy.

  • 36.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Comparative studies of manners of teaching2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition with this presentation is to create possibilities for studying and make comparisons of teaching between subjects and teaching traditions within different cultural settings. This is important because didactic competence depends on the existence of alternatives, in this case, alternative ways of teaching, or alternative manners of teaching. Alternatives make choices necessary and visible and the need for justification arise.

    In order to fulfil these ambitions we will present a way of analysing teachers’ manners of teaching. This method for analysis contains two steps: analyses of epistemological moves and analyses of curriculum emphases. The theoretical background for the analyses is pragmatism, the work of late Wittgenstein and discourse theory.

    By identifying different manners of teaching possibilities are created to discuss what counts as teaching, teaching science in this case. Using analyses of epistemological moves and curriculum emphases for identifying different manners of teaching have several advantages. Firstly, the epistemological dimension is part of all teaching. This makes comparisons between teaching in different subjects possible. Secondly, analyses of curriculum emphases have been used in order to create knowledge about educational discourses and its historical transformation within different subjects. Thereby it becomes possible to highlight the potential connections between manners of teaching and educational discourses which are important when making comparisons between different manners of teaching within different cultural settings. Thirdly, by using epistemological moves analysis as the basic analytic tool, the problem of theoretical overdetermination is avoided, i.e. that categories are forced upon the empirical material.

  • 37.
    Lidar, Malena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Teacher Training.
    Teaching and learning in the science classroom: The interplay between teachers' epistemological moves and students' practical epistemology2006In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practical epistemology used by students and the epistemological moves delivered by teachers in conversations with students are analyzed in order to understand how teaching activities interplay with the how and the what of students' learning. The purpose is to develop an approach for analyzing the process of privileging in students' meaning making and how individual and situational aspects of classroom discourse interact in this process. Here we especially focus on the experiences of students and the encounter with the teacher. The analyses also demonstrate that a study of teaching and learning activities can shed light on which role epistemology has for students' meaning making, for teaching and for the interplay between these activities. The methodological approach used is an elaboration a sociocultural perspective on learning, pragmatism, and the work of Wittgenstein. The empirical material consists of recordings made in science classes in two Swedish compulsory schools.

  • 38.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    National tests and teachers’ practice2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a contribution to the discussion of what function assessment of students has in everyday practice. What consequences do increased control of students’ knowledge have in teachers choices of teaching contents and methods, and thereby for what students are given the opportunity to learn.

    An increasingly test-driven educational culture is now reality in many parts of the world (Broadfoot & Black 2004). There is also an ongoing discussion about the effects of national tests and research show that there are certainly both positive and negative outcomes from these sorts of testing (eg. Cimbricz 2002). Wales has for example abandoned the national testing system that England and Wales were a part of (Collins, Reiss & Stobart 2010). Implementation of national tests is found to have different consequences for teachers teaching and assessment practice and there is a need for investigating and nuance what these consequences are (Boesen 2006, Maier 2009). National tests in biology, physics and chemistry in year 9 in Swedish comprehensive school was introduced in spring 2009. The purpose of these tests are to raise the standards, make more students reach the goals by strengthen the follow-up of student knowledge, serve exemplary for teachers teaching and at the same time create a more equal and fair assessment and grading of students. This is described as necessary since Swedish students’ results are cut back in national assessments and they achieve lower scores relatively to students in other comparable countries (eg. TIMSS).

    The aim of the study presented is to investigate if and in which way the introduction of national tests in science education influences teachers’ opinions of what is "good" science education and how this effects the teachers’ instructions and assessment in their teaching practice. This study is part of a bigger project. In one part of the project a survey identifying different teaching traditions among Swedish science education teachers has been performed (Lidar et al, unpublished). From the results of the survey, teachers from four different teaching traditions have been selected for interviews.

    The theoretical framework is built foremost from Douglas Robert’s categorisation of science education content into curriculum emphasis (1982). Curriculum emphasis is defined as a coherent set of messages about science rather that within science and those messages are said to accompany the teaching of science subject matter. Roberts in Canada and Leif Östman in Sweden found seven different curriculum emphasis in textbooks, in-service training literature and syllabuses; correct explanation, structure of science, solid foundation, scientific skill development, self as explainer, everyday coping and science, technology and decisions (Roberts & Östman 1998). The results will also be analysed and discussed in relation to scientific literacy, starting in Roberts’ (2007) concepts, vision I and vision II. The most obvious distinction between Vision I and Vision II has to do with how the character of socio-scientific issues and problem is conceptualized and experienced in education.

    The empirical material consists of telephone interviews with 30 teachers categorized within the survey study into four different teaching traditions. Each interview lasted approximately 45 minutes. The analyses from the interviews aim at identifying what is considered to be important knowledge in the teachers’ teaching, ways of using assessment in teaching and foremost how the national tests have influenced the teachers’ assessment and choice of subject matter in everyday practice. In a first step we identified the teachers’ utterances within the different categories of curriculum emphasis. In order to refine and qualify these categories we made further analyses within these categories, focusing on statements describing actual actions in the classroom. The interviews were semi-structured to both enable the teachers to prepare before the interviews and for us as researchers to be able to ask other questions depending on how the respondents answered (Kvale & Brinkman 2009).

    The study show systematic differences in teachers’ answers about teaching and assessment practices, in relation to the implementation of national tests. The interviews confirm the correlations from the survey study regarding the categorisation of teachers as belonging to different teaching traditions. The results also show important nuances within the teaching traditions. Most of the teachers stresses that the national test is only one of many ways off assessing the students, it is important not to forget what the student perform over a longer period of time. Though the results from the study show that the teachers can be categorised into different teaching traditions based on their expressions about different aims and goals with their teaching. Still most of the teachers express that they do not need to change their teaching a lot, they already teach in line with the content included in the tests. We will discuss potential explanations to the results and also highlight the results in relation to research on scientific literacy.

     

     

  • 39.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Functional coordination between present teaching and policy reform in Swedish science education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major policy changes make teachers reconsider how they teach. In Sweden, a new curriculum, a grading system, and national tests were introduced in science education in Year 6 (Y6) for the 2012/2013 academic year. After two years the national tests were made voluntary, and they ended the following year. In this longitudinal interview study we investigate what implications these reforms had for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in science education. Interviews with 10 teachers over four subsequent years were analysed by applying Dewey’s notion of habits in order to explore how teachers coordinate between their teaching habits and new policies. The result show that teachers work to adjust their teaching practices in order to; make teaching transparent, deal with the experience of increased levels of stress, develop professionally in collective practices, and reconsider the teaching content and methods. Most strikingly, almost all the teachers accepted the reforms as a positive element in their professional work. In the last round of interviews, it was evident that, after the tests were taken away, teachers downplayed the significance of the national tests as a factor that changed their teaching and changed what they consider as good science education.

  • 40.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nationella prov i NO och lärares val av undervisningsinnehåll2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009/10, all pupils in Year 9 in Sweden are obliged to take a national test in one of the science subjects physics, chemistry or biology. There are several aims of the national test system, among others to support teachers’ work by concretizing the curriculum and syllabi. In this article, we examine how the introduction of national tests in science education could affect the content selection teachers express that they do in their teaching. The data consists of interviews with 29 teachers teaching science in the upper years of compulsory school. The result shows that there are three themes of contents that teachers highlight as new in the national tests; scientific argumentation, the history of science and laboratory work. In an analysis, looking through the lens of curriculum emphases, it is shown that what unites these three content areas is that emphasis put on the intellectual skills of the scientific craftsmanship. An explanation for this could be that many teachers recognize this as a key content in scientific activities, but a content that they did not teach to a large extent.

  • 41.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The coordination of teaching habits in doing and undergoing policy reformIn: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of major reforms makes teachers reconsider how they teach. In Sweden, a new curriculum along with grading and national tests were introduced in Year 6 science education in 2012/2013. After two years the national tests were made voluntary and ended the following year. We will investigate what implications these reforms had for teachers’ teaching and assessment practices in science education. Interviews with 10 teachers over four subsequent years were analyzed in order to explore how teachers coordinate their teaching habits in the encounter with new policy. First it was striking that almost all the teachers accepted the reforms as a positive element in their professional work. In the last round of interviews it was evident that the teachers, after the tests were taken away, downplayed the significance of the national tests as something that changed their teaching and changed what they consider as good science education.

  • 42.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    What is tested?: National tests and their potential impact on teachers’ content selection2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    The use of centralized testing seems to be in constant motion throughout the world. Sweden as one example, has in recent years increased the use of centralized testing of students, where mandatory national tests is introduces in more subjects and at several occasions during the primary school years. Since 2010, all students in the 9th grade in Sweden have to take national tests in one of the science subjects of physics, chemistry or biology. The aims of the tests are wide, they are supposed both to support teachers’ efforts to make equal and fair assessment and grading of students and to provide a basis for analyzing to which extent the knowledge requirements are met (National Agency for Education 2011).

    In this paper we will present two studies within a project focusing on the effects of the introduction of national tests in science. The purpose of the paper is to examine first what content that is included in the tests, i. e. what knowledge is valued, and second, how the centrally controlled tests influence teachers' perceptions of what is "good" science education and how teachers perceive that the tests have influenced their teaching. Third we will compare and discuss the results from the two studies in terms of scientific literacy.

    What content that should be taught and assessed within science education has not got one answer.Roberts (2011) discuss what constitutes “good” science teaching in terms of “Visions” for scientific literacy. According to Roberts, two different visions have been favoured in the western world with regard to how science should be framed in order for pupils to be “scientifically literate”. Roberts calls these visions Vision I and Vision II.Briefly, in vision I it is the scientific discipline content that is to be taught, there is a notion that the learned scientific knowledge automatically can be applied when an application is required. In vision II, the ability to apply the knowledge is not automatic, it is rather something a person needs to learn. The use of curriculum emphases is another way to categorize the possible content choices in science teaching (Roberts 1994; 2011). The typology includes seven different emphases on science and describe an epistemological content dimension about scientific knowledge and scientific activities.

    Concerning teachers’ views on the influence of the tests on their practice, a common reaction to the introduction of national tests is that the teaching content is adapted to what is to be tested (Au 2007; Hamilton & Berends 2006; Orpwood 2007). Au (2007) conducted a meta-analysis of 49 American studies and found that the main effect of this type of test is that the teaching content is limited to what is to be tested, that the subject areas are fragmented into test-related pieces and that teachers increase their use of teacher-centered education. However, this picture of national tests is not clear-cut, because at the same time, Au also found that in a significant minority of the examined cases the teaching content actually expanded, that the knowledge areas were integrated and that more pupil-oriented cooperative pedagogy was used. The results suggest that the impact of the tests may depend on how they are designed. Au (2009) concludes though that this kind of formal control is a way of controlling teachers’ instructional practice, because it creates norms about what is considered “good” teaching and “good” teachers.

    Methodology

    The empirical data for this paper consists of both national tests and interviews with teachers. A first study about the content in the tests is presented in Almqvist & Lundqvist (2013) and Lundqvist & Lidar (2013) has earlier studied teachers’ view about the tests.

    The national tests given during the period 2009-2012 in biology, chemistry and physics, as well as information given to the teachers about the assessment guidelines, are included as empirical material in the study. Since it is the teachers themselves that mark the tests and report the results, the guidelines for assessment are central in this information. By analyzing these documents, and not only the tests given to the students, we can clarify what kind of knowledge that is regarded as relevant and valid.

    Interviews were made with 29 teachers, all teaching physics, chemistry and/or biology in grade 6-9 in Swedish compulsory school. In order to find variation among teachers’ perceptions of the implementation of the tests, the selection of teachers was made from participants in a survey carried out within the project (Lidar et al 2012). Data was collected through semi-structured telephone interviews, which each lasted for 35-60 minutes. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The teachers were asked questions about their teaching and assessment practice and how they perceive how the tests have affected their practice.

    Curriculum emphases are used as an analytical tool to analyse the content in the tests and for analysing the teachers’ talk about the tests and how the tests have influenced their teaching. With the curriculum emphases as an analytical tool it is possible to analyse what content that is included and excluded in the tests and in the teachers’ talk about the tests.

    Preliminary results and implications                                   

    The analysis of the tests shows that a student, to pass the tests, needs to answer correctly on questions about scientific concepts, models theories, about scientific ways of thinking about the world and finally about scientific methods. It also shows that knowledge about the use of science in relation to everyday problems or political and moral issues are not required to pass the tests. For higher grades, however, the students also need to be able to give correct answers on questions about the use of science in relation to everyday problems and to political and moral issues. In relation to the two visions of scientific literacy, this means that students, in order to pass the tests at least need to be able to answer questions on knowledge privileged in education built on Vision I.

    The results from the interviews show that there are three subject areas where teachers say national tests have supplied their teaching new content-related aspects; laboratory work, assignments about scientific arguments and assignments about the history of science. What unites these content areas is that they all call for a testing of the intellectual dimension of science, what Douglas Roberts (1994) calls "The Structure of Science", one of the seven knowledge emphases. Since the teachers in this study describes that these three substantive areas are parts that they found important, and that they have added to their teaching, it seems to be a content that has not been taught to any great extent before.

    The results from the studies will further be compared and discussed in relation to research about scientific literacy and how the selection of content centrally made might have consequences on teachers practice and also on which citizen that is fostered.

    References

    Almqvist, Jonas & Lundqvist, Eva (2013). De nationella provens innehåll: vilken scientific literacy mäts i NO-proven [The content in the national tests: what scientific literacy is assessed in the science tests?]. In Eva Lundqvist, Roger Säljö and Leif Östman (Eds.), Scientific Literacy. Teori och praktik. Stockholm: Gleerups förlag.

    Au, Wayne (2007): High-stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative metasynthesis. Educational Researcher, 36, 258-267.

    Au, Wayne (2009). Unequal by design. High-Stake Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. New York: Routledge.

    Hamilton, Laura S. & Berends, Mark (2006): Instructional practices related to standards and assessments. RAND. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2006/RAND_WR374.pdf

    Lidar, Malena, Karlberg, Martin, Lundqvist, Eva, & Almqvist, Jonas (2012): Manner of teaching and teaching traditions in Science Education: What do teachers emphasize? Paper presented at ECER in Cadiz, Spanien, September 2012.

    Lundqvist, Eva & Lidar, Malena (2013). Nationella prov i NO och lärares undervisningsinnehåll [National tests in science and teachers’ content selection]. Utbildning och demokrati. Tidskrift för didaktik och utbildningspolitik, 22, 85-106.

    National Agency for Education  (2011). Om nationella prov. [About national tests]. Retrieved from http://www.skolverket.se/prov_och_bedomning/2.1100

    Orpwood, Graham (2007). Assessing scientific literacy: threats and opportunities. I C. Linder, L. Östman & P-O Wickman (Eds.). Promoting scientific literacy: Science education research in transaction. Procedings of the Linnaeus Tercentenary Symposium in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Roberts, D. A. (1994). Developing the concept of "curriculum emphases" in science education. Nordisk Pedagogik, 14, 10-25.

    Roberts, D. A. (2011). Competing Visions of Scientific Literacy. The Influence of a Science Curriculum Policy Image. In Cedric Linder, Leif Östman, Douglas A. Roberts, Per-Olof Wickman, Gaalen Erickson & Allan MacKinnon (Eds.), Exploring the Landscape of Scientific Literacy. New York; Routledge.

  • 43.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sund, Per
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Introduction of national tests in biology, physics and chemistry and teachers' choice of teaching content2013In: The S in STEM Education: Policy, Research and Practice, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a project that aims at investigating if and in which way the introduction of national tests in science education influence teachers’ opinions of what is ”good” education in science and how this influence teachers’ instruction and assessment of students. National tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in 2009 in year 9 in Swedish compulsory school. Some of the governing arguments for introducing national tests are that they will work exemplary for teachers and create a more equal and fair assessment and grading of students. A survey among Swedish science teachers were performed regarding various aspects of their practice. Selected teachers were then interviewed about their teaching. Analyses of the actual national tests were also carried out. The results showed that different teachers do put emphasis on different goals, contents, and assessment in their classroom practices and that these aspects can be systematically grouped as teaching traditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in how teachers in different teaching traditions responded to national tests. Therefore it is discussed whether the use of national tests is a feasible way to generate a more equal and fair education.

  • 44.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jim, Ryder
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Science Teachers’ Teaching Habits in the Enactment of Reform2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The middle years of compulsory school in Sweden has recently experienced major changes. Reforms to theassessment system in Swedish schools were implemented in 2012, a reform that required that pupils received grades for the first time at Y6 (age 12-13). Also, national tests were introduced in Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The national tests, marked locally using a marking scheme, are intended to support teachers in the assessment of students’ knowledge and to be supportive of consistent grading between schools. Teachers teaching the Science subjects in Y6 are thus faced with a situation of increased centralized control.

    The overarching aim in this study is to investigate whether, and if so in what way, the introduction of an increased centralized control in the form of grades and national testing influences the teachers’ local teaching and assessment practices in Science education.

    Many parts of the world have over time had more of standardized testing than Sweden has. For example countries within Great Britain have performed tests at least at three key stages within the educational system from 1991, although this has changed in recent years as a consequence of devolution and debates about the pros and cons of such testing (Collins, Reiss & Stobart, 2010). Sweden has historically used this kind of assessment in a restricted way.

    The assumption that standardized tests affect teachers’ instruction and student learning is both confirmed and rejected (Cimbricz 2002, Andersen 2011) in international research. A common reaction to state standards and tests is that the content of teaching is adapted to what is tested (Au 2009). Additionally, Au writes that norms are created from high-stake testing reflecting what teaching that is considered to be “good” or “bad”. Standardized tests thus provide a discursive control that defines the acceptable ways of acting as teachers and also creates norms about what counts as valid content and valid methods in teaching. The theoretical approach in this paper is underpinned by Dewey’s pragmatist notion of habits (Dewey 1922/1983). The concept of habits is used to describe how teachers, with their different background and experiences, work with the enacting of reforms in their everyday teaching practice. The notion of habits focuses on understanding how teachers’ actions can appear to be both immutable and revisable and how the context of reform also can contribute to development. A teacher is acting as an individual in selecting what is central within the practice, but the teacher is also at the same time a part of a community, acting in relation to collective habits within this community. Consequently, individuals develop personal habits of acting/teaching on the basis of being educated in, being in and working in contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers and disciplinary traditions. Habits are thus acquired, but alterable depending on the circumstances. The concept is used to describe individuals’ predispositions for response to situations and problems that arise within a specific context (Nelsen 2015). In the context of reform, different teachers will have different predispositions to respond and with the notion of habits is a resource to capture the process and the tensions that may emerge.

    In this study we ask the question: In what ways are teachers’ teaching and assessment habits challenged by the reforms?

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedIn order to investigate how teachers’ teaching and assessment habits were challenged by reforms, individual interviews were conducted with 15 science teachers. Data collection was made three consecutive years in connection to the conduction of the national tests, since changes in well-established practices will not happen instantly. The sampling of teachers was made to ensure a broad variation in teaching experience, educational background and school settings. All teachers teach Y6, whereof 6 are educated as intermediate school teachers, and 9 are secondary teachers. To be able to investigate and clarify if the teachers change their approach to teaching and assessment as reaction to the reforms, three rounds of interviews were made. The interview questions in the first round covered what the teachers considered to be characteristic in science teaching, what they select as teaching content and ways of assessing, in addition to their thoughts on the reforms. The second interview focused on the questions in the national test concerning the content and the assessment of students’ answers when marking the tests. This interview also included follow-up questions concerning changes in teaching and grading because of the tests. In the third interview we asked questions to clarify and deepen if, and if so, how the teachers had changed their teaching and assessment practice since the reform was introduced. Two of the authors conducted all the interviews. The interviews lasted between 35-60 minutes. The teachers received the questions in advance so that they could prepare for the interviews. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriber. The analyzing process started out with reading thoroughly all of the interviews from the first interview round. In this first reading, we had a broad focus on what affordances and challenges in connection to their habits of teaching teachers recognize in enacting the reforms. From this reading we came up with three different approaches in dealing with the complexity of the reform, they were used when analyzing the remaining interviews. The approaches are representing three different ways that show how habits are a part of practice when dealing with the reforms. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsWe find different approaches to the reforms. The teachers are in different ways struggling to balance local teaching autonomy with external assessment-driven reform. The results show that teachers’ habits relate to the reforms in three different ways. Five of the teachers express that their habits of teaching are in line with the reforms, which means they do not need to change their teaching and assessment practice to any or to any great extent. The reforms even strengthen their habits. Eight of the teachers need to stretch their habits because of these reforms. This means for example that questions in the national tests work as a tool for finding new ways of asking questions and perform laboratory exercises. For two of the teachers, their habits are not in line with the reforms. The most striking part is the approach to assess the students. These teachers feel that they need to assess the students more frequently and to document the students work to have as a basis for assessment. These ways of working collide with the teachers’ views on how they want to teach to make science education interesting, fun and meaningful. When following these teachers during three rounds of interviews, we find that it seems likely that this new regime involves making changes in some way for all teachers. All teachers among the interviewees are experienced teachers. Considering this, it is striking that almost all the teachers, independent of teaching habits, accept the reforms as a positive element in their professional work, even though they have objections, for example causing stress for both teachers and students. That teachers have different approaches to teaching and assessment is a vital aspect in the implementation of reforms. The knowledge about teaching habits is there for important for policy makers to consider. ReferencesAnderson, K. J. B. (2011). Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy. Science Education 96:104-129. Au, W (2009). Unequal by design. High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of Inequality. New York and London: Routledge. Cimbricz, S. (2002). State-Mandated Testing and Teachers’ Beliefs and Practice. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10, 2. Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/281 Collins, Sue, Reiss, Michael & Stobart, Gordon (2010). What happens when high-stake testing stops? Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of compulsory national testing in science of 11-year-olds in England and its abolition in Wales. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Vol. 17, No. 3, 273-286. Dewey, J. (1922/1983). Human Nature and Conduct. Jo Ann Boydston (ed.), John Dewey: The Middle Works, Volume 14. Carbondale:  Southern Illinois University Press. Nelsen, P. J. (2015). Intelligent Dispositions: Dewey, Habits and Inquiry in Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 66(1), 86-97.

  • 45.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryder, Jim
    University of Leeds.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Science teachers’ experiences from the introduction of grading and national testing in Year 6 in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden experienced major reforms. These reforms required that pupils received grades and performed national tests in Biology, Physics and Chemistry, for the first time at Y6. Some Y6-pupils are taught by a class teacher within a Y4-6 system, whereas other pupils are taught by subject specialist teacher within a Y6-9 system. Intentions with the reform include making education fair and equal, but the system causes a dilemma since pupils get different prerequisites. The purpose is to examine teachers’ views of what constitutes "good" science education and investigate how the introduction of grades and national tests affects teachers’ practice.

    Dewey’s concept of habits is used as a way to capture the process and tensions that may emerge when enacting the reforms. Depending on your habits of teaching and views of science, a reform will have different consequences for your teaching practice.  

    The study draws on interviews with 13 science teachers and address teacher’s experiences in connection to carrying out the first round of national tests and setting grades in Y6. The sampling of teachers was made to ensure a broad variation in teaching experience, educational background and school settings.

    The results show how the teachers’ personal goals can be characterized in terms of science-focused or student-focused. A majority mention the clarity of national expectations in the tests as an affordance in relation to their work. Even though grading is said to contribute to preciseness about a student’s development, some teachers feel the grading of students forces them to assess more often, which can be stressful. The teachers are in different ways struggling to balance local teaching autonomy with external assessment-driven reform, however it is striking that almost all the teachers accept the reforms as a positive element in their professional work.

  • 46.
    Persson, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Laborationen som innehåll: en analys av elevers lärande2003In: Erfarenhet och situation i handling: en rapport från projektet Lärande i naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Leif Östman, Uppsala: Pedagogiska institutionen , 2003, p. 13-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Ryder, Jim
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK .
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: Science teachers’ experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden2018In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 538-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in implementing' reform practices.

  • 48.
    Ryder, Jim
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The teacher´s voice in education policy: Responses to national curriculum and assessment reforms in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 49.
    Östman, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Öhman, Marie
    Lundqvist, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching, Learning and Governance in Science Education and Physical Education: A Comparative Approach2015In: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching, learning and motivation are the major concerns for educators. In this article we approach these issues from a Foucauldian power and governance perspective in order to understand that attention is drawn to certain knowledge and values and not others that would be equally possible in a teaching practice. The approach suggests that the relationship between teachers’ governance and students’ freedom to govern themselves is something that is construed simultaneously in the teaching and learning of specific subject content. This interconnection is illustrated by two teaching sequences, one from science education and one from physical education. By comparing the two teaching sequences it is possible to identify differences and/or similarities between how the relationship between governance and self-governance is staged and thereby which companion meanings are offered. The desirable actions manifested in the teaching practices include which subject knowledge the students should learn, how students ought to act and the kind of people they ought to be. It is shown that self-governance leads to normative patterns in which the good student is constituted as a responsible, self-disciplined, active, thinking and judging individual. This can be seen as an expression of intensified student participation connected to the increasing individualisation in late liberal society, where people in their daily lives are forced to take sides, reflect, participate and make choices.

1 - 49 of 49
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf