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  • 1.
    Adolfo, Eldrigde
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Electoral Violence in Africa2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategies to prevent and manage electoral violence.

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  • 2.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jarstad, Anna K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Predicament of Elections in War-Torn Societies2009In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 530-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do elections held in the shadow of civil wars sometimes generate more violence in already war-torn societies, while in other circumstances they do not? This article develops a conceptual framework based on three clusters of factors to analyse the conflict-generating aspects of elections in war-torn societies: the key actors in the electoral processes; the institutions of elections; and the stakes of the elections. Two types of war-related elections are distinguished: elections held during an ongoing civil war, and elections held in the post-war period when peace is to be implemented. While different in many respects, the two contexts share critical characteristics through their association with the legacy of warfare. Several important implications emerge from the analysis. First, relating to militant and violent actors, incentive structures need to be altered by addressing both the opportunities and means of violence. Second, to prevent inducements for violent behaviour, institutional arrangements - including electoral commissions have to be crafted with consideration given to local conflict dynamics and the history of violent conflict. Finally, the stakes of elections in war-shattered societies can be reduced through, for instance, constitutional pact-making and the oversight of external actors in electoral processes.

  • 3.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The predicament of elections in war-torn societies2009In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 530-557Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Beyond the absence of war: The diversity of peace in post-settlement societies2010In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 367-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Beyond the Absence of War: The Diversity of Peace in Post-Settlement Societies2010In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 367-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a novel way of conceptualising variations of peace in post-war societies. The most common way of defining peace in the academic literature on war termination is to differentiate between those cases where there is a continuation or resumption of large-scale violence and those cases where violence has been terminated and peace, defined by the absence of war, has been established. Yet, a closer look at a number of countries where a peace agreement has been signed and peace is considered to prevail reveals a much more diverse picture. Beyond the absence of war, there are striking differences in terms of the character of peace that has followed. This article revisits the classical debates on peace and the notion of the Conflict Triangle as a useful theoretical construction for the study of armed conflicts. We develop a classification captured in a Peace Triangle, where post-settlement societies are categorised on the basis of three key dimensions: issues, behaviour, and attitudes. On the basis of such a differentiation, we illustrate the great diversity of peace beyond the absence of war in a number of post-settlement societies. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the different elements of the Peace Triangle, and the challenges they pose for establishing a sustainable peace, as well as the implications of this study for policy makers concerned with peacebuilding efforts.

  • 6.
    Jarstad, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala University.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Department of Government, Uppsala University.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kostić, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, The Hugo Valentin Centre. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Peace agreements in the 1990s – what are the outcomes 20 years later?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, a number of protracted armed conflicts were finally ended. This period can be described as a paradigmatic shift with regards to how armed conflicts are brought to an end. When the logic of the Cold War no longer hindered the United Nations (UN) to intervene, the number of UN peace operations rose dramatically and became more comprehensive. In addition, conflicts increasingly ended through negotiated settlements rather than military victory. The peace processes of the 1990s gave rise to great optimism that negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, often with considerable international involvement, would bring sustainable peace to war-affected countries. The outcomes of these peace processes, however, appears to be far from unanimously positive. Today, 20 years after the war endings of the 1990s, it is therefore imperative to critically analyze and evaluate these peace processes and their long-term results. What is the situation like today in countries where conflicts ended in the 1990s? What has become of the peace? In this paper, the long-term outcomes of peace processes that took place in the 1990s are evaluated through brief analyses of a number of cases,demonstrating that the nature and quality of peace today show great diversity. The paper also includes a conceptualization of the ”peace triangle” aimed at distinguishing between different forms of peace, as well as a study of the relationship between peacebuilding and democracy in UN peace operations in the 1990s, concluding that outcomes with regards to democratic development in the intervened countries are generally poor.

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  • 7.
    Kovacs, Mimmi Söderberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Costly Democracy: Peacebuilding and Democratization after war2014In: Perspectives on Politics, ISSN 1537-5927, E-ISSN 1541-0986, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 300-301Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Kovacs, Mimmi Söderberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Hertie Sch Governance, Berlin, Germany.
    Peace agreements: finding solutions to intra-state conflicts2017In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 30, no 2-3, p. 294-297Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Kovacs, Mimmi Söderberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Hertie Sch Governance, Berlin, Germany..
    When conflict resolution fails: an alternative to negotiation and dialogue2017In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, ISSN 0955-7571, E-ISSN 1474-449X, Vol. 30, no 2-3, p. 294-297Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kovacs, Mimmi Söderberg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hatz, Sophia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebel-to-party transformations in civil war peace processes 1975-20112016In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 990-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established the critical relevance of better understanding the conditions that either facilitate or obstruct rebel-to-party transformations for the sake of strengthening the prospects for both peace and democracy in post-war societies. In this study, we contribute to this growing research agenda in two ways. We first present and analyse data collected by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) on all peace agreements that contain specific rebel-to-party provisions during the time period 1975-2011. Second, we introduce new data on rebel-to-party outcomes during the same time period. The descriptive findings confirm several of our theoretical expectations. Rebel-to-party provisions are exclusive to the post-Cold War era, and are commonly included in peace agreements with third-party presence. Somewhat surprisingly, we have seen almost twice as many agreements with such provisions in Africa compared to other regions, and only in peace agreements in governmental conflicts. However, we find several cases of rebel-to-party outcomes in territorial conflicts. Our data also confirm that rebel-to-party provisions are neither necessary nor sufficient for rebel-to-party outcomes, and highlight the potential relevance of other political provisions also supporting the group's political integration.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kovacs, Mimmi Söderberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Dealing with Divergence: Intra-party Dynamics and Spoiler Management in Civil Wars2023In: Journal of Global Security Studies, ISSN 2057-3170, E-ISSN 2057-3189, Vol. 8, no 2, article id ogad003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil war peace processes are frequently accompanied by spoiler behavior relating to intra-party divergence, such as leadership struggles or breakaway groups, which risk undermining the implementation of a peace accord. However, previous literature has not sufficiently explored how third-party actors can address spoiler behavior linked to such intra-party aspects. This study addresses this gap by providing an empirical analysis of a few illustrative cases of spoiler behavior by armed actors in two peace processes in West Africa—Sierra Leone after the 1999 Lomé peace accords and Liberia after the 2003 Accra peace agreement. We find that in contexts where there is a vertical divergence between the leader and the rest of the group, divisive strategies—aimed to divide and rule or marginalize—are effective. In contrast, in situations of horizontal divergence between different factions that are more equal in power, integrative strategies—aimed at unifying the ranks or reconciling a divided leadership—are more appropriate. This study enhances our understanding of how third-party strategies can be devised to manage intra-party divisions that otherwise may threaten a transition from war to peace.

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  • 12.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kovacs Söderberg, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Different Paths of Reconstruction: Military Reform in Post-War Sierra Leone and Liberia2013In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 2-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security Sector Reform (SSR) has developed into a key component of international peacebuilding agendas. However, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge of the advantages and drawbacks of different reform processes. This study offers a comparative analysis of two post-war states with diverse approaches to the reconstruction of the national armed forces after a civil war: Sierra Leone after the 1999 Lome Peace Accord, where the competing warring parties were integrated into a single force; and Liberia following the 2003 Accra Peace Agreement, where the old army was disbanded and a new force was recruited and built from scratch. The findings show that each approach was associated with distinct benefits and risks during the implementation process. However, the outcomes are also similar in many important respects, and raise questions about the long-term sustainability of these reforms.

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  • 13.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Rise of Islamist Armed Conflicts and Challenges to Conflict Resolution2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Promises and Pitfalls of the Liberian Peace Process2005In: Presented at the Nordic Africa Days, Uppsala, 30 Sept-2 Oct, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 15.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Revisiting an Elusive Concept: A Review of the Debate on Spoilers in Peace Processes2011In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 606-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a seminal article, Stedman (International Security, 22, 1997, 5) suggested that the greatest source of risk to civil war peace processes comes from so-called spoilers, leaders, and groups that perceive peace as threatening and use violence to undermine attempts to achieve it. The spoiler concept has since gained significant ground and widespread legitimacy both in the academic literature and in critical policy circles. In the footsteps of this development, however, we suggest that the spoiler concept has been stretched beyond its original meaning and given raise to a number of ambiguities concerning its definition and empirical applicability. This lack of clarity in regard to some of the key aspects of the spoiler concept does not only risk undermining the usefulness of the concept itself, but also risks hampering the accumulation of valuable research on this pertinent topic. This article presents a reflection on a burgeoning research field and aims to contribute to the same by attempting to offer greater conceptual clarity in regard to a number of issues that are the core of the spoiler debate and by presenting a conceptual framework for analyzing spoilers in future research.

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  • 16.
    Ohlson, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Intra-State War to Democratic Peace in Weak States2002Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 17.
    Ohlson, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace through democracy: the challenges of post-war democratization in weak and war-torn states2008In: The democratization project: opportunities and challenges, London: Anthem Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ohlsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Staudacher, Veronika
    Ermes, David
    From Civil War to Strong Peace in Africa: the Thomas Ohlson Memorial Conference: Summary Report from the Opening Session of the Thomas Ohlson Memorial Conference 20132013Report (Other academic)
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    Summary Report from the Opening Session of the Thomas Ohlson Memorial Conference 2013
  • 19.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Box 52, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Folke Bernadotte Acad, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Demagogues of Hate or Shepherds of Peace?: Examining the Threat Construction Processes of Warlord Democrats in Sierra Leone and Liberia2019In: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 560-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are threat images framed and constructed by the so-called warlord democrats (WDs)? Societies that have suffered from large-scale civil wars are commonly permeated by inter-group fear and hate. In these contexts, former military or political leaders of armed groups sometimes become involved in post-war politics. These WDs can act as reconciliation spoilers by making securitising moves, i.e. they construct threat images that are potentially very costly for fragile post-conflict democratisation processes. It is therefore crucial to explore WDs’ speech acts. Yet, the literature on post-war politics has largely overlooked these individual aspects. This article argues that the central components of securitisation theory can be useful in understanding this phenomenon if adjusted to the contextual circumstances of post-war societies. By analysing speech acts by seven WDs in post-war Liberia and Sierra Leone, two forms of framing strategies stand out as particularly relevant. First, WDs’ securitising moves are often framed as veiled threats of violence, as it is often deemed too risky for these individuals outside formal power positions to overtly express threats in a generally de-securitised setting. Second, when WDs construct threats, they often chose to frame themselves or their constituencies or followers as the referent object of security.

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  • 20.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderbergh-Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Return of Victories?: The Growing Trend of Militancy in Ending Armed Conflicts2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    A Matter of Faith?: Mediation attempts with Boko Haram in Nigeria2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Folke Bernadotte Academy P.O. Box 270 68, SE 102 51 Stockholm Sweden.
    A Matter of Faith?: Negotiations with Boko Haram in Nigeria2020In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 435-462Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    ”Ampa Ampoh!”: Sierra Leone after the announcement of the 2012 election results2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Between Violence and Democracy: Military-Political Organisations in Electoral Processes2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bringing in the Good, the Bad and the Ugly into the Peace Fold: The Transformation of the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces after the Lomé Peace Agreement2010In: Authors’ conference at the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, USA / [ed] Roy Licklider, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bringing the Good, the Bad and the Ugly into the Peace Fold: The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces after the Lomé Peace Agreement2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bringing the Good, the Bad and the Ugly into the Peace Fold: The Republic of Sierra Leone's Armed Forces after the Lomé Peace Agreement2014In: New Armies from Old: Merging Competing Military Forces after Civil Wars / [ed] Roy Licklider, Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2014, p. 195-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Rebel Groups to Political Parties: Renamo in Mozambique and RUF in Sierra Leone2012In: From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and its Resolution in Africa After the Cold War / [ed] Thomas Ohlson, Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Rebellion to Politics: Political Parties, Peacebuilding, and Democratisation in War-torn Societies2007In: Annual Peace Network Conference, Uppsala, 23–24 October, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Rebellion to Politics: The Transformation of Rebel Groups to Political Parties in Civil War Peace Processes2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some rebel groups in civil war peace processes transform into viable political parties while others do not? The transformation of armed rebels into peaceful politicians has been identified as one of the most critical factors in explaining the successful transition from violence to sustainable peace. Yet few studies have examined under what conditions these transformations are more or less likely to be carried out. This study addresses this research problem. It focuses specifically on rebel groups that emerge as opposition parties in post-war politics. Drawing on insights provided by previous research, the study develops a novel and integrated theoretical framework which identifies the relevant causal processes of rebel-to-party transformations and links them to a set of explanatory variables in a levels-of-analysis framework. A comparative study is conducted of four rebel organisations that have experienced diverse outcomes in this respect: the FMLN in El Salvador and Renamo in Mozambique, which both became viable political parties, and the RUF in Sierra Leone and the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, which did not. It is found that the rebel groups are more likely to become viable political parties when the leadership of the group is united on the decision to abandon the armed struggle and enter peaceful politics; when the rebel group has a relatively high level of popular support among the domestic population; and when key international actors and donors recognise the rebel group as a legitimate political actor. The findings also demonstrate how and why each of these three factors is linked to the outcomes in question by identifying the group’s selective and collective incentives for mobilising support and resources as the key causal mechanisms at work in rebel-to-party transformations. These conclusions are critical to our understanding of the conditions that facilitate or obstruct a transition from rebellion to politics.

  • 31.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Folke Bernadotteakademin.
    New Insights on Women, Peace and Security for the Next Decade2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rebels, Soldiers, Governments and Politicians: Three Research Topics on the Transformation from Civil War to Democratic Peace in Africa2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA), Sweden.
    The Legacy of a Revolution that Never Happened: The Post-War Politics of Former Rebel Party RUFP in Sierra Leone2021In: Government and Opposition, ISSN 0017-257X, E-ISSN 1477-7053, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 245-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The former rebel party Revolutionary United Front Party (RUFP) in Sierra Leone has struggled with a discredited wartime reputation and electoral defeats throughout the post-war period. In spite of this, the party has remained loyal to its wartime revolutionary ideas, symbols and political rhetoric. Why is this the case? In this article, I argue that the answer lies in the premises of party politics in war-torn states and new democracies on the African continent. In a political landscape where brokerage is power, retaining wartime identities can sometimes serve as a valuable source of (potential) patronage. With few other options for access to resources and opportunities, the core of the party membership has clung to its past as a means to both rally electoral support among the marginalized ex-combatant community and to get access to the long-awaited funds that were promised to them in the peace negotiations.

  • 34.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Uncertainty, Competition and Violence in the 2007 Elections in Sierra Leone2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    When rebels change their stripes: Armed insurgents in post-war politics2008In: From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Folke Bernadotteakademin, Sandöverken, Sweden; Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bangura, Ibrahim
    Competition, uncertainty and violence in Sierra Leone's swing district2018In: Violence in African Elections: Between Democracy and Big Man Politics / [ed] Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs and Jesper Bjarnesen, London: Zed Books, 2018, p. 114-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Folke Bernadotteakademin.
    Bangura, Ibrahim
    Shape Shifters in the Struggle for Survival: Warlord Democrats in Sierra Leone2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa / [ed] Anders Thémner, London: Zed Books, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Folke Bernadotte Academy; Nordic Africa Institute.
    Bjarnesen, JesperNordic Africa Institute.
    Violence in African Elections: Between Democracy and Big Man Politics2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiparty elections have become the bellwether by which all democracies are judged, and the spread of these systems across Africa has been widely hailed as a sign of the continent's progress towards stability and prosperity. But such elections bring their own challenges, particularly the often intense internecine violence following disputed results.

    While the consequences of such violence can be profound, undermining the legitimacy of the democratic process and in some cases plunging countries into civil war or renewed dictatorship, little is known about the causes. By mapping, analysing and comparing instances of election violence in different localities across Africa – including Kenya, Ivory Coast and Uganda – this collection of detailed case studies sheds light on the underlying dynamics and sub-national causes behind electoral conflicts, revealing them to be the result of a complex interplay between democratisation and the older, patronage-based system of 'Big Man' politics.

    Essential for scholars and policymakers across the social sciences and humanities interested in democratization, peace-keeping and peace studies, Violence in African Elections provides important insights into why some communities prove more prone to electoral violence than others, offering practical suggestions for preventing violence through improved electoral monitoring, voter education, and international assistance.

  • 39.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hatz, Sophia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rebel-to-party transformations in civil war peace processes 1975–20112016In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 990-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Just Peace, or Just Peace?: The Character of Peace in Post-War Societies2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Predicament of Elections in War-Torn Societies2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Folke Bernadotte Academy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jiménez, Mélida
    Folke Bernadotte Academy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Autonomous Peace?: The Bangsamoro Region in the Philippines Beyond the 2014 Agreement2021In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 55-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What kind of peace has emerged in the Bangsamoro region in the Philippines after the 2014 peace agreement? And how does it matter for the prospects of sustainable peace and development? The peace deal between the government of Philippines and the armed group Moro Islamic Liberation Front builds on the establishment of a new autonomous region. The new autonomy has the potential to end a prolonged cycle of armed rebellions. But if it fails to deliver the expected peace dividends, it could also lead to escalating violence. This article uses the Peace Triangle as a conceptual tool to analyse the current status of peace in Bangsamoro. As such, it advances a theoretical understanding of peace that focuses on how autonomy solutions impact on conflict issues, violent behaviour, and conflict attitudes and aid an assessment of the longer term prospects of peace in the wake of autonomy.

  • 43.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Thiyagaraja, Waradas
    The Peace Triangle: Capturing Peace After Military Victory in Sri Lanka2016In: Practical Approaches to Peacebuilding: Putting Theory to Work / [ed] Pamina Firchow and Harry Anastasiou, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Folke Bernadotteakademin.
    Malm, Johanna
    Wrede, Sophia
    Martínez Lorenzo, Luís
    Triana, Sergio E.
    Reintegration or Recividism? : Why Ex-combatants in the DRC return to arms2021Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Breaking the Cycle of Violence?: Promises and Pitfalls of the Liberian Peace Process2005In: Civil Wars, ISSN 13698249, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    To Bring them All in or Start from a Clean Slate?: Reconstructing the Armed Forces in Post-War Sierra Leone and Liberia2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Krisen kräver medling2014In: Dala-DemokratenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 47 of 47
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