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  • 1.
    Adam, Lina N.
    et al.
    Univ Zakho, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Duhok, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq..
    Al-Habib, Omar A. M.
    Univ Nawroz, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Duhok, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq..
    Oraha, Ashur Y.
    Univ Duhok, Coll Med, Dept Cardiothorac & Vasc Surg, Duhok, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq..
    Shekha, Mudhir S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Salahaddin Univ Erbil, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Erbil, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq..
    Genetic and clinical study of myeloperoxidase's association with coronary artery disease2024In: EGYPTIAN HEART JOURNAL, ISSN 1110-2608, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundUnraveling myeloperoxidase's (MPO) correlation with coronary artery disease (CAD) and genetic variations, this study seeks to enhance diagnostic precision and therapeutic strategies.ResultsCAD patients were found to be older and more male than controls. Several clinical parameters, including glucose, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and troponin levels, showed significant variations. Moreover, CAD patients had lower red cell distribution width (RDW%) and mean platelet volume (MPV) than controls. Serum MPO levels did not differ significantly between CAD patients and controls, and no correlation was found with other clinical parameters except for glucose, creatinine, and total bilirubin.ConclusionsThe data suggest that serum MPO levels are not substantially related to CAD patients, as indicated by lower MPO levels in CAD patients compared to controls. While highlighting the potential of MPV and RDW% as predictors of severe atherosclerosis in CAD. Further research is needed to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of RDW%, MPV, and MPO levels in CAD.Trial registration: 15092021-9-12. Registered 15 September 2021.ConclusionsThe data suggest that serum MPO levels are not substantially related to CAD patients, as indicated by lower MPO levels in CAD patients compared to controls. While highlighting the potential of MPV and RDW% as predictors of severe atherosclerosis in CAD. Further research is needed to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of RDW%, MPV, and MPO levels in CAD.Trial registration: 15092021-9-12. Registered 15 September 2021.

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  • 2.
    Adam, Lina N.
    et al.
    Univ Zakho, Fac Sci, Dept Biol, Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Oraha, Ashur Y.
    Univ Duhok, Coll Med, Dept Cardiothorac & Vasc Surg, Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Shekha, Mudhir S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Salahaddin Univ Erbil, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Al-Habib, Omar A. M.
    Univ Nawroz, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Exploring nitric oxide as a crucial prognostic biomarker of coronary artery disease2023In: Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators, ISSN 1098-8823, E-ISSN 2212-196X, Vol. 165, article id 106717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aimed to examine if the polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and the serum NO levels are associated with CAD.

    Materials/methods: Case-control study, 70 CAD and 30 control subjects were enrolled. The eNOS gene poly-morphism was measured by polymerase chain reaction-agarose gel electrophoresis and the serum NO was assessed by using an ELISA plate and reader covering 540 nm.

    Results: Uncovering the area under curve (AUC) for serum NO, which was (0.6821), indicating that NO seemed to be a critical prognostic biomarker of CAD; also, glucose, serum creatinine and total bilirubin proved to be sig-nificant predictors of CAD with AUC (0.6793, 0.6717 and 0.6662) respectively. Furthermore, higher serum NO levels were associated with the eNOS (ab) genotype. Revealing the intron (a) allele was protective against CAD. Moreover, diminished levels of serum NO in CAD groups compared to controls (P < 0.05). Additionally, Multiple logistic regression analysis shows a significantly high Odds ratio associated with CAD in the Duhok population.

    Conclusions: The eNOS (ab) variant seems to be a protective CAD factor for patients. Low serum NO levels are another risk factor for the advancement of CAD, suggesting their involvement in atherosclerosis. The (a) allele's protective effect is mediated through changes in eNOS promoter activity and higher NO levels.

  • 3.
    Aziz, Sarkar
    et al.
    Erbil Polytech Univ, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil, Iraq.;Erbil Polytech Univ Erbil, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil 44001, Iraq..
    Hamad, Bahra
    Erbil Polytech Univ, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Hamad, Hero
    Erbil Polytech Univ, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Qader, Muzhda
    Erbil Polytech Univ, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Ali, Eman
    Erbil Polytech Univ, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Muhammed, Rayan
    Erbil Polytech Univ, Erbil Tech Hlth Coll, Dept Med Lab Technol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Shekha, Mudhir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Salahaddin Univ, Coll Sci, Res Ctr, Dept Biol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Estimation of the prevalence of Hemoglobinopathies in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq2022In: IRAQI JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, ISSN 2072-8069, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Thalassemia syndromes and structural hemoglobin variants generate blood crisis of variable clinical symptoms, ranging from mild-to-moderate hematological disorder to severe, lifelong, transfusion-dependent anemia. The aim of current study was to uncover the prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in the Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The available data of thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia, sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait, and HbH and HbE until the end of 2020 were collected retrospectively from Erbil Thalassemia Center in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq and analyzed by using Microsoft Excel (Version 2016). RESULTS: An increase in the prevalence of thalassemia syndromes from 30.8/100,000 in 2015 to 37.3/100,000 individuals in the population in 2020 was revealed. The prevalence of all hemoglobinopathies combined increased from 31.9/100,000 to 42.7/100,000 individuals of the population. Thalassemia major was the predominant condition among the hemoglobinopathies with 758 (78.71%) cases out of 963 cases at the end of 2020. CONCLUSION: This rise might be attributed to a large number of consanguineous marriages, the lack of effective prevention programs, and poor legislation. There is an emergent requirement for a preventive program, entailing identification of carriers, genetic counseling, guidelines to differentiate between other microcytic anemias with thalassemia traits, antenatal diagnosis, public education, and sustained legislation.

  • 4.
    Shekha, Gawhar Ahmed
    et al.
    Salahaddin Univ Erbil, Dept Biol, Coll Educ, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Maulood, Kalthum Asaaf
    Salahaddin Univ Erbil, Dept Biol, Coll Educ, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Shekha, Mudhir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Salahaddin Univ Erbil, Dept Biol, Coll Sci, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Relationship between lipid profile and B-type natriuretic peptide T-381C (rs198389) gene polymorphism in patients with stable coronary artery disease2023In: Cellular and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0145-5680, E-ISSN 1165-158X, Vol. 69, no 13, p. 180-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research explored the link between Brain Natriuretic Peptides (BNP) gene promoter T-381C polymorphism, serum BNP, and lipid profiles in Kurdish people from Iraq with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The study was conducted on 62 individuals with CAD and 31 without CAD (control group). DNA was extracted from each individual's sample using the Sanger sequencing method to study the BNP gene's polymorphism. The identified alleles were TT, TC, and CC. The frequency of the TT genotype decreased significantly among the patient group compared to the control group, while the CC genotype's frequency was higher (p<0.05). However, there was no significant increase in BNP levels in TC and CC genotypes compared to the TT genotype. Lipid profile values were not significantly different among the genotypes. The study utilized a cut-off value for BNP activity for predicting CAD and found that individuals with a BNP activity value less than the cut-off had significantly greater changes in lipid profile and renal function (p<0.05). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that cholesterol was not the only primary determinant of BNP rate in subjects with stable CAD; oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), a history of heart attacks, and oxidative stress malondialdehyde (MDA) had a significant effect. Homozygous C allele carriers at position 381 of the BNP precursors gene promoter were more likely to exhibit atherosclerosis lesions. We found that BNP rs198389 was not correlated with lipid profile and kidney disease. Copyright: (c) 2023 by the C.M.B. Association. All rights reserved.

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  • 5.
    Wen, Quan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Chowdhury, Azazul Islam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Aydin, Banu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Shekha, Mudhir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq.
    Stenlid, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Paediatric Obesity Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research. Paediatric Obesity Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research. Paediatric Obesity Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metformin restores prohormone processing enzymes and normalizes aberrations in secretion of proinsulin and insulin in palmitate‐exposed human islets2023In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 3757-3765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To elucidate how proinsulin synthesis and insulin was affected by metformin under conditions of nutrient overstimulation.

    Materials and methods: Isolated human pancreatic islets from seven donors were cultured at 5.5 mmol/L glucose and 0.5 mmol/L palmitate for 12, 24 or 72 h. Metformin (25 μmol/L) was introduced after initial 12 h with palmitate. Proinsulin and insulin were measured. Expression of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and carboxypeptidase E (CPE), was determined by western blot. Adolescents with obesity, treated with metformin and with normal glucose tolerance (n = 5), prediabetes (n = 14), or type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n = 7) were included. Fasting proinsulin, insulin, glucose, 2-h glucose and glycated haemoglobin were measured. Proinsulin/insulin ratio (PI/I) was calculated.

    Results: In human islets, palmitate treatment for 12 and 24 h increased proinsulin and insulin proportionally. After 72 h, proinsulin but not insulin continued to increase which was coupled with reduced expression of PC1/3 and CPE. Metformin normalized expression of PC1/3 and CPE, and proinsulin and insulin secretion. In adolescents with obesity, before treatment, fasting proinsulin and insulin concentrations were higher in subjects with T2DM than with normal glucose tolerance. PI/I was reduced after metformin treatment in subjects with T2DM as well as in subjects with prediabetes, coupled with reduced 2-h glucose and glycated haemoglobin.

    Conclusions: Metformin normalized proinsulin and insulin secretion after prolonged nutrient-overstimulation, coupled with normalization of the converting enzymes, in isolated islets. In adolescents with obesity, metformin treatment was associated with improved PI/I, which was coupled with improved glycaemic control.

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