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  • 1. Azar, Goudarz
    et al.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Psychic Distance, Innovation, and Firm Performance2014In: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 581-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that internationalization improves a firm's ability to innovate, but the effect of internationalizing into specific target markets or destinations on the innovation ability of firms has not been fully investigated. This study examined whether the psychic distance between target market and home market affects firms' propensity to innovate. The starting assumption was that perception of a high degree of differences and subsequent environmental uncertainty when expanding into psychically distant markets triggers strategies for interacting and integrating with the market environment. These include producing and adopting innovations to processes and products and to organizational strategy, structure, and administrative procedures to cope with the new environment and overcome uncertainties. These innovations and the associated competitive advantages can improve firm performance. Hypotheses regarding the relationships between psychic distance, innovation, and firm performance were tested here by structural equation modeling using data from 186 export ventures into 23 international markets by Swedish companies. The results indicate that the link between psychic distance and firm performance is mediated by innovation.

  • 2.
    Barkema, Harry G
    et al.
    Department of Organisation and Strategy, Tilburg University.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationalising in small, incremental or larger steps?2007In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1132-1148Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that companies may enter foreign environments either incrementally, as suggested by long-established theory, or by taking larger steps that may result in lower initial performance but, through learning and experience, lead to increased performance in future expansions. This idea is corroborated by the experience of Dutch companies entering into Central and Eastern Europe. We also find that expansion steps may be too large, thereby limiting the exploration of foreign environments. Our study suggests that sequential internationalisation strategies do still matter, and that companies have to balance exploitation and exploration in internationalisation.

  • 3.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desiree
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Holm, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Zander, Ivo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The internationalization processes of the firm: a new research agenda2009In: Research on Knowledge, Innovation and Internationalization / [ed] Jorma Larimo and Tiia Vissak, Bingley: Emerald , 2009, p. 3-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the fundamental assumptions and features of the Uppsala model of internationalization and argue that we need to look beyond this model for studying internationalization processes in the multinational corporations (MNCs) of today. The purpose of our paper is to identify gaps and neglected issues regarding MNCs' internationalization processes that demand further theoretical and empirical study. Our approach is conceptual: based on the most cited model on internationalization, the Uppsala model, we approach the complex internationalization processes that continously go on in modern MNCs. We use related bodies of literature, on MNC structure and strategy, headquarters-subsidiary relationships, MNC subsidiary strategy development, and opportunity seeking and entrepreneurship, to fill in the gaps and develop the emerging research themes. We identify the following three issues that need further investigation: the opportunity recognition process preceding internationalization processes in MNCs, the internationalization of multiple products within the confines of the growing MNC, and the internationalization of foreign MNC units. In this paper, we open up new research fields but do not offer empirical stuydies to inform us about these relevant issues. Future research should study these issues empirically, preferably through case study methologies an/or with longitudinal designs. The contribution of our paper is its identification of three research issues in relation to internationalization processes of modern MNCs, which we argue are neglected by contemporary reseach.

  • 4.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. 1962.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Foreign market entry - exploring and exploiting opportunities2015In: Wiley Encyclopeida of Management 3rd edition Volume. International management / [ed] Vodosek, M. & Den Hartog, D., John Wiley & Sons, 2015, 3Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. 1962.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Holm, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Zander, Ivo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The international processes of the firm: a new research agenda2009In: Research and knowledge, Innovation and internationalization / [ed] Larimo, J., & Vissak, T., Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009, p. 3-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Attention Dissonance in Emerging Market Subsidiaries and Its Effects on Communication in Multinational Corporations.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Attention engagement matters: Impact of headquarters’ attention on subsidiary voice.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Effects of attention dissonance on communication in multinational corporation.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Flying under the radar: minimizing corporate resistance to subsidiary initiatives.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Headquarters' attention, subsidiary voice and strategic change in multinational corporations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. 1962.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    How subsidiaries attempt to direct HQ attention to new business opportunities2015In: The future of global organizing. International business research. / [ed] van Tudler, R., Verbeke, A & Drogendijk, R., Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, 0, p. 151-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    How subsidiaries attempt to direct HQ attention to new business opportunities.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. 1962.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Subsidiaries attempt to direct HQ attention to new business opportunities2015In: International Business Research. The future of Global Organizing., Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, Vol. 10, p. 151-175-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Future of Global Organizing How Subsidiaries Attempt to Direct HQ Attention to New Business Opportunities2015In: The Future of Global Organizing / [ed] Rob van Tulder, Alain Verbeke, Rian Drogendijk, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 151-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We examine how subsidiaries of multinational companies communicate with headquarters about business opportunities they perceive in their local environment. Our aim is to provide in-depth insights into how communication is used to attract the attention of headquarters.

    Methodology/approach

    We study four communication processes of opportunities recognised by subsidiary managers in four different units within the same multinational corporation.

    Findings

    We find that communication is influenced by the subsidiaries’ perception of their relationship with headquarters. Importantly, we find that subsidiaries in emerging countries show different communication patterns than those in advanced markets. Our results further point out that multinationals from advanced countries face the challenge to respond to the increased salience of opportunities from emerging economies, while at the same time still working within existing communication patterns and structures that are not adapted to this new situation.

    Originality/value

    Our study presents communication processes within multinationals beyond the frequency of communication, including a variety of aspects of communication. Doing so, we are able to point out that open communication is not achieved with all subsidiaries, and what is worse, seems most of all to be challenged for subsidiaries in emerging markets, risking promising business opportunities in these markets.

  • 15.
    Blomkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. University of Groningen.
    Chinese outward foreign direct investments in Europe2016In: European Journal of International Management, ISSN 1751-6757, E-ISSN 1751-6765, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 343-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment behaviour in Europe differs compared with their investments in other parts of the world. For our empirical study we use data from the 2012 statistical bulletin of Chinese OFDI, 20032012. Our results indicate that European countries generally receive lower levels of investment from Chinese firms compared with other regions of the world. We find, furthermore, that the main motives for Chinese investment in Europe are market seeking and strategic asset seeking, and that there are large differences among European countries in attracting Chinese investments.

  • 16.
    Blomkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Impact of Psychic Distance on Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investments2013In: Management International Review, ISSN 0025-181X, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 659-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the value of the well-known construct of psychic distance, developed to explain the internationalization path of firms from developed countries, for the internationalization of Chinese firms.

    Our research question is: Does psychic distance and its individual stimuli (differences in language, religion, culture, economic development, political systems, education, and geographic distance) explain Chinese investments abroad?

    We test hypotheses on the relation between psychic distance and its stimuli and Chinese outward direct investments with OLS regression analyses.

    We find that Chinese OFDI indeed is influenced by an aggregate construct of psychic distance and by certain psychic distance stimuli, but not by all; in particular, similarities or differences with regard to language and culture, the level of industrialization and the level of democracy relate to Chinese firms’ internationalization.

    Our findings suggest that psychic distance and its stimuli cannot be ignored as explanatory factors for Chinese outward FDI but that the explanatory value of these constructs depends on the context of the phenomenon under study.

    We conclude that it is important to understand how the home country context influences managerial perceptions and thereby patterns of international expansion from different regions.

  • 17.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Expansieprocessen in Oost-Europa: de rol van risicoperceptie (Expansion processes in Eastern Europe: the role of risk perception)2001In: Maandblad voor Accountancy en Bedrijfskunde, ISSN 0924-6304, Vol. 75, no 12, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to many it becomes more and more easy for companies to expand abroad. The world decreases due to processes like globalisation and the immense growth of information flows, one thinks, and uncertainty caused by a lack of knowledge about the foreign market or underestimated risks involved in entry are less important for firms' expansion processes. However, the results of an investigation into the expansion strategies of Dutch companies in Central and Eastern Europe show that risk perception of these firms regarding the new markets still influences their strategis choices in the region.

  • 18.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Local expansion processes of Dutch Firms in Central and Eastern Europe2002In: Internationalization in Central and Eastern Europe, Ashgate, Burlington , 2002, p. 183-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the evolutionary approach to internationalization is challenged by authors who claim that a gradual entry into new markets is not used anymore in the current globalized marketplace. In this paper, the expansion processes of Dutch firms and their local subsidiaries in Central and Eastern Europe are investigated in order to test the evolutionary approach and to explore several dimensions along which expansions evolve. Results of both case studies and survey material show, that firms still expand stepwise, but in more differentiated patterns than predicted by the original model.

  • 19.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The development of network relations of MNC subsidiaries: how internal MNC and external (local) relations evolve2005Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing relations is a complex task for internationalizing firms and their subsidiaries: MNC subsidiaries are not only part of the MNC network but they also develop relations with network actors in their local environment.This paper investigates conceptually how MNC subsidiaries established through generic expansion build relations within the MNC and with external market and non-market actors as they evolve through stages of start-up, growth and maturity.The paper develops propositions, grounded in institutional theory, resource dependency theory and network approaches, on the changing strength and importance of a subsidiary's relations depending on its dependence or interdependence in these relations, with five groups of actors (MNC headquarters, other subsidiaries within the MNC, local business actors, local government and non-government organizations).The paper ends with drawing directions for future work that will enhance understanding of the dynamics of relationship management in MNC subsidiaries.

  • 20.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The public affairs of internationalisation: Balancing pressures from multiple environments2004In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing public affairs is a very complex task for internationalizing firms. Multinational companies (MNCs) are not only single organizations operating in a global environment, but at the same time they are collections of interlinked subsidiaries that operate in a diversity of national environments. This paper investigates conceptually how subsidiaries of MNCs build relations with internal MNC counterparts and external market and non-market actors as they mature and build resources and capabilities. It shows that, in order to understand the dynamics of public affairs management in MNCs, we need to study the relations of MNCs and their subsidiaries with a variety of stakeholders in the internal and external environment of the organization.

  • 21.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Relationship development in Greenfield expansions2013In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 381-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates conceptually how new Greenfield subsidiaries develop relationships over time. We focus our analysis on the earliest start-up stage of new Greenfield subsidiaries, and on the dynamics of relationships development with five different groups of actors within the MNC and the local environment of the new Greenfield. We argue that relationship strength, or the intensity of interaction and resource exchange, depends on the new Greenfield's degree of dependence or interdependence within these relationships and develop propositions based on institutional theory, resource dependency theory and network approaches. In the concluding sections we suggest directions for future work to enhance understanding of the dynamics of relationship management in new Greenfield expansions.

  • 22.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desiree
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Foreign Market Entry – Exploring and Exploiting Opportunities.2012In: Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 3rd Edition: Volume International Management / [ed] Vodosek, M. and Den Hartog, D., John Wiley & Sons, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the dynamic of exploitation and exploration in international networks for companies that enter new foreign markets. While exploitation is related to experiential learning in closed networks and incremental internationalization, exploration refers to disruptive learning in open networks and more risky international expansion. We illustrate exploitation and exploration in foreign market entry with a case description and conclude that the dynamic between these processes is in-built in market entry and the related changes of network structure. 

  • 23. Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Blomkvist, Katarina
    Does cultural distance influence Chinese outward foreign direct investmetns?2012In: Emerging Economies and Firms in the Global Crisis. / [ed] Marinov, M.A. and Marinova, S.T., Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 154-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Blomkvist, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drivers and Motives for Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investments in Africa2013In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kent
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The role of experience in creating profitable operations in eastern and central europe2003In: EIBA 2003: The MNC as a knowíng organization, 2003Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 26.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationalisation of Bank Enterprises in New Emerging Markets: The Case of Penetration and Expansion into Eastern European Countries2008In: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 80-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question raised in this papers is how two EU firms penetrate and expand into new emerging markets in Eastern Europe. The theoretical view relies on the firms' Internationalisation and business network theories and the varieties in the behaviour is explained by the degree of business commitment and knowledge. The outcomes add new knowledge to the internationalisation and business relationship theories for the better understanding of market entry and expansion and offer managerial implications for management of political relationships.

  • 27.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationalization of Services Companies2009In: Glocal Marketing: Think Globally and Act Locally / [ed] Svante Andersson and Göran Svensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 189-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we examine how two banks, each in their own way, expand into new foreign markets. Using well-known theories relating to the internationalisation process and business networks, we investigate how their entry processes evolve and which network relations are essential in the development of a successful new unit. Our analysis shows that the two banks ahve encountered different opportunities and problems in their expansion processes, which can partly be related to the timing of their entry. In both cases political relations appear to be of critical importance for the success of the expansion process. Not only did the banks have to devote time and resources to developing business relations in the new environment, they also needed to commit themselves to and learn about the political environment. This outcome leads to discussions about how to include political relationship development into the internationalization process model.

  • 28.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Holm, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cultural distance or cultural positions?: Analysing the effect of culture on the HQ-subsidiary relationship2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 383-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a model of cultural positions in relationships that should be considered in addition to the more conventional cultural distance. We empirically analyse relationships between headquarters and foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations and how high or low acceptance of power differences at both sides of the relationship is associated with headquarters influence on subsidiary competence development. ANCOVA analyses of 1529 subsidiaries in six European countries, headquartered in 28 countries, provide new insights. We find that relationships with low cultural distance, differ significantly in terms of headquarters influence depending on whether headquarters and subsidiaries agree on accepting or rejecting power differences. Similarly, relationships with high cultural distance differ depending on whether it is headquarters or the subsidiary that is from a high-power-distance culture: we find that headquarters influence is particularly dependent on great acceptance of power differences by the subsidiary.

  • 29.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Holm, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The role of national culture in the headquarters-subsidiary relationship in the multinational corporation: the effect of power distance2010In: Managing the Contemporary Multinational: The Role of Headquarters / [ed] Ulf Andersson and Ulf Holm, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2010, p. 254-280Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we study how national cultural differences affect the managerial relationship between MNC headquarters and their subsidiaries. We argue that the headquarters and their subsidiaries have cultural characteristics deriving from the countries in which they are based that matter to headquarters’ management of their subsidiaries. Furthermore, it is not just the cultural distance that affects the headquarters-subsidiary relationship, but the actual cultural characteristics of both parties. We investigate this empirically, focusing on how both headquarters and subsidiary positions on the cultural dimension of power distance (the acceptance of unequal distribution of power in a society) relate to headquarters’ influence on the competence development of the subsidiary. Our dataset is comprised of 1552 subsidiaries in six European countries and their corresponding headquarters in 27 countries distributed throughout the world. ANCOVA analysis shows that the headquarters exerted the greatest influence when both the headquarters and its subsidiary belong to national cultures with a high power distance. Findings also show that headquarters’ influence is more dependent upon the subsidiary’s grade of power distance acceptance than on that of headquarters. Our findings confirm that the cultural distance metaphor should be replaced with a concept that does more justice to the actual cultural interface in a managerial relationship.

  • 30.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Martín Martín, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Relevant dimensions and contextual weights of distance in international business decisions: Evidence from Spanish and Chinese outward FDI2015In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 133-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how distance and different dimensions of distance between countries explain the outward FDI of firms according to distinct home country contexts. We identify three important dimensions of country distance: socio-economic development distance, cultural and historical distance and physical distance. We then empirically explore whether these dimensions receive different weights when explaining the location of FDI depending on its origin by comparing the outward FDI of China and Spain using partial least squares-based structural equations modelling (SEM-PLS). We find that although country distance significantly explains the FDI of both countries, the weights of the three dimensions of distance depend on the home country context. More specifically, we find that all three dimensions of distance explain the direction of Spanish investments, whereas only cultural and historical distance significantly explains Chinese outward FDI. Our research advances the understanding of distance between countries, the dimensions of distance, and how context influences the impact of the dimensions of distance. 

  • 31.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Slangen, Arjen
    Hofstede, Schwartz, or Managerial Perceptions?: A comparative analysis of the effects of various cultural distance measures on an MNE's establishment mode choice2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on foreign entry mode choices by multinational enterprises (MNEs) has relied almost exclusively on the Kogut and Singh (1988) index, which is based on Hofstede’s (1980) dimensions of national culture. In recent years, scholars have become increasingly critical of Hofstede’s work and have questioned the validity of the Kogut and Singh (1988) index as an accurate measure of cultural distance. This paper therefore examines and compares the effects of five cultural distance measures on an MNE’s establishment mode choice, i.e. that between expanding abroad through greenfield or acquisition. Two of the five measures we test are based on the work of Hofstede (1980), two on that of Schwartz (1994, 1999), and one on managerial perceptions. Analyzing a sample of foreign expansions by Dutch MNEs and controlling for other factors, we find that the Hofstede-based and Schwartz-based measures of cultural distance explain the establishment mode choices of these MNEs equally well, and that the explanatory power of the perceptual measure, in spite of its statistical significance, is somewhat lower. Conclusions and suggestions for future research are offered.

  • 32.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Slangen, Arjen
    Hofstede, Schwartz, or Managerial Perceptions?: The effects of various cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by MNEs2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, scholars have become increasingly critical of Kogut and Singh’s (1988) cultural distance index and of Hofstede’s (1980) underlying national culture framework. We therefore examine and compare the effects of five cultural distance measures on the choice by multinational enterprises (MNEs) between expanding abroad through greenfield or acquisition. Two of these measures are based on Hofstede (1980), another two on Schwartz (1994, 1999), and one on managerial perceptions. Analyzing a sample of foreign expansions by Dutch MNEs and controlling for other factors, we find that all cultural distance measures significantly increase the likelihood that MNEs choose greenfields, and that the explanatory power of the Hofstede and Schwartz-based measures is comparable, while that of the perceptual one is somewhat lower. We conclude that it may thus be premature to dismiss Hofstede’s work as outdated or as inaccurately reflecting national cultures, and to consider Schwartz’s framework to be superior.

  • 33.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Slangen, Arjen
    Department of Business-Society Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
    Hofstede, Schwartz, or Managerial perceptions: The Effects of Various Cultural Distance Measures on Establishment Mode Choices by Multinational Enterprises2006In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 361-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, scholars have become increasingly critical of Kogut and Singh’s (1988) cultural distance index and of Hofstede’s (1980) underlying national culture framework. We therefore examine and compare the effects of five cultural distance measures on the choice by multinational enterprises (MNEs) between expanding abroad through greenfield or acquisition. Two of these measures are based on Hofstede (1980), another two on Schwartz (1994, 1999), and one on managerial perceptions. Analyzing a sample of foreign expansions by Dutch MNEs and controlling for other factors, we find that high scores on all cultural distance measures significantly increase the likelihood that MNEs choose greenfields, and that the explanatory power of the Hofstede and Schwartz-based measures is comparable, while that of the perceptual one is somewhat lower. We conclude that it may thus be premature to dismiss Hofstede’s work as outdated or as inaccurately reflecting national cultures, and to consider Schwartz’s framework to be superior.

  • 34.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    van Tulder, Rob
    verbeke, Alain
    Introduction: Three organizational challenges for multinational enterprises2015In: The future of global organizing, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, 1, p. 3-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Zander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Walking the cultural distance: in search of direction beyond friction2010In: The Past, Present and Future of International Business and Management / [ed] Timothy Devinney, Torben Pedersen and Laszlo Tihanyi, Bingley (UK): Emerald , 2010, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 189-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What we know is that the concept of cultural distance is frequently used, hotly debated and for many intuitively appealing. Suffering from a series of illusionary properties, it is argued to have outlived its usefulness. What we need to know is how to conceptualize the complexity of culture as a multi-dimensional, multi-level concept, taking context into account to measure quality rather than quantity (or distance). It is our ambition to do justice to the idea that cultural diversity not only leads to friction or problem creation, but also to enrichment and to generation of solutions. We discuss cultural conceptualizations and suggest cultural profiling and cultural positioning as alternative ways of comparing and contrasting critical cultural differences.

  • 36.
    Jonsen, Karsten
    et al.
    IMD, Swizerland.
    Butler, Christina
    Kingston University.
    Mäkelä, Kristiina
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Piekkari, Rebecca
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lauring, Jakob
    Århus University, Danmark.
    Lervik, Jon E.
    BI/Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Vodosek, Markus
    German Graduate School of Management and Law, Germany.
    Zander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Processes of International Collaboration in Management Research: A Reflexive, Autoethnographic Approach2013In: Journal of management inquiry, ISSN 1056-4926, E-ISSN 1552-6542, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 394-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.

  • 37.
    Martín Martín, Oscar
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, Public University of Navarre.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Country Distance (COD): Development and Validation of a New Objective Measure2014In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 102-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a multidimensional and objective measure, country distance (COD), as a comprehensive measure of distance between countries. Although the literature has called for a measure like this, in particular to support international decision-making by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the research carried out so far has relied on measures of limited focus. We use partial least squares to develop the COD index and investigate the relative importance of its three dimensions: socioeconomic development, physical, and cultural and historical distance. We externally validate the measure in an analysis of the international market selection decisions of a sample of SMEs and country-level export flows.

  • 38.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Intra-organizational Communication of Business Ideas2017In: Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: Sharing Multiple Perspectives / [ed] Ben Hamida, L. and Lejeune, C, Paris: Harmattan , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. conomics and Business, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Attention in words, not in deeds: Effects of attention dissonance on headquarters-subsidiary communication in multinational corporations2017In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 111-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the notion of attention dissonance, where the subsidiary within a headquarter-subsidiary relationship feels that headquarters’ attention at the cognitive level, reflected in its strategic intentions (attention perspective), is not aligned with the routine actions the headquarters performs vis-à-vis the specific subsidiary (attention engagement). Using a comparative case study design, we investigate a European organization with subsidiaries located in both emerging and advanced markets. We show how subsidiaries in the emerging markets face attention dissonance, which impedes their ability to get business opportunities across to headquarters, thereby compromising a necessary condition for realizing economic potential in these emerging markets.

1 - 39 of 39
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