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  • 1.
    Noreen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Estonian Identity Formations and Threat Framing in the Post-Cold War Era2004In: presented at the 45th Annual International Studies Association (ISA) Convention; Montreal, 17 – 20 mars, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 2.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Exploring the Construction of Threats: The securitization of HIV/AIDS in Russia2008In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 7-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In April 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin publicly declared HIV/ AIDS to be a threat to Russia's national security and proposed a guiding strategy to handle it. This move stood in sharp contrast to previous policies of the Russian government. Despite the fact that Russia has experienced one of the fastest growing rates of HIV/AIDS in the world since the turn of the millennium, the government's involvement had previously been minimal, not recognizing AIDS as a national security threat. The question then arises: when is a threat really threatening? This article contributes to the development of theories on threat-framing and security decisionmaking by suggesting an analytical framework that incorporates explanatory variables from different levels of analysis. The adoption of a broad theoretical position facilitates a comprehensive understanding of time and space variations in the securitization of issues. The article demonstrates that norms and identity constructions at the international and domestic levels, combined with their internalization by individual decisionmakers, can together explain Putin's move, and that these factors are of different importance at difference stages of the threat-construction process.

  • 3.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Exploring the Construction of Threats: The Securitization of HIV/AIDS in Russia and the United States2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Health Issues and Securitization: The Construction of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat2010In: Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve / [ed] Balzacq, Thierry, London: Routledge , 2010, 1, p. 150-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Health Issues and Securitization: The Construction of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Health Issues and Securitization: The Constructions of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat2010In:  , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    How does a threat become salient?: The case of swine flu in Sweden2011In: Issue Salience in International Politics / [ed] Kai Oppermann and Henrike Viehrig., London: Routledge , 2011, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Ideas, Identities and Internalization: Explaining securitizing moves2013In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 143-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some events take precedence over others in terms of being viewed as security issues? This article argues that in order to answer this question it is necessary to move beyond the assumption that threat images are self-evident. Rather, a distinction should be made between the contextual conditions that may lay the foundation for a threat image and the subjective problem formulation by actors. In addition, in order to analyze how, why, and when an actor constructs a threat image and initiates a so-called securitization process, a broad conceptual and analytical framework should be employed. This article suggests a framework that incorporates ideas and identity at the international and domestic levels, and the internalization processes of the central decision-making unit performing the securitization. The article argues that while the diffusion of ideas by entrepreneurs forms an important basis for the threat constructions of national decision-makers, it is necessary to take the role of national and domestic identities into account in order to explain why some idea diffusion processes succeed while other do not. Identity serves as a catalyst or gate-keeper of idea diffusion. The internalization of the decision-making unit, finally, is a central mechanism that highlights the process between the explanatory factors and the outcome (securitization). By including these three concepts into the analysis, this article takes a holistic approach that can be employed to analyze different kinds of actor-based and non-actor-based threat images.

  • 9.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Talking Threats: The Social Construction of National Security in Russia and the United States2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are some issues seen as threats? This dissertation attempts to explain the dynamics of threat construction by national decision-makers. The theoretical ambition is twofold: first, the dissertation aims at improving the research on threat construction by suggesting a broad approach that analyzes this process in a structured manner. Second, the dissertation also contributes to the more mainstream International Relations security research agenda, which often under-problematizes this issue. The point of departure is that the link between a condition (e.g. structure) and threat framing (e.g. agency) is not to be taken for granted, and that threat construction is subjective and varies among actors.  This assertion is supported by the findings of the dissertation’s component parts. Essay I finds that US security doctrines such as the Truman and Bush doctrines are not routine responses to external threats but rather the natural continuation of a political and societal discourse in which certain norms and identities interact. Essay II finds that a condition that could lay the foundation for a threat construction does not necessarily evoke such a reaction, such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia. Essay III demonstrates the opposite situation; that a securitization can take place although the contextual conditions do not necessarily point toward such a move, such as US President Clinton’s declaration that AIDS is a threat to the national security of the United States. Essay IV proposes a framework that incorporates explanatory factors from the international, the domestic, and the individual levels of analysis. Such a framework allows for a more refined analysis which better captures the contingent relationships between factors. Taken together, the findings of this dissertation indicate that the correlations between conditions and threat constructions are intricate, and that the explanation of a securitization lies in the interaction of certain social and cognitive processes.

     

     

    List of papers
    1. The Discursive Origins of a Doctrine: Norms, Identity, and Securitization under Harry S. Truman and George W. Bush
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Discursive Origins of a Doctrine: Norms, Identity, and Securitization under Harry S. Truman and George W. Bush
    2007 (English)In: Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 233-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Foreign Policy, Security Studies, Discourse Analysis
    National Category
    Other Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-15107 (URN)10.1111/j.1743-8594.2007.00049.x (DOI)000207982800003 ()
    Available from: 2008-02-05 Created: 2008-02-05 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    2. Exploring the Construction of Threats: The securitization of HIV/AIDS in Russia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the Construction of Threats: The securitization of HIV/AIDS in Russia
    2008 (English)In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 7-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In April 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin publicly declared HIV/ AIDS to be a threat to Russia's national security and proposed a guiding strategy to handle it. This move stood in sharp contrast to previous policies of the Russian government. Despite the fact that Russia has experienced one of the fastest growing rates of HIV/AIDS in the world since the turn of the millennium, the government's involvement had previously been minimal, not recognizing AIDS as a national security threat. The question then arises: when is a threat really threatening? This article contributes to the development of theories on threat-framing and security decisionmaking by suggesting an analytical framework that incorporates explanatory variables from different levels of analysis. The adoption of a broad theoretical position facilitates a comprehensive understanding of time and space variations in the securitization of issues. The article demonstrates that norms and identity constructions at the international and domestic levels, combined with their internalization by individual decisionmakers, can together explain Putin's move, and that these factors are of different importance at difference stages of the threat-construction process.

    Keywords
    HIV/AIDS, Identity, Internalization, Norms, Russia
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98682 (URN)10.1177/0967010607086821 (DOI)000253378000001 ()
    Available from: 2009-03-02 Created: 2009-03-02 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Health Issues and Securitization: The Construction of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health Issues and Securitization: The Construction of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat
    2010 (English)In: Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve / [ed] Balzacq, Thierry, London: Routledge , 2010, 1, p. 150-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2010 Edition: 1
    Series
    PRIO New Security Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130571 (URN)13:978-0-415-55628-6 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2010-09-09 Created: 2010-09-09 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Ideas, Identities and Internalization: Explaining securitizing moves
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ideas, Identities and Internalization: Explaining securitizing moves
    2013 (English)In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 143-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Why do some events take precedence over others in terms of being viewed as security issues? This article argues that in order to answer this question it is necessary to move beyond the assumption that threat images are self-evident. Rather, a distinction should be made between the contextual conditions that may lay the foundation for a threat image and the subjective problem formulation by actors. In addition, in order to analyze how, why, and when an actor constructs a threat image and initiates a so-called securitization process, a broad conceptual and analytical framework should be employed. This article suggests a framework that incorporates ideas and identity at the international and domestic levels, and the internalization processes of the central decision-making unit performing the securitization. The article argues that while the diffusion of ideas by entrepreneurs forms an important basis for the threat constructions of national decision-makers, it is necessary to take the role of national and domestic identities into account in order to explain why some idea diffusion processes succeed while other do not. Identity serves as a catalyst or gate-keeper of idea diffusion. The internalization of the decision-making unit, finally, is a central mechanism that highlights the process between the explanatory factors and the outcome (securitization). By including these three concepts into the analysis, this article takes a holistic approach that can be employed to analyze different kinds of actor-based and non-actor-based threat images.

    Keywords
    constructivism, ideas, identities, internalization, securitization, threat perception
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130578 (URN)10.1177/0010836712445023 (DOI)000316633200007 ()
    Available from: 2010-09-09 Created: 2010-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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    Omslag
  • 10.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Discursive Origins of a Doctrine: Norms, Identity, and Securitization under Harry S. Truman and George W. Bush2007In: Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 233-254Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    When is a Threat Threatening? Decision-Making Prosseses in the United States and Russia2005In: Perspectives on Russian Politics and International Integration. 6th European International Relations Summer School (EIRSS; ECPR), Moscow, August 1-13, 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 12.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    When is a Threat Threatening? Securitization processes in the United States and Russia Regarding Terrorism, Environmental issues, and HIV2006In: 47th Annual International Studies Association (ISA) Convention; San Diego, 21 – 25 mars, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 13.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    When is a Threat Threatening? Securitizing HIV/AIDS in Russia2006In: Statsvetenskapliga metodkonferensen för doktorander; Varberg, 12-13 juni, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 14.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Blondel, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Decision-Making, Visual Information, and Threats2005In: International Studies Association 46th Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii, March 1-5, 2005., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 15.
    Sjöstedt, Roxanna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Box 52, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Folke Bernadotte Acad, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Demagogues of Hate or Shepherds of Peace?: Examining the Threat Construction Processes of Warlord Democrats in Sierra Leone and Liberia2019In: Journal of International Relations and Development, ISSN 1408-6980, E-ISSN 1581-1980, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 560-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are threat images framed and constructed by the so-called warlord democrats (WDs)? Societies that have suffered from large-scale civil wars are commonly permeated by inter-group fear and hate. In these contexts, former military or political leaders of armed groups sometimes become involved in post-war politics. These WDs can act as reconciliation spoilers by making securitising moves, i.e. they construct threat images that are potentially very costly for fragile post-conflict democratisation processes. It is therefore crucial to explore WDs’ speech acts. Yet, the literature on post-war politics has largely overlooked these individual aspects. This article argues that the central components of securitisation theory can be useful in understanding this phenomenon if adjusted to the contextual circumstances of post-war societies. By analysing speech acts by seven WDs in post-war Liberia and Sierra Leone, two forms of framing strategies stand out as particularly relevant. First, WDs’ securitising moves are often framed as veiled threats of violence, as it is often deemed too risky for these individuals outside formal power positions to overtly express threats in a generally de-securitised setting. Second, when WDs construct threats, they often chose to frame themselves or their constituencies or followers as the referent object of security.

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