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  • 1.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Department of Statistics, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14- to 15-year-old boys and girls2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strength of the relationship between different variables of physical activity and aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescent boys and girls. Activity energy expenditure (AEE), time spent in a sedentary state, and time spent engaged in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, > or = 50% peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) were assessed by the minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring method in 82 randomly selected 14- to 15-year olds (42 boys, 40 girls). Body fat was determined by measuring skinfold thicknesses. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Somatic maturity level was determined by percentages of adult (i.e. 18 years) height attained at examination. AEE was related to aerobic fitness for both genders (boys, r = 0.30, P = 0.056; girls, r = 0.45, P = 0.003). For boys, there was a significant relationship between maturity level and VO2peak (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). For both genders, body fat was significantly and negatively related to VO2peak (r = -0.48 and r = -0.43, P < 0.01). Body fat and maturity explained 47% of the variation in VO2peak in boys, whereas AEE and body fat explained 22% of the variation in VO2peak in girls. No significant associations between physical activity variables and the data on body fat were observed. The total amount of physical activity (AEE) was related to VO2peak, at least in adolescent girls. Although VO2peak seems to be influenced by the maturity level in adolescent boys, the data support the promotion of a daily active lifestyle among young people.

  • 2.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Yngve, Agneta
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Heart rate as an indicator of the intensity of physical activity in human adolescents2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 3-4, p. 244-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were, in a group of adolescents, firstly to identify the absolute heart rates (HR) and the percentages of maximal heart rates (HRmax) corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of peak oxygen uptake (PVO2), secondly to identify absolute and relative (%PVO2) oxygen uptakes (VO2) corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1, and thirdly to examine a possible effect of fatness and fitness on the relationship between HR and VO2. The subjects were 127 (60 boys, 67 girls) adolescents with a mean age of 14.8 (SD 0.3) years. The HR and VO2 were measured by means of an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Linear regressions were performed for the HR-VO2 and VO2-HR relationships using absolute and relative (%HRmax, %PVO2) data for each individual. From these regressions, target HR and VO2 were computed. Average target HR corresponding to 40%, 60% and 80% of PVO2 were: 119 (SD 9), 145 (SD 9), 171 (SD 8), and 120 (SD 10), 146 (SD 8), 172 (SD 8) beats.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. Average VO2 corresponding to HR of 120, 140 and 160 beats.min-1 were: 22 (SD 5), 30 (SD 5), 38 (SD 6) and 18 (SD 4), 24 (SD 4), 31 (SD 4) mlO2.kg-1.min-1 for boys and girls, respectively. An analysis of covariance showed a significant fitness effect (P < 0.001) for predicted VO2 at all HR studied. The results suggest that the use of absolute HR to define exercise intensity levels when assessing young people's physical activity using HR monitoring detracts from the validity of the interpretation of the data.

  • 3.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14-15 year old Swedish adolescents2000In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and patterns of physical activity among Swedish male and female adolescents and to relate the amount and intensity of physical activity to existing recommendations (energy expenditure equal to or above 12.4 kJ/kg/day or accumulation of 30 min/day in moderate physical activity equal to 4.5 times sedentary energy expenditure or more).

    DESIGN: TDEE, physical activity level (PAL=TDEE/BMR), energy expenditure (EE) and time spent in different intensities of physical activity were assessed by using minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in combination with laboratory measured sedentary energy expenditure (SEE) and peak oxygen uptake.

    SETTING: Department of Physical Education and Health, Orebro University, and Department of Clinical Physiology, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-two 14-15 y old adolescents (42 boys, 40 girls) from the city of Orebro, randomly selected through a two-stage sampling procedure.

    RESULTS: TDEE was 12.8 MJ/day and 10.0 MJ/day for boys and girls respectively (P<0.001) and PAL was 1.74 and 1.67 (NS). Forty-four percent and 47%, respectively, of TDEE referred to EE in physical activity, of which 70% for both genders referred to light physical activity (corresponding to <4.5 times SEE). Eleven boys and 14 girls had an EE lower than 12.4 kJ/kg/day and/or did not accumulate 30 min/day in physical activity >/=4.5 SEE. Those (n=20) with the highest PAL values (>2.01 and 1.81, respectively) spent 149 min/day at a >/=4.5 SEE intensity level compared to 40 min/day for those (n=30) with the lowest PAL values (<1.55 and 1.45, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Swedish adolescent boys and girls are similarly physically active. The major amount of time devoted to physical activity refers to light physical activity. At least thirty percent of adolescents seem not to achieve appropriate levels of physical activity considered to be beneficial for health.

  • 4.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Fröberg, Karsten
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children2001In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To validate the Computer Science and Application's (CSA) activity monitor for assessment of the total amount of physical activity during two school-weeks in 9-yr-old children and to develop equations to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) from activity counts and anthropometric variables.

    METHODS: A total of 26 children (15 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9.1 +/- 0.3 yr) were monitored for 14 consecutive days. TEE was simultaneously measured by the doubly labeled water method. Averaged activity counts (counts.min(-1)) were compared with data on: 1) TEE, 2) AEE = TEE minus basal metabolic rate (BMR; estimated from predictive equations), and 3) daily physical activity level (PAL = TEE/BMR).

    RESULTS: Physical activity determined by activity counts was significantly related to the data on energy expenditures: TEE (r = 0.39; P < 0.05), AEE (r = 0.54; P < 0.01), and PAL (r = 0.58; P < 0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that TEE was significantly influenced by gender, body composition (body weight or fat free mass), and activity counts (R(2) = 0.54--0.60). AEE was significantly influenced by activity counts and gender (R(2) = 0.45). There were no significant differences between activity counts and PAL in discriminating among activity levels with "low" (PAL < 1.56), "moderate" (1.57 < or = PAL > or = 1.81), and "high" (PAL > 1.81) intensity.

    CONCLUSION: Activity counts from the CSA activity monitor seems to be a useful measure of the total amount of physical activity in 9-yr-old children. Activity counts contributed significantly to the explained variation in TEE and was the best predictor of AEE.

  • 5.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; MRC Epidemiology Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Yngve, Agneta
    PREVNUT at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Brage, Sören
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark .
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands .
    Sjöström, Michael
    PREVNUT at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Body movement and physical activity energy expenditure in children and adolescents: how to adjust for differences in body size and age2004In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 851-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity data in children and adolescents who differ in body size and age are influenced by whether physical activity is expressed in terms of body movement or energy expenditure.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether physical activity expressed as body movement (ie, accelerometer counts) differs from physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) as a function of body size and age.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in children [n = 26; (+/-SD) age: 9.6 +/- 0.3 y] and adolescents (n = 25; age: 17.6 +/- 1.5 y) in which body movement and total energy expenditure (TEE) were simultaneously measured with the use of accelerometry and the doubly labeled water method, respectively. PAEE was expressed as 1) unadjusted PAEE [TEE minus resting energy expenditure (REE); in MJ/d], 2) PAEE adjusted for body weight (BW) (PAEE. kg(-1). d(-1)), 3) PAEE adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) (PAEE. kg FFM(-1). d(-1)), and 4) the physical activity level (PAL = TEE/REE).

    RESULTS: Body movement was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in children than in adolescents. Similarly, when PAEE was normalized for differences in BW or FFM, it was significantly higher in children than in adolescents (P = 0.03). In contrast, unadjusted PAEE and PAL were significantly higher in adolescents (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: PAEE should be normalized for BW or FFM for comparison of physical activity between children and adolescents who differ in body size and age. Adjusting PAEE for FFM removes the confounding effect of sex, and therefore FFM may be the most appropriate body-composition variable for normalization of PAEE. Unadjusted PAEE and PAL depend on body size.

  • 6.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Total daily energy expenditure and patterns of physical activity in adolescents assessed by two different methods1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 257-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring and an activity diary were used simultaneously during three days in 30 randomly selected adolescents (16 boys, 14 girls; mean age 15.0+/-1.0). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components (energy expenditure during sleep, during rest and in physical activity) and times spent at different intensity levels (sedentary, light, moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity) were compared. TDEE from heart rate monitoring averaged 10.9+/-2.7 MJ x d(-1) compared to 11.3+/-2.3 MJ x d(-1) from the activity diary (NS). The limits of agreement (mean+/-2 SD) were -3.54 MJ x d(-1) and 2.74 MJ x d(-1). There was no significant difference for any of the TDEE components between the methods (MANOVA). A significant method effect (P<0.001) was observed for time spent in sedentary and light physical activity (MANOVA). No significant difference was observed for time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity. According to this, heart rate monitoring and activity diary are comparable for group assessment of TDEE and its components, and for estimating time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity. The activity diary underestimated time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity for inactive subjects and consequently overestimated highly active subjects.

  • 7.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro of University, Örebro, Sweden .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro of University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands .
    Field evaluation of the Computer Science and Application's Inc. Activity monitor during running and skating training in adolescent athletes2000In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 586-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the validity of the CSA activity monitor for assessment of the total amount of physical activity in adolescent athletes. Activity data were compared to data on daily energy expenditure and its derivatives measured by the doubly labeled water method. Seven athletes (speed skaters) with a mean age of 18.2+/-1.1 y were monitored twice (off-season and pre-season) by the activity monitor for eight consecutive days. The primary training during the off-season period was running whereas the pre-season period mainly involved skate training (i.e. inline skating, slideboard training, and skating imitations). Activity counts were significantly correlated to all energy estimates during the off-season period (r=0.93-0.96; P<0.01) whereas not during the pre-season period (r=0.32-0.57). A two-way multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant period effect for activity counts (668+/-163 vs. 548+/-91; P=0.026) whereas not for total daily energy expenditure (15.7+/-2.1 MJ x d(-1) vs. 16.0+/-1.0 MJ x d(-1); P=0.71). The relationship between activity counts and total daily energy expenditure seems to be affected by different training conditions. Therefore these circumstances have to be carefully considered in the interpretation of activity monitor data.

  • 8.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition at Novum, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition at Novum, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition at Novum, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy expenditure assessed by heart rate and doubly labeled water in young athletes2002In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1360-1366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To compare total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by the FLEX heart rate (HR) method with that measured by the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in young speed skaters. We hypothesized that the accuracy of FLEX HR-estimated TEE would be affected by a) the definition of the FLEX HR and b) the type of training regimen.

    METHODS: Eight young athletes (mean age 18.2 +/- 1.3 yr) underwent measurements during two 10-d training periods: an off-season period with voluntary training (predominantly running) and a preseason period mainly focused on skating technique training. TEE was measured simultaneously by the DLW and FLEX HR methods. FLEX HR1 was defined as the mean of the HRs during all resting calibration activities and the lowest HR during exercising calibration activities. FLEX HR2 was defined as the mean of the highest HR during resting activities and the lowest HR during exercising.

    RESULTS: ANOVA showed that FLEX HR1 was significantly lower than FLEX HR2 (mean of both periods; 77 +/- 5 vs 84 +/- 6 beats.min(-1); P = 0.004). TEE values obtained by DLW were 16.8 +/- 3.8 and 16.9 +/- 2.9 MJ.d(-1) in the two periods, respectively. TEE values calculated from FLEX HR1 were 17.8 +/- 3.6 and 17.4 +/- 2.6 MJ.d(-1), and those from FLEX HR2 17.1 +/- 3.1 and 17.0 +/- 2.7 MJ.d-1, respectively. No significant period (P = 0.83) or method (P = 0.44) effect on TEE was observed.

    CONCLUSION: FLEX HR-estimated TEE was not affected by the definition of the FLEX HR or by the type of training regimen as compared with TEE measured by the DLW method in young athletes.

  • 9.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; .
    Åman, Jan
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Renman, Cecilia
    Department of Pediatrics, Örebro Medical Center, Örebro, Sweden .
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition/Biosciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: a case-control study2002In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 935-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The influence of physical activity on body weight in children and adolescents is controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that the intensity and duration of physical activity differ between obese and normal-weight adolescents, with no difference in estimated energy expenditure.

    DESIGN: We compared physical activity in 18 (8 males, 10 females) obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > 30] adolescents (14-19 y) with that in a matched, normal-weight (BMI < 27) control group. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured with the doubly labeled water method, and physical activity was measured simultaneously by accelerometry. The physical activity level was determined as the ratio of TEE to the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity energy expenditure as 0.9 TEE minus RMR. Accelerometry data included total physical activity (counts x min(-1) x d(-1)), accumulated and continuous duration of activity, and continuous 10-min periods of physical activity of moderate intensity.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in adjusted (analysis of covariance) TEE, RMR, or AEE between groups. The physical activity level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the obese group. No sex x group interaction was observed. Differences in total physical activity (P < 0.001), accumulated time (P < 0.05), continuous time (P < 0.01), and continuous 10-min periods of physical activity of moderate intensity (P < 0.01) were observed between groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents are less physically active than are normal-weight adolescents, but physical activity-related energy expenditure is not significantly different between groups. The data suggest that physical activity is not necessarily equivalent to the energy costs of activity.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements2002In: Pediatric Exercise Science, ISSN 0899-8493, E-ISSN 1543-2920, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (a) the effect of five different time sampling intervals (epoch settings) on different intensity levels when assessing physical activity with an accelerometer (CSA, WAM 7164), and (b) whether the placement of the monitor (on the hip and back) would affect the outcome. Sixteen children (aged 7 yrs) were monitored for four consecutive days. A significant main epoch effect was found for time spent at very high (p < 01) and high (p < 01) intensity activities. No significant difference between the two placements regarding total amount of physical activity (cnts times mm super (-1)) or different intensity levels was observed. In conclusion, different time sampling intervals, but not placement, should be carefully considered when assessing physical activity.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Sjöström, Michael
    Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements2002In: Pediatric Exercise Science, ISSN 0899-8493, E-ISSN 1543-2920, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (a) the effect of five different time sampling intervals (epoch settings) on different intensity levels when assessing physical activity with an accelerometer (CSA, WAM 7164), and (b) whether the placement of the monitor (on the hip and back) would affect the outcome. Sixteen children (aged 7 yrs) were monitored for four consecutive days. A significant main epoch effect was found for time spent at very high (p < 01) and high (p < 01) intensity activities. No significant difference between the two placements regarding total amount of physical activity (cnts times mm super (-1)) or different intensity levels was observed. In conclusion, different time sampling intervals, but not placement, should be carefully considered when assessing physical activity.

  • 12.
    Sjöström, Michael
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Environmental planning and public health nutrition: interventions in Nordic communities2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Sjöström, Michael
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Environmental planning and public health nutrition: interventions in Nordic communities2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Sjöström, Michael
    et al.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för klinisk medicin.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    RISPA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Adolescent nutrition: a multidimensional challenge2003In: Modern aspects of nutrition: present knowledge and future perspectives / [ed] I. Elmadfa, E. Anklam, J. König, 2003, p. 253-254Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Social Marketing in Public Health Nutriton: also for Nordic countries?2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Social Marketing in Public Health Nutriton: also for Nordic countries?2001In: Physical activity: a part of healthy eating? : report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000 / [ed] Mikael Fogelholm, København, 2001, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjoström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Effect of monitor placement and of activity setting on the MTI accelerometer output2003In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of monitor placement (hip vs back) and of activity setting (treadmill vs track) on the output from the Manufacturing Technology Inc. (MTI), activity monitor (model WAM 7164).

    METHODS: In a laboratory study, 28 subjects (14 men, 14 women) walked at a normal pace, walked at a fast pace, and jogged at a comfortable pace on an indoor track. These activities were repeated on a treadmill using the individual speeds from the track locomotion. Oxygen uptake was measured simultaneously using a portable metabolic system. One activity monitor was worn on the hip and one on the lower back. In a field study, 34 subjects (18 men, 16 women) each wore two monitors (hip and low back placement) for seven consecutive days. In the laboratory study, ANOVA showed significant effects of placement ( P = 0.009) and setting ( P < 0.001), indicating that activity counts differ between different body sites and different settings (track vs treadmill). Gross energy expenditure predictive equations were developed and thereafter evaluated in the field study. Time spent at moderate and vigorous intensity of physical activity was 38% and 85% ( P < 0.001) higher when calculated from the treadmill-based equations as compared to the track-based equations. Free-living physical activity estimates were not affected by the placement.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between activity counts and energy expenditure during laboratory locomotion is placement and setting-specific. When habitual physical activity is assessed in free-living subjects, the treadmill derived relationship between energy expenditure and activity counts may overestimate time spent at moderate intensity of physical activity, whereas the placement of the monitor does not influence on the interpretation of the data.

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