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  • 1.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Harbin Inst Technol, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, MIIT Key Lab Crit Mat Technol New Energy Convers, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qiu, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Rojas González, Edgar Alonso
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic WO3 thin films attain unprecedented durability by potentiostatic pretreatment2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 2908-2918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic windows and glass facades are able to impart energy efficiency jointly with indoor comfort and convenience. Long-term durability is essential for practical implementation of this technology and has recently attracted broad interest. Here we show that a simple potentiostatic pretreatment of sputterdeposited thin films of amorphous WO3-the most widely studied electrochromic material-can yield unprecedented durability for charge exchange and optical modulation under harsh electrochemical cycling in a Li-ion-conducting electrolyte and effectively evades harmful trapping of Li. The pretreatment consisted of applying a voltage of 6.0 V vs. Li/Li+ for several hours to a film backed by a transparent conducting In2O3: Sn layer. Associated compositional and structural modifications were probed by several techniques, and improved durability was associated with elemental intermixing at the WO3/ITO and ITO/glass boundaries as well as with carbonaceous solid-electrolyte interfacial layers on the WO3 films. Our work provides important new insights into long-term durability of ion-exchange-based devices.

  • 2.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Thin films for indoor air monitoring: Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor air have adverse effects on the dwellers residing in a building or a vehicle. One of these effects is called sick building syndrome (SBS). SBS refers to situations in which the users of a building develop acute health effects and discomfort depending on the time they spend inside some buildings without having any specific illness. Furthermore, monitoring volatile organic compounds could lead to early diagnosis of specific illnesses through breath analysis. Among those VOCs formaldehyde, acetaldehyde can be listed.

    In this thesis, VOC detecting thin film sensors have been investigated. Such sensors have been manufactured using semiconducting metal oxides, ligand activated gold nanoparticles and Graphene/TiO2 mixtures. Advanced gas deposition unit, have been used to produce NiO thin films and Au nanoparticles. DC magnetron sputtering has been used to produce InSnO and VO2 thin film sensors. Graphene/TiO2 sensors have been manufactured using doctor-blading.

    While presenting the results, first, material characterization details are presented for each sensor, then, gas sensing results are presented. Morphologies, crystalline structures and chemical properties have been analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Furthermore, more detailed analyses have been performed on NiO samples using extended X-ray absorption fine structure method and N2 adsorption measurements. Gas sensing measurements were focused on monitoring formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. However, responses ethanol and methane were measured in some cases to monitor selectivity. Graphene/TiO2 samples were used to monitor NO2 and NH3. For NiO thin film sensors and Au nano particles, fluctuation enhanced gas sensing is also presented in addition to conductometric measurements. 

    List of papers
    1. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices / Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics, 2014, p. UNSP 012012-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 degrees C.

    Series
    Journal of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588 ; 559
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237084 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/559/1/012012 (DOI)000346420600012 ()
    Conference
    INERA Workshop on Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices / Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics, sep 4-6, 2014, Varna, Bulgaria
    Available from: 2014-11-26 Created: 2014-11-26 Last updated: 2016-10-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Nickel oxide thin film sensor for fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing of formaldehyde
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nickel oxide thin film sensor for fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing of formaldehyde
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE Sensors, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline nickel-oxide-based thin films were prepared by advanced reactive gas deposition, and the response of these films to formaldehyde was studied by fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Morphological and structural analyses showed porous deposits of nickel oxide particles with face-centered cubic structure. Resistance fluctuations were measured upon exposure to ethanol, formaldehyde and methane at 200 degrees C. Power density spectra were used to quantify the response. The response to formaldehyde was higher than to ethanol at 200 degrees C, and no significant response was observed for methane thus demonstrating some gas-species selectivity.

    Keywords
    nickel oxide; formaldehyde; gas sensor; fluctuation-enhanced sensing; gas evaporation
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268295 (URN)10.1109/ICSENS.2015.7370408 (DOI)000380440800240 ()9781479982035 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE Sensors Conference, Busan, Korea, November 1-4
    Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Characterization of porous Nickel Oxide Films produced with Advanced Reactive Gas Deposition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of porous Nickel Oxide Films produced with Advanced Reactive Gas Deposition
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302552 (URN)
    External cooperation:
    Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2016-09-20
    4. Fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with nanocrystalline NiO thin films: A comparison
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with nanocrystalline NiO thin films: A comparison
    Show others...
    (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302553 (URN)
    External cooperation:
    Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2016-09-20
    5. Sputter-Deposited Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sputter-Deposited Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In-Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 degrees C or 500 degrees C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 degrees C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 degrees C.

    Keywords
    indium tin oxide, magnetron sputtering, gas sensor, acetaldehyde
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299731 (URN)10.3390/coatings6020019 (DOI)000378428700006 ()
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 267234
    Available from: 2016-07-26 Created: 2016-07-26 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
    6. Fabrication of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles capped with dodecanethiol for Schottky-diode chemical gas sensing devices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles capped with dodecanethiol for Schottky-diode chemical gas sensing devices
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 239, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-pure monolayer-capped gold nanoparticles for chemical gas sensing devices were prepared by a novel two-step process: a physical vapour deposition technique was first employed to make dispersed ultra-pure size-controlled gold nanoparticles, and this step was followed by a coating process for functionalization of the gold nanoparticles with an organic ligand, specifically dodecanethiol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved that the nano-assemblies had high purity. Chemical sensing devices based on these nano-assemblies showed Schottky-diode behaviour. We believe this is the first observation of Schottky-diodes fabricated from nanomaterials based on metallic nanoparticles. Gas sensing experiments demonstrated that these devices were suitable for detecting volatile organic compounds.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302548 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2016.07.182 (DOI)000388951300056 ()
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 267234
    Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2017-09-28Bibliographically approved
    7. Fluctuation-enhanced sensing with organically functionalized gold nanoparticle gas sensors targeting biomedical applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluctuation-enhanced sensing with organically functionalized gold nanoparticle gas sensors targeting biomedical applications
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 160, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of volatile organic compounds is a useful approach to non-invasive diagnosis of diseases through breath analysis. Our experimental study presents a newly developed prototype gas sensor, based on organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and results on formaldehyde detection using fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing. Formaldehyde was easily detected via intense fluctuations of the gas sensor's resistance, while the cross-influence of ethanol vapor (a confounding factor in exhaled breath, related to alcohol consumption) was negligible.

    Keywords
    Organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles; Formaldehyde detection; Fluctuation enhanced sensing; Flicker noise
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302550 (URN)10.1016/j.talanta.2016.06.063 (DOI)000383524400002 ()27591581 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    EU, European Research Council, 267234
    Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
    8. Resistive gas sensors – Perspectives on selectivity and sensitivity improvement
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resistive gas sensors – Perspectives on selectivity and sensitivity improvement
    Show others...
    2016 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302554 (URN)
    Conference
    NANOfIM 2016
    Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lansåker, Pia C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Sputter-Deposited Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing2016In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In-Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 degrees C or 500 degrees C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 degrees C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 degrees C.

  • 4.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Sputter deposited thermochromic VO2 thin films for acetaldehyde and formaldehyde sensing.2014In: 5th International Symposium on Transparent Conductive Materials, 12-17 October 2014, Chania, Crete, Greece, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Calavia, R.
    Llobet, E.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ionescu, R.
    Gold Nanoparticle Thin Film Sensors for Formaldehyde Detection2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Characterization of nanocrystalline-nanoporous nickel oxide thin films prepared by reactive advanced gas deposition2019In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 227, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline-nanoporous Ni oxide is of much interest for gas sensors and other applications. Reactive advanced gas deposition (AGD) stands out as a particularly promising technique for making thin films of this material owing to the techniques ability to separate between the growth of individual nanoparticles and their subsequent deposition to create a consolidated material on a substrate. Here we report on the characterization of Ni oxide films, made by reactive AGD, by several methods. X-ray diffractometry showed that the films had a face centered cubic NiO structure, and scanning electron microscopy indicated a compact nanoparticulate composition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of Ni3+ and demonstrated that these states became less prominent upon heat treatment in air. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis elucidated the local atomic structure; in particular, data on interatomic distances and effects of annealing on local disorder showed that the Ni oxide nanoparticles crystallize upon annealing while maintaining their nanoparticle morphology, which is a crucial feature for reproducible fabrication of Ni oxide thin films for gas sensors. Importantly, several techniques demonstrated that grain growth remained modest for annealing temperatures as high as 400 degrees C for 1700-nm-thick films. The present article is a sequel to an earlier one [U. Cindemir et al., Sensors and Actuators B 242 (2017) 132-139] in which we reported on fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with Ni oxide films prepared by AGD.

  • 7.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gunnar, Niklasson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde2014In: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices / Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics, 2014, p. UNSP 012012-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 degrees C.

  • 8.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Porous Nickel Oxide Sensor for Formaldehyde Detection2014In: European Materials Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, Lille, France, May 26-30, 2014.: Symposium B: Advanced functional materials for environmental monitoring and applications., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound, which is a harmful indoor pollutant, causing sick building syndrome (SBS) and is released from household and building materials. Since higher concentrations of formaldehyde are considered to be carcinogenic, monitoring them indoors is of great importance. Advanced gas deposition has here been used to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes, and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology of the films was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, and the porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The particle size was found to be less than 10 nm, as determined by x-ray diffraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the NiO films was also done. Gas sensing measurements were done using a total gas flow rate of 200 ml/min. Resistivity values of sensors were recorded with formaldehyde diluted in synthetic air. Sensor resistances were recorded at 50 ppm, 25ppm, 10ppm and 5 ppm formaldehyde concentration. NiO films showed promising formaldehyde gas sensing properties implying lower levels of detection limit.

  • 9.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Trawka, Maciej
    Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
    Smulko, Janusz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, poland.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with nanocrystalline NiO thin films: A comparison2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 242, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline thin films of NiO were prepared by advanced reactive gas deposition, and their responses to formaldehyde, ethanol and methane gases were studied via fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric methods Thin films with thicknesses in the 200–1700-nm range were investigated in as-deposited form and after annealing at 400 and 500◦C. Morphological and structural analyses showed porous deposits with NiO nanocrystals having face-centered cubic structure. Quantitative changes in frequency-dependent resistance fluctuations as well as in DC resistance were recorded upon exposure to formaldehyde, ethanol and methane at 200◦C. The response to formaldehyde was higher than that to ethanol while the response to methane was low, which indicates that the NiO films exhibit significant selectivity towards different gaseous species. These results can be reconciled with the fact that formaldehyde has a nucleophilic group, ethanol is an electron scavenger, and methane is hard to either reduce or oxidize. The gas-induced variations in DC resistance and resistance fluctuations were in most cases similar and consistent.

  • 10.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Trawka, Maciej
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Gdansk, Poland.
    Smulko, Janusz M.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Gdansk, Poland.
    Nickel oxide thin film sensor for fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing of formaldehyde2015In: 2015 IEEE Sensors, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline nickel-oxide-based thin films were prepared by advanced reactive gas deposition, and the response of these films to formaldehyde was studied by fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Morphological and structural analyses showed porous deposits of nickel oxide particles with face-centered cubic structure. Resistance fluctuations were measured upon exposure to ethanol, formaldehyde and methane at 200 degrees C. Power density spectra were used to quantify the response. The response to formaldehyde was higher than to ethanol at 200 degrees C, and no significant response was observed for methane thus demonstrating some gas-species selectivity.

  • 11.
    Geremariam Welearegay, Tesfalem
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona 43007, Spain.;Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ionescu, Radu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona 43007, Spain..
    Fabrication and characterisation of ligand-functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticle nanoassemblies employing advanced gas deposition technique2018In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 29, no 6, article id 065603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report for the first time the fabrication of ligand-functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticles (Au, Cu, and Pt) from their pure metal precursors using the advanced gas deposition technique. The experimental conditions during nanoparticle formation were adjusted in order to obtain ultrafine isolated nanoparticles on different substrates. The morphology and surface analysis of the as-deposited metal nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, which demonstrated the formation of highly ordered pure crystalline nanoparticles with a relatively uniform size distribution of similar to 10 nm (Au), similar to 4 nm (Cu) and similar to 3 nm (Pt), respectively. A broad range of organic ligands containing thiol or amine functional groups were attached to the nanoparticles to form continuous networks of nanoparticle-ligand nanoassemblies, which were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical resistance of the functional nanoassemblies deposited in the gap spacing of two microfabricated parallel Au electrodes patterned on silicon substrates ranged between tens of k Omega and tens of M Omega, which is suitable for use in many applications including (bio)chemical sensors, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and molecular electronic rectifiers.

  • 12.
    Geremariam Welearegay, Tesfalem
    et al.
    Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona, Spain.
    Diouani, Mohamed Fethi
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Lab Epidemiol & Vet Microbiol, Inst Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint AB Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Borys, Sebastian
    Univ Ctr Maritime & Trop Med, Gdynia Redlowo, Poland.
    Khaled, Samira
    Charles Nicolle Hosp, Parasitol Mycol Lab, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Smadhi, Hanen
    Abderrahman Mami Hosp, Ibn Nafis Pneumol Dept, Ariana, Tunisia.
    Ionescu, Florina
    Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona, Spain.
    Bouchekoua, Meriam
    Charles Nicolle Hosp, Parasitol Mycol Lab, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Aloui, Dorsaf
    Charles Nicolle Hosp, Parasitol Mycol Lab, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Laouini, Dhafer
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Lab Transmiss Control & Immunobiol Infect, Inst Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint AB Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ionescu, Radu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Rovira & Virgili Univ, Dept Elect Elect & Automat Engn, Tarragona, Spain;Inst Macromol Chem Petru Poni, Iasi, Romania.
    Diagnosis of Human Echinococcosis via Exhaled Breath Analysis: A Promise for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases Caused by Helminths2019In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 219, no 1, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human echinococcosis is a neglected infectious disease affecting more than 1 million people globally. Its diagnosis is expensive and difficult because of lack of adequate resources in low-resource locations, where most cases occur.

    Methods: A group of volunteers diagnosed with the 2 main types of echinococcosis and corresponding control groups were recruited from hospitals in Tunisia (32 patients with cystic echinococcosis and 43 controls) and Poland (16 patients with alveolar echinococcosis and 8 controls). Breath samples were collected from all patients and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and a specifically developed electronic nose system.

    Results: The chemical analysis revealed statistically different concentrations of 2 compounds in the breath of patients with cystic echinococcosis compared to controls, and statistically different concentrations of 7 compounds in the breath of patients with alveolar echinococcosis compared to controls. The discrimination accuracy achieved by the electronic nose system was 100% for cystic echinococcosis and 92.9% for alveolar echinococcosis, while the discrimination accuracy between these 2 patient groups was 92.1%.

    Conclusion: Here we advocate a noninvasive, fast, easy-to-operate and nonexpensive diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of human echinococcosis disease through exhaled breath analysis, suitable for early diagnosis and population screening.

  • 13. Ionescu, R.
    et al.
    Geremariam, T.
    Calavia, R.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Llobet, E.
    Non-Invasive Diseases Diagnosis with Schottky Diode Chemical Gas Sensors Based on Ultra-Pure Monolayer-Capped Gold Nanoparticle Nano-Assemblies2016In: Abstracts: 2th, 2016, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ionescu, Radu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Welearegay, Tesfalem Geremariam
    Calavia, Raul
    Haddi, Zouhair
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Llobet, Eduard
    Fabrication of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles capped with dodecanethiol for Schottky-diode chemical gas sensing devices2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 239, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-pure monolayer-capped gold nanoparticles for chemical gas sensing devices were prepared by a novel two-step process: a physical vapour deposition technique was first employed to make dispersed ultra-pure size-controlled gold nanoparticles, and this step was followed by a coating process for functionalization of the gold nanoparticles with an organic ligand, specifically dodecanethiol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved that the nano-assemblies had high purity. Chemical sensing devices based on these nano-assemblies showed Schottky-diode behaviour. We believe this is the first observation of Schottky-diodes fabricated from nanomaterials based on metallic nanoparticles. Gas sensing experiments demonstrated that these devices were suitable for detecting volatile organic compounds.

  • 15.
    Lansåker, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films for Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Sensing2014In: Micronano System Workshop, Uppsala, Sweden, 15-16 May, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lentka, Lukasz
    et al.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Narutowicza 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland.
    Kotarski, Mateusz
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Narutowicza 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland.
    Smulko, Janusz
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Narutowicza 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Calavia, Raul
    Rovira & Virgily Univ, Dept Elect, Tarragona 43006, Spain.
    Ionescu, Radu
    Rovira & Virgily Univ, Dept Elect, Tarragona 43006, Spain.
    Fluctuation-enhanced sensing with organically functionalized gold nanoparticle gas sensors targeting biomedical applications2016In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 160, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of volatile organic compounds is a useful approach to non-invasive diagnosis of diseases through breath analysis. Our experimental study presents a newly developed prototype gas sensor, based on organically-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and results on formaldehyde detection using fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing. Formaldehyde was easily detected via intense fluctuations of the gas sensor's resistance, while the cross-influence of ethanol vapor (a confounding factor in exhaled breath, related to alcohol consumption) was negligible.

  • 17.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qiu, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochemical Rejuvenation of Anodically Coloring Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Thin Films2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, no 9, p. 42420-42424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel oxide thin films are of major importance as anodically coloring components in electrochromic smart windows with applications in energy-efficient buildings. However, the optical performance of these films degrades upon extended electrochemical cycling, which has hampered their implementation. Here, we use a potentiostatic treatment to rejuvenate degraded nickel oxide thin films immersed in electrolytes of LiClO4 in propylene carbonate. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis provided unambiguous evidence that both Li+ ions and chlorine-based ions participate in the rejuvenation process. Our work provides new perspectives for developing ion-exchange-based devices embodying nickel oxide.

  • 18. Smulko, J.
    et al.
    Trawka, M.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Resistive Gas Sensors: Perspectives on Selectivity and Sensitivity Improvement2016In: Abstracts, 2016, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Sobetkii, A. A.
    et al.
    National R&D Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Rumania.
    Piticescu, R. M.
    National R&D Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Rumania.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ulieru, D.
    National R&D Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Rumania.
    Rusti, C.F.
    National R&D Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Rumania.
    GD and DC Reactive Sputtering synthesis of WO3 thin films for gas sensors2016In: GD and DC Reactive Sputtering synthesis of WO3 thin films for gas sensors, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Welearegay, T. G.
    et al.
    Univ Rovira & Virgili, MiNoS, Ave Paisos Catalans 26, E-43007 Tarragona, Spain.;Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, Eksatravagen 130, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gualdron, O. E.
    Univ Pamplona, GISM, Pamplona Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Norte De Santander 543050, Colombia..
    Jaimes, A. L.
    Univ Pamplona, GISM, Pamplona Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Norte De Santander 543050, Colombia..
    Caceres, J. M.
    Univ Pamplona, GISM, Pamplona Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Norte De Santander 543050, Colombia..
    Pugliese, G.
    Univ Rovira & Virgili, MiNoS, Ave Paisos Catalans 26, E-43007 Tarragona, Spain.;Univ Pamplona, GISM, Pamplona Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Norte De Santander 543050, Colombia..
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, Eksatravagen 130, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Duran, C. M.
    Univ Pamplona, GISM, Pamplona Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Norte De Santander 543050, Colombia..
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Mol Fingerprint Sweden AB, Eksatravagen 130, S-75655 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ionescu, Radu
    Univ Rovira & Virgili, MiNoS, Ave Paisos Catalans 26, E-43007 Tarragona, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Caribe, Fac Engn, Barranquilla, Colombia..
    Ultrapure Organically Modified Gold Nanoparticles for Breath Analysis2016In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 168, p. 133-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present a new technological approach for the fabrication of ultrapure organically modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for chemical sensing applied to exhaled breath analysis. To achieve a high purity level of the sensing films, we combined Advanced Gas Deposition (AGD) technique to deposit ultrapure monodispersed AuNPs, and dip coating process for functionalization of the AuNPs with thiolated organic ligands. Morphology and surface analysis revealed the deposition of ultrapure isolated AuNPs after the first processing step, and a network of nanoparticle-ligand nanoassemblies after the second processing step. Gas sensing measurements were performed with exhaled breath samples collected from a group of smokers, a group of non-smokers, and ambient air. Sensors responses towards these samples demonstrated characteristic responses for each study group. PCA analysis further revealed samples classification in three distinct characteristic clusters, which indicates the suitability of the molecularly modified AuNPs presented in this communication for breath analysis applications.

  • 21.
    Welearegay, Tesfalem Geremariam
    et al.
    MINOS-EMaS, Department of Electronics, Electrical and Automatic Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona 43007, Spain.
    Diouani, Mohamed Fethi
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, LR11IPT03, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology (LEMV), University Tunis El Manar, Tunis-Belvédère 1002, Tunisia.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Molecular Fingerprint AB Sweden, Uppsala 75655, Sweden.
    Ionescu, Florina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. MINOS-EMaS, Department of Electronics, Electrical and Automatic Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona 43007, Spain.
    Belgacem, Kamel
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, LR11IPT03, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology (LEMV), University Tunis El Manar, Tunis-Belvédère 1002, Tunisia.
    Smadhi, Hanen
    Ibn Nafis Pneumology Department, Abderrahman Mami Hospital, Ariana 2080, Tunisia.
    Khaled, Samira
    Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Rue 9 Avril 1938, Tunis 1006, Tunisia.
    Kidar, Abdelhamid
    Regional Hospital Houssine Bouzaiene of Gafsa, Gafsa Douali 2100, Tunisia.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Molecular Fingerprint AB Sweden, Uppsala 75655, Sweden.
    Laouini, Dhafer
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, LR11IPT02, Laboratory of Transmission, Control and Immunobiology of Infections (LTCII), University Tunis El Manar, Tunis-Belvédère 1002, Tunisia.
    Ionescu, Radu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. MINOS-EMaS, Department of Electronics, Electrical and Automatic Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona 43007, Spain.
    Ligand-Capped Ultrapure Metal Nanoparticle Sensors for the Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Disease in Exhaled Breath2018In: ACS Sensors, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 2532-2540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis, although designated as one of the most neglected tropical diseases, remains underestimated due to its misdiagnosis. The diagnosis is mainly based on the microscopic detection of amastigote forms, isolation of the parasite, or the detection of LeishmaniaDNA, in addition to its differential clinical characterization; these tools are not always available in routine daily practice, and they are expensive and time-consuming. Here, we present a simple-to-use, noninvasive approach for human cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis, which is based on the analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath with an array of specifically designed chemical gas sensors. The study was realized on a group of n = 28 volunteers diagnosed with human cutaneous leishmaniasis and a group of n = 32 healthy controls, recruited in various sites from Tunisia, an endemic country of the disease. The classification success rate of human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients achieved by our sensors test was 98.2% accuracy, 96.4% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. Remarkably, one of the sensors, based on CuNPs functionalized with 2-mercaptobenzoxazole, yielded 100% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, and 100% specificity for human cutaneous leishmaniasis discrimination. While AuNPs have been the most extensively used in metal nanoparticle–ligand sensing films for breath sensing, our results demonstrate that chemical sensors based on ligand-capped CuNPs also hold great potential for breath volatile organic compounds detection. Additionally, the chemical analysis of the breath samples with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry identified nine putative breath biomarkers for human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

1 - 21 of 21
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