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  • 1. Agapitov, Oleksiy
    et al.
    Artemyev, Anton
    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Mourenas, Didier
    Breuillard, Hugo
    Balikhin, Michael
    Rolland, Guy
    Statistics of whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belt: Cluster STAFF-SA measurements2013In: Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, Vol. 118, no 6, 3407-3420 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ELF/VLF waves play a crucial role in the dynamics of the radiation belts and are partly responsible for the main losses and the acceleration of energetic electrons. Modeling wave-particle interactions requires detailed information of wave amplitudes and wave normal distribution over L-shells and over magnetic latitudes for different geomagnetic activity conditions. We performed a statistical study of ELF/VLF emissions using wave measurements in the whistler frequency range for 10years (2001-2010) aboard Cluster spacecraft. We utilized data from the STAFF-SA experiment, which spans the frequency range from 8Hz to 4kHz. We present distributions of wave magnetic and electric field amplitudes and wave normal directions as functions of magnetic latitude, magnetic local time, L-shell, and geomagnetic activity. We show that wave normals are directed approximately along the background magnetic field (with the mean value of the angle between the wave normal and the background magnetic field, about 10 degrees-15 degrees) in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. The distribution changes with magnetic latitude: Plasmaspheric hiss normal angles increase with latitude to quasi-perpendicular direction at approximate to 35 degrees-40 degrees where hiss can be reflected; lower band chorus are observed as two wave populations: One population of wave normals tends toward the resonance cone and at latitudes of around 35 degrees-45 degrees wave normals become nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field; the other part remains quasi-parallel at latitudes up to 30 degrees. The observed angular distribution is significantly different from Gaussian, and the width of the distribution increases with latitude. Due to the rapid increase of , the wave mode becomes quasi-electrostatic, and the corresponding electric field increases with latitude and has a maximum near 30 degrees. The magnetic field amplitude of the chorus in the day sector has a minimum at the magnetic equator but increases rapidly with latitude with a local maximum near 12 degrees-15 degrees. The wave magnetic field maximum is observed in the night sector at L>7 during low geomagnetic activity (at L approximate to 5 for K-p>3). Our results confirm the strong dependence of wave amplitude on geomagnetic activity found in earlier studies.

  • 2. Agapitov, Oleksiy
    et al.
    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Rolland, Guy
    A statistical study of the propagation characteristics of whistler waves observed by Cluster2011In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 38, L20103- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    VLF waves play a crucial role in the dynamics of radiation belts, and are responsible for the loss and the acceleration of energetic electrons. Modeling wave-particle interactions requires the best possible knowledge for how wave energy and wave-normal directions are distributed in L-shells and for the magnetic latitudes of different magnetic activity conditions. In this work, we performed a statistical study for VLF emissions using a whistler frequency range for nine years (2001-2009) of Cluster measurements. We utilized data from the STAFF-SA experiment, which spans the frequency range from 8.8 Hz to 3.56 kHz. We show that the wave energy distribution has two maxima around L similar to 4.5 = 6 and L similar to 2, and that wave-normals are directed approximately along the magnetic field in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. The distribution changes with magnetic latitude, and so that at latitudes of similar to 30 degrees, wave-normals become nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observed angular distribution is significantly different from Gaussian and the width of the distribution increases with latitude. Since the resonance condition for wave-particle interactions depends on the wave normal orientation, our results indicate that, due to the observed change in the wave-normal direction with latitude, the most efficient particle diffusion due to wave-particle interaction should occur in a limited region surrounding the geomagnetic equator.

  • 3.
    Alm, L.
    et al.
    Univ New Hampshire, Space Sci Ctr, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Argall, M. R.
    Univ New Hampshire, Space Sci Ctr, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Space Sci Ctr, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Farrugia, C. J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Space Sci Ctr, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, IGPP EPSS, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, IGPP EPSS, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Marklund, G. T.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Shuster, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Coll Comp Math & Nat Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    EDR signatures observed by MMS in the 16 October event presented in a 2-D parametric space2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 3, 3262-3276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for mapping the position of satellites relative to the X line using the measured B-L and B-N components of the magnetic field and apply it to the Magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) encounter with the electron diffusion region (EDR) which occurred on 13:07 UT on 16 October 2015. Mapping the data to our parametric space succeeds in capturing many of the signatures associated with magnetic reconnection and the electron diffusion region. This offers a method for determining where in the reconnection region the satellites were located. In addition, parametric mapping can also be used to present data from numerical simulations. This facilitates comparing data from simulations with data from in situ observations as one can avoid the complicated process using boundary motion analysis to determine the geometry of the reconnection region. In parametric space we can identify the EDR based on the collocation of several reconnection signatures, such as electron nongyrotropy, electron demagnetization, parallel electric fields, and energy dissipation. The EDR extends 2-3km in the normal direction and in excess of 20km in the tangential direction. It is clear that the EDR occurs on the magnetospheric side of the topological X line, which is expected in asymmetric reconnection. Furthermore, we can observe a north-south asymmetry, where the EDR occurs north of the peak in out-of-plane current, which may be due to the small but finite guide field.

  • 4.
    Andriopoulou, M.
    et al.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Inst Study Earth Oceans & Space, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Dorelli, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    SW Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Study of the spacecraft potential under active control and plasma density estimates during the MMS commissioning phase2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 10, 4858-4864 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each spacecraft of the recently launched magnetospheric multiscale MMS mission is equipped with Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) instruments, which control the spacecraft potential in order to reduce spacecraft charging effects. ASPOC typically reduces the spacecraft potential to a few volts. On several occasions during the commissioning phase of the mission, the ASPOC instruments were operating only on one spacecraft at a time. Taking advantage of such intervals, we derive photoelectron curves and also perform reconstructions of the uncontrolled spacecraft potential for the spacecraft with active control and estimate the electron plasma density during those periods. We also establish the criteria under which our methods can be applied.

  • 5.
    André, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Li, Wenya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Toledo-Redondo, S.
    European Space Agcy ESAC, Madrid, Spain..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Graham, Daniel B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Norgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    Burch, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, G.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ergun, R.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Torbert, R.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Giles, B.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Chandler, M. O.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL USA..
    Pollock, C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Young, D. T.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Saito, Y.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, JAXA, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan..
    Magnetic reconnection and modification of the Hall physics due to cold ions at the magnetopause2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 13, 6705-6712 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft are used to investigate the Hall physics of a magnetopause magnetic reconnection separatrix layer. Inside this layer of currents and strong normal electric fields, cold (eV) ions of ionospheric origin can remain frozen-in together with the electrons. The cold ions reduce the Hall current. Using a generalized Ohm's law, the electric field is balanced by the sum of the terms corresponding to the Hall current, the vxB drifting cold ions, and the divergence of the electron pressure tensor. A mixture of hot and cold ions is common at the subsolar magnetopause. A mixture of length scales caused by a mixture of ion temperatures has significant effects on the Hall physics of magnetic reconnection.

  • 6. Berthomier, M.
    et al.
    Fazakerley, A. N.
    Forsyth, C.
    Pottelette, R.
    Alexandrova, O.
    Anastasiadis, A.
    Aruliah, A.
    Blelly, P. -L
    Briand, C.
    Bruno, R.
    Canu, P.
    Cecconi, B.
    Chust, T.
    Daglis, I.
    Davies, J.
    Dunlop, M.
    Fontaine, D.
    Genot, V.
    Gustavsson, B.
    Haerendel, G.
    Hamrin, M.
    Hapgood, M.
    Hess, S.
    Kataria, D.
    Kauristie, K.
    Kemble, S.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Koskinen, H.
    Lamy, L.
    Lanchester, B.
    Louarn, P.
    Lucek, E.
    Lundin, R.
    Maksimovic, M.
    Manninen, J.
    Marchaudon, A.
    Marghitu, O.
    Marklund, G.
    Milan, S.
    Moen, J.
    Mottez, F.
    Nilsson, H.
    Ostgaard, N.
    Owen, C. J.
    Parrot, M.
    Pedersen, A.
    Perry, C.
    Pincon, J. -L
    Pitout, F.
    Pulkkinen, T.
    Rae, I. J.
    Rezeau, L.
    Roux, A.
    Sandahl, I.
    Sandberg, I.
    Turunen, E.
    Vogt, J.
    Walsh, A.
    Watt, C. E. J.
    Wild, J. A.
    Yamauchi, M.
    Zarka, P.
    Zouganelis, I.
    Alfven: magnetosphere-ionosphere connection explorers2012In: Experimental astronomy (Print), ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 33, no 2-3, 445-489 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aurorae are dynamic, luminous displays that grace the night skies of Earth's high latitude regions. The solar wind emanating from the Sun is their ultimate energy source, but the chain of plasma physical processes leading to auroral displays is complex. The special conditions at the interface between the solar wind-driven magnetosphere and the ionospheric environment at the top of Earth's atmosphere play a central role. In this Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR) persistent electric fields directed along the magnetic field accelerate magnetospheric electrons to the high energies needed to excite luminosity when they hit the atmosphere. The "ideal magnetohydrodynamics" description of space plasmas which is useful in much of the magnetosphere cannot be used to understand the AAR. The AAR has been studied by a small number of single spacecraft missions which revealed an environment rich in wave-particle interactions, plasma turbulence, and nonlinear acceleration processes, acting on a variety of spatio-temporal scales. The pioneering 4-spacecraft Cluster magnetospheric research mission is now fortuitously visiting the AAR, but its particle instruments are too slow to allow resolve many of the key plasma physics phenomena. The Alfv,n concept is designed specifically to take the next step in studying the aurora, by making the crucial high-time resolution, multi-scale measurements in the AAR, needed to address the key science questions of auroral plasma physics. The new knowledge that the mission will produce will find application in studies of the Sun, the processes that accelerate the solar wind and that produce aurora on other planets.

  • 7.
    Breuillard, H.
    et al.
    CNRS, LPP, UMR, Paris, France..
    Le Contel, O.
    CNRS, LPP, UMR, Paris, France..
    Retino, A.
    CNRS, LPP, UMR, Paris, France..
    Chasapis, A.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Chust, T.
    CNRS, LPP, UMR, Paris, France..
    Mirioni, L.
    CNRS, LPP, UMR, Paris, France..
    Graham, Daniel B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Cohen, I.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Royal Inst Technol, Alfven Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, G. T.
    Royal Inst Technol, Alfven Lab, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Macri, J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Needell, J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Chutter, M.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Rau, D.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Dors, I.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IWF, Graz, Austria..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Bromund, K. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IWF, Graz, Austria..
    Fischer, D.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IWF, Graz, Austria..
    Leinweber, H. K.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Anderson, B. J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Le, G.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Slavin, J. A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Climate & Space Sci & Engn, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kepko, E. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IWF, Graz, Austria..
    Mauk, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Fuselier, S. A.
    Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Phys & Astron, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst IWF, Graz, Austria..
    Multispacecraft analysis of dipolarization fronts and associated whistler wave emissions using MMS data2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 14, 7279-7286 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs), embedded in bursty bulk flows, play a crucial role in Earth's plasma sheet dynamics because the energy input from the solar wind is partly dissipated in their vicinity. This dissipation is in the form of strong low-frequency waves that can heat and accelerate energetic electrons up to the high-latitude plasma sheet. However, the dynamics of DF propagation and associated low-frequency waves in the magnetotail are still under debate due to instrumental limitations and spacecraft separation distances. In May 2015 the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission was in a string-of-pearls configuration with an average intersatellite distance of 160km, which allows us to study in detail the microphysics of DFs. Thus, in this letter we employ MMS data to investigate the properties of dipolarization fronts propagating earthward and associated whistler mode wave emissions. We show that the spatial dynamics of DFs are below the ion gyroradius scale in this region (approximate to 500km), which can modify the dynamics of ions in the vicinity of the DF (e.g., making their motion nonadiabatic). We also show that whistler wave dynamics have a temporal scale of the order of the ion gyroperiod (a few seconds), indicating that the perpendicular temperature anisotropy can vary on such time scales.

  • 8.
    Burch, J. L.
    et al.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Chen, L. -J
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    W Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Argall, M. R.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Wang, S.
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hesse, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Mauk, B. H.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Fuselier, S. A.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Drake, J. F.
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Shay, M. A.
    Univ Delaware, Newark, DE USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Marklund, G.
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Young, D. T.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Goldstein, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Oka, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Baker, D. N.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Jaynes, A. N.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Cohen, I. J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Turner, D. L.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Fennell, J. F.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Blake, J. B.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Clemmons, J.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Goldman, M.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Newman, D.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Petrinec, S. M.
    Lockheed Martin Adv Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA USA..
    Trattner, K. J.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France..
    Reiff, P. H.
    Rice Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Houston, TX USA..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Steller, M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Lewis, W.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Saito, Y.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229, Japan..
    Coffey, V.
    NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA..
    Chandler, M.
    NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA..
    Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 352, no 6290, 1189-+ p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

  • 9. Chasapis, A.
    et al.
    Retino, A.
    Sahraoui, F.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Sundkvist, D.
    Greco, A.
    Sorriso-Valvo, L.
    Canu, P.
    Thin Current Sheets and Associated Electron Heating in Turbulent Space Plasma2015In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 804, no 1, L1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent structures, such as thin current sheets, are abundant in turbulent plasmas. Numerical simulations indicate that such current sheets are important sites of energy dissipation and particle heating occurring at kinetic scales. However, direct evidence of dissipation and associated heating within current sheets is scarce. Here, we show a new statistical study of local electron heating within proton-scale current sheets by using high-resolution spacecraft data. Current sheets are detected using the Partial Variance of Increments (PVI) method which identifies regions of strong intermittency. We find that strong electron heating occurs in high PVI (>3) current sheets while no significant heating occurs in low PVI cases (<3), indicating that the former are dominant for energy dissipation. Current sheets corresponding to very high PVI (>5) show the strongest heating and most of the time are consistent with ongoing magnetic reconnection. This suggests that reconnection is important for electron heating and dissipation at kinetic scales in turbulent plasmas.

  • 10.
    Chasapis, Alexandros
    et al.
    Univ Delaware, Newark, DC USA..
    Matthaeus, W. H.
    Univ Delaware, Newark, DC USA..
    Parashar, T. N.
    Univ Delaware, Newark, DC USA..
    LeContel, O.
    Lab Phys Plasmas, Paris, France..
    Retino, A.
    Lab Phys Plasmas, Paris, France..
    Breuillard, H.
    Lab Phys Plasmas, Paris, France..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse UPS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Plantol, Toulouse, France.;Ctr Natl Rech Sci, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Eriksson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Marklund, G.
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Chutter, M.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Needell, J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Rau, D.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Dors, I.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Le, G.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Bromund, K. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Leinweber, H. K.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Fischer, D.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Anderson, B. J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Dorelli, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Saito, Y.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Electron Heating at Kinetic Scales in Magnetosheath Turbulence2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, no 2, 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a statistical study of coherent structures at kinetic scales, using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the Earth's magnetosheath. We implemented the multi-spacecraft partial variance of increments (PVI) technique to detect these structures, which are associated with intermittency at kinetic scales. We examine the properties of the electron heating occurring within such structures. We find that, statistically, structures with a high PVI index are regions of significant electron heating. We also focus on one such structure, a current sheet, which shows some signatures consistent with magnetic reconnection. Strong parallel electron heating coincides with whistler emissions at the edges of the current sheet.

  • 11. Chen, L. -J
    et al.
    Hesse, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Wang, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Gershman, D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Burch, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Bessho, N.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Giles, B.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Webster, J.
    Rice Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Houston, TX USA..
    Pollock, C.
    Denali Sci, Healy, AK USA..
    Dorelli, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Moore, T.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Paterson, W.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Strangeway, R.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Russell, C.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Avanov, L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Electron diffusion region during magnetopause reconnection with an intermediate guide field: Magnetospheric multiscale observations2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 5, 5235-5246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electron diffusion region (EDR) in magnetic reconnection with a guide magnetic field approximately 0.2 times the reconnecting component is encountered by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft at the Earth's magnetopause. The distinct substructures in the EDR on both sides of the reconnecting current sheet are visualized with electron distribution functions that are 2 orders of magnitude higher cadence than ever achieved to enable the following new findings: (1) Motion of the demagnetized electrons plays an important role to sustain the reconnection current and contributes to the dissipation due to the nonideal electric field, (2) the finite guide field dominates over the Hall magnetic field in an electron-scale region in the exhaust and modifies the electron flow dynamics in the EDR, (3) the reconnection current is in part carried by inflowing field-aligned electrons in the magnetosphere part of the EDR, and (4) the reconnection electric field measured by multiple spacecraft is uniform over at least eight electron skin depths and corresponds to a reconnection rate of approximately 0.1. The observations establish the first look at the structure of the EDR under a weak but not negligible guide field.

  • 12.
    Chen, Li-Jen
    et al.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hesse, Michael
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Wang, Shan
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Gershman, Daniel
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Ergun, Robert
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Pollock, Craig
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Torbert, Roy
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Bessho, Naoki
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Daughton, William
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Dorelli, John
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Giles, Barbara
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Strangeway, Robert
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Russell, Christopher
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Burch, Jim
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Moore, Thomas
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Lavraud, Benoit
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Plantol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, Toulouse, France..
    Phan, Tai
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Avanov, Levon
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Electron energization and mixing observed by MMS in the vicinity of an electron diffusion region during magnetopause reconnection2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 12, 6036-6043 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission are reported to show distinct features of electron energization and mixing in the diffusion region of the terrestrial magnetopause reconnection. At the ion jet and magnetic field reversals, distribution functions exhibiting signatures of accelerated meandering electrons are observed at an electron out-of-plane flow peak. The meandering signatures manifested as triangular and crescent structures are established features of the electron diffusion region (EDR). Effects of meandering electrons on the electric field normal to the reconnection layer are detected. Parallel acceleration and mixing of the inflowing electrons with exhaust electrons shape the exhaust flow pattern. In the EDR vicinity, the measured distribution functions indicate that locally, the electron energization and mixing physics is captured by two-dimensional reconnection, yet to account for the simultaneous four-point measurements, translational invariant in the third dimension must be violated on the ion-skin-depth scale.

  • 13.
    Divin, A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Markidis, S.
    Lapenta, G.
    Evolution of the lower hybrid drift instability at reconnection jet front2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 4, 2675-2690 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate current-driven modes developing at jet fronts during collisionless reconnection. Initial evolution of the reconnection is simulated using conventional 2-D setup starting from the Harris equilibrium. Three-dimensional PIC calculations are implemented at later stages, when fronts are fully formed. Intense currents and enhanced wave activity are generated at the fronts because of the interaction of the fast flow plasma and denser ambient current sheet plasma. The study reveals that the lower hybrid drift instability develops quickly in the 3-D simulation. The instability produces strong localized perpendicular electric fields, which are several times larger than the convective electric field at the front, in agreement with Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. The instability generates waves, which escape the front edge and propagate into the undisturbed plasma ahead of the front. The parallel electron pressure is substantially larger in the 3-D simulation compared to that of the 2-D. In a time similar to Omega(-1)(ci), the instability forms a layer, which contains a mixture of the jet plasma and current sheet plasma. The results confirm that the lower hybrid drift instability is important for the front evolution and electron energization.

  • 14.
    Divin, Andrey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lower hybrid drift instability at a dipolarization front2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 2, 1124-1132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations of a reconnection jet front detected by the Cluster satellites in the magnetotail of Earth, which are commonly referred to as dipolarization fronts. We investigate in detail electric field structures observed at the front which have frequency in the lower hybrid range and amplitudes reaching 40mV/m. We determine the frequency and phase velocity of these structures in the reference frame of the front and identify them as a manifestation of the lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) excited at the sharp density gradient at the front. The LHDI is observed in the nonlinear stage of its evolution as the electrostatic potential of the structures is comparable to approximate to 10% of the electron temperature. The front appears to be a coherent structure on ion and MHD scales, suggesting existence of a dynamic equilibrium between excitation of the LHDI and recovery of the steep density gradient at the front.

  • 15.
    Divin, Andrey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Toledo-Redondo, S.
    European Space Agcy, ESAC, Sci Directorate, Madrid, Spain..
    Markidis, S.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Computat Sci & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lapenta, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ctr Math Plasma Astrophys, Dept Math, Leuven, Belgium..
    Three-scale structure of diffusion region in the presence of cold ions2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 12, 12001-12013 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinetic simulations and spacecraft observations typically display the two-scale structure of collisionless diffusion region (DR), with electron and ion demagnetization scales governing the spatial extent of the DR. Recent in situ observations of the nightside magnetosphere, as well as investigation of magnetic reconnection events at the Earth's magnetopause, discovered the presence of a population of cold (tens of eV) ions of ionospheric origin. We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection in multicomponent plasma with ions consisting of hot and cold populations. We show that a new cold ion diffusion region scale is introduced in between that of hot ions and electrons. Demagnetization scale of cold ion population is several times (similar to 4-8) larger than the initial cold ion gyroradius. Cold ions are accelerated and thermalized during magnetic reconnection and form ion beams moving with velocities close to the Alfven velocity.

  • 16.
    Eastwood, J. P.
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    W Virginia Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Haggerty, C.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Malakit, K.
    Mahidol Univ, Dept Phys, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Shay, M. A.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Mistry, R.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Oieroset, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Slavin, J. A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Climate & Space Sci & Engn, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Argall, M. R.
    Univ New Hampshire, Inst Study Earth Oceans & Space, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    SW Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Chen, L. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Lindqvist, P. A.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Paterson, W.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pollock, C.
    Denali Sci, Healy, AK USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Inst Study Earth Oceans & Space, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;SW Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Wang, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Ion-scale secondary flux ropes generated by magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 10, 4716-4724 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small-scale (similar to 7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 10 km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (similar to 22 kWb). The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. Intercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non-frozen-in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle-in-cell simulation. It is concluded that these small-scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection.

  • 17.
    Ergun, R. E.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Holmes, J. C.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Stawarz, J. E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Eriksson, S.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Sturner, A. P.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Usanova, M. E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Hesse, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Chen, L. J.
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Lapenta, G.
    Leuven Univ, Leuven, Belgium..
    Goldman, M. V.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Newman, D. L.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Schwartz, S. J.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Mozer, F. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Drake, J.
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Shay, M. A.
    Univ Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    W Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Marklund, G.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection2016In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 116, no 23, 235102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E-vertical bar vertical bar) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E-vertical bar vertical bar events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100 mV/m, which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E-vertical bar vertical bar events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E-vertical bar vertical bar events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields.

  • 18.
    Ergun, R. E.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Holmes, J. C.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Stawarz, J. E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eriksson, S.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Newman, D. L.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Schwartz, S. J.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Goldman, M. V.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Sturner, A. P.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Malaspina, D. M.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Usanova, M. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Argall, M.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Lindqvist, P-A
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Dorelli, J. J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Hesse, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Chen, L. J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, Toulouse, France..
    Le Contel, O.
    Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Retino, A.
    Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Oieroset, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Drake, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Shay, M. A.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    West Virginia Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Morgantown, WV USA..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Zhou, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Ashour-Abdalla, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Andre, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 11, 5626-5634 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of large-amplitude, parallel, electrostatic waves associated with magnetic reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause. The observed waves have parallel electric fields (E-||) with amplitudes on the order of 100mV/m and display nonlinear characteristics that suggest a possible net E-||. These waves are observed within the ion diffusion region and adjacent to (within several electron skin depths) the electron diffusion region. They are in or near the magnetosphere side current layer. Simulation results support that the strong electrostatic linear and nonlinear wave activities appear to be driven by a two stream instability, which is a consequence of mixing cold (<10eV) plasma in the magnetosphere with warm (similar to 100eV) plasma from the magnetosheath on a freshly reconnected magnetic field line. The frequent observation of these waves suggests that cold plasma is often present near the magnetopause.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Graham, Daniel. B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Yordanova, Emiliya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Hietala, H.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Saito, Y.
    JAXA, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Russell, C.
    Torbert, R.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Ergun, R.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lindqvist, P-A
    Burch, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Strong current sheet at a magnetosheath jet: Kinetic structure and electron acceleration2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 10, 9608-9618 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Localized kinetic-scale regions of strong current are believed to play an important role in plasma thermalization and particle acceleration in turbulent plasmas. We present a detailed study of a strong localized current, 4900 nA m(-2), located at a fast plasma jet observed in the magnetosheath downstream of a quasi-parallel shock. The thickness of the current region is similar to 3 ion inertial lengths and forms at a boundary separating magnetosheath-like and solar wind-like plasmas. On ion scales the current region has the shape of a sheet with a significant average normal magnetic field component but shows strong variations on smaller scales. The dynamic pressure within the magnetosheath jet is over 3 times the solar wind dynamic pressure. We suggest that the current sheet is forming due to high velocity shears associated with the jet. Inside the current sheet we observe local electron acceleration, producing electron beams, along the magnetic field. However, there is no clear sign of ongoing reconnection. At higher energies, above the beam energy, we observe a loss cone consistent with part of the hot magnetosheath-like electrons escaping into the colder solar wind-like plasma. This suggests that the acceleration process within the current sheet is similar to the one that occurs at shocks, where electron beams and loss cones are also observed. Therefore, electron beams observed in the magnetosheath do not have to originate from the bow shock but can also be generated locally inside the magnetosheath.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyayintsev, V. M.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Dept Theoret Phys, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Andre, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Statistics and accuracy of magnetic null identification in multispacecraft data2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, 6883-6889 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex magnetic topologies are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas. Analyzing magnetic nulls, regions of vanishing magnetic field, is one way to characterize 3-D magnetic topologies. Magnetic nulls are believed to be important in 3-D reconnection and turbulence. In the vicinity of a null, plasma particles become unmagnetized and can be accelerated to high energies by electric fields. We present the first statistical study of the occurrence of magnetic nulls and their types in the Earth's nightside magnetosphere. We are able to identify the nulls both in the tail and in the magnetopause current sheets. On average, we find one null for every few current sheet crossings. We show that the type identification of magnetic nulls may be sensitive to local fluctuations in the magnetic field. We develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reliability of the magnetic null type identification.

  • 21. Eriksson, S.
    et al.
    Lapenta, G.
    Newman, D. L.
    Phan, T. D.
    Gosling, J. T.
    Lavraud, B.
    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Carr, C. M.
    Markidis, S.
    Goldman, M. V.
    On Multiple Reconnection X-Lines and Tripolar Perturbations of Strong Guide Magnetic Fields2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 805, no 1, 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report new multi-spacecraft Cluster observations of tripolar guide magnetic field perturbations at a solar wind reconnection exhaust in the presence of a guide field B-M. which is almost four times as strong as the reversing field B-L. The novel tripolar field consists of two narrow regions of depressed B-M, with an observed 7%-14% Delta B-M magnitude relative to the external field, which are found adjacent to a wide region of enhanced BM within the exhaust. A stronger reversing field is associated with each B-M depression. A kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions and the observed strong guide field reveals that tripolar magnetic fields preferentially form across current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as magnetic islands approach one another and merge into fewer and larger islands. The simulated Delta B-M/Delta X-N over the normal width Delta X-N between a B-M minimum and the edge of the external region agree with the normalized values observed by Cluster. We propose that a tripolar guide field perturbation may be used to identify candidate regions containing multiple X-lines and interacting magnetic islands at individual solar wind current sheets with a strong guide field.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, S.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Stawarz, J. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Saito, Y.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Schwartz, S. J.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Avanov, L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Grimes, E.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Vernisse, Y.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Sturner, A. P.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Marklund, G. T.
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of magnetic reconnection associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz waves2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 11, 5606-5615 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft recorded the first direct evidence of reconnection exhausts associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves at the duskside magnetopause on 8 September 2015 which allows for local mass and energy transport across the flank magnetopause. Pressure anisotropy-weighted Walen analyses confirmed in-plane exhausts across 22 of 42 KH-related trailing magnetopause current sheets (CSs). Twenty-one jets were observed by all spacecraft, with small variations in ion velocity, along the same sunward or antisunward direction with nearly equal probability. One exhaust was only observed by the MMS-1,2 pair, while MMS-3,4 traversed a narrow CS (1.5 ion inertial length) in the vicinity of an electron diffusion region. The exhausts were locally 2-D planar in nature as MMS-1,2 observed almost identical signatures separated along the guide-field. Asymmetric magnetic and electric Hall fields are reported in agreement with a strong guide-field and a weak plasma density asymmetry across the magnetopause CS.

  • 23.
    Farrugia, C. J.
    et al.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, Toulouse, France..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Argall, M.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Kacem, I.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys, Toulouse, France..
    Yu, W.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Alm, L.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Burch, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Shuster, J.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Dorelli, J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Fuselier, S.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.;Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Space Sci, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Gershman, D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Matsui, H.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Marklund, G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Phan, T. D.
    Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA USA..
    Paulson, K.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Pollock, C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission observations and non-force free modeling of a flux transfer event immersed in a super-Alfvenic flow2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 12, 6070-6077 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze plasma, magnetic field, and electric field data for a flux transfer event (FTE) to highlight improvements in our understanding of these transient reconnection signatures resulting from high-resolution data. The similar to 20 s long, reverse FTE, which occurred south of the geomagnetic equator near dusk, was immersed in super-Alfvenic flow. The field line twist is illustrated by the behavior of flows parallel/perpendicular to the magnetic field. Four-spacecraft timing and energetic particle pitch angle anisotropies indicate a flux rope (FR) connected to the Northern Hemisphere and moving southeast. The flow forces evidently overcame the magnetic tension. The high-speed flows inside the FR were different from those outside. The external flows were perpendicular to the field as expected for draping of the external field around the FR. Modeling the FR analytically, we adopt a non-force free approach since the current perpendicular to the field is nonzero. It reproduces many features of the observations.

  • 24. Forsyth, C.
    et al.
    Fazakerley, A. N.
    Walsh, A. P.
    Watt, C. E. J.
    Garza, K. J.
    Owen, C. J.
    Constantinescu, D.
    Dandouras, I.
    Fornacon, K. -H
    Lucek, E.
    Marklund, G. T.
    Sadeghi, S. S.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Masson, A.
    Doss, N.
    Temporal evolution and electric potential structure of the auroral acceleration region from multispacecraft measurements2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, A12203- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bright aurorae can be excited by the acceleration of electrons into the atmosphere in violation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Modeling studies predict that the accelerating electric potential consists of electric double layers at the boundaries of an acceleration region but observations suggest that particle acceleration occurs throughout this region. Using multispacecraft observations from Cluster, we have examined two upward current regions on 14 December 2009. Our observations show that the potential difference below C4 and C3 changed by up to 1.7 kV between their respective crossings, which were separated by 150 s. The field-aligned current density observed by C3 was also larger than that observed by C4. The potential drop above C3 and C4 was approximately the same in both crossings. Using a novel technique of quantitively comparing the electron spectra measured by Cluster 1 and 3, which were separated in altitude, we determine when these spacecraft made effectively magnetically conjugate observations, and we use these conjugate observations to determine the instantaneous distribution of the potential drop in the AAR. Our observations show that an average of 15% of the potential drop in the AAR was located between C1 at 6235 km and C3 at 4685 km altitude, with a maximum potential drop between the spacecraft of 500 V, and that the majority of the potential drop was below C3. Assuming a spatial invariance along the length of the upward current region, we discuss these observations in terms of temporal changes and the vertical structure of the electrostatic potential drop and in the context of existing models and previous single- and multispacecraft observations. Citation: Forsyth, C., et al. (2012), Temporal evolution and electric potential structure of the auroral acceleration region from multispacecraft measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A12203, doi: 10.1029/2012JA017655.

  • 25. Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Cao, J. B.
    Cully, C. M.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Angelopoulos, V.
    Zong, Q. -G
    Santolik, O.
    Macusova, E.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Liu, W. L.
    Lu, H. Y.
    Zhou, M.
    Huang, S. Y.
    Zhima, Z.
    Whistler-mode waves inside flux pileup region: Structured or unstructured?2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 119, no 11, 9089-9100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During reconnection, a flux pileup region (FPR) is formed behind a dipolarization front in an outflow jet. Inside the FPR, the magnetic field magnitude and Bz component increase and the whistler-mode waves are observed frequently. As the FPR convects toward the Earth during substorms, it is obstructed by the dipolar geomagnetic field to form a near-Earth FPR. Unlike the structureless emissions inside the tail FPR, we find that the whistler-mode waves inside the near-Earth FPR can exhibit a discrete structure similar to chorus. Both upper band and lower band chorus are observed, with the upper band having a larger propagation angle (and smaller wave amplitude) than the lower band. Most chorus elements we observed are rising-tone type, but some are falling-tone type. We notice that the rising-tone chorus can evolve into falling-tone chorus within <3s. One of the factors that may explain why the waves are unstructured inside the tail FPR but become discrete inside the near-Earth FPR is the spatial inhomogeneity of magnetic field: we find that such inhomogeneity is small inside the near-Earth FPR but large inside the tail FPR.

  • 26.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Cao, J. B.
    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Sitnov, M. I.
    Runov, A.
    Fu, S. Y.
    Hamrin, M.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Retino, A.
    Ma, Y. D.
    Lu, H. Y.
    Wei, X. H.
    Huang, S. Y.
    Dipolarization fronts as a consequence of transient reconnection: In situ evidence2013In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 40, no 23, 6023-6027 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are frequently detected in the Earth's magnetotail from XGSM = −30 RE to XGSM = −7 RE. How these DFs are formed is still poorly understood. Three possible mechanisms have been suggested in previous simulations: (1) jet braking, (2) transient reconnection, and (3) spontaneous formation. Among these three mechanisms, the first has been verified by using spacecraft observation, while the second and third have not. In this study, we show Cluster observation of DFs inside reconnection diffusion region. This observation provides in situ evidence of the second mechanism: Transient reconnection can produce DFs. We suggest that the DFs detected in the near-Earth region (XGSM > −10 RE) are primarily attributed to jet braking, while the DFs detected in the mid- or far-tail region (XGSM < −15 RE) are primarily attributed to transient reconnection or spontaneous formation. In the jet-braking mechanism, the high-speed flow “pushes” the preexisting plasmas to produce the DF so that there is causality between high-speed flow and DF. In the transient-reconnection mechanism, there is no causality between high-speed flow and DF, because the frozen-in condition is violated.

  • 27.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Cao, J. B.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Andre, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Dunlop, M.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Liu, W. L.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Lu, H. Y.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Huang, S. Y.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect & Informat, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Y. D.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Eriksson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    Identifying magnetic reconnection events using the FOTE method2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 2, 1263-1272 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A magnetic reconnection event detected by Cluster is analyzed using three methods: Single-spacecraft Inference based on Flow-reversal Sequence (SIFS), Multispacecraft Inference based on Timing a Structure (MITS), and the First-Order Taylor Expansion (FOTE). Using the SIFS method, we find that the reconnection structure is an X line; while using the MITS and FOTE methods, we find it is a magnetic island (O line). We compare the efficiency and accuracy of these three methods and find that the most efficient and accurate approach to identify a reconnection event is FOTE. In both the guide and nonguide field reconnection regimes, the FOTE method is equally applicable. This study for the first time demonstrates the capability of FOTE in identifying magnetic reconnection events; it would be useful to the forthcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. ion

  • 28. Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Cao, J. B.
    Zhima, Z.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Angelopoulos, V.
    Santolik, O.
    Omura, Y.
    Taubenschuss, Ulrich
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Chen, L.
    Huang, S. Y.
    First observation of rising-tone magnetosonic waves2014In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 41, no 21, 7419-7426 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetosonic (MS) waves are linearly polarized emissions confined near the magnetic equator with wave normal angle near 90 degrees and frequency below the lower hybrid frequency. Such waves, also termed equatorial noise, were traditionally known to be "temporally continuous" in their time-frequency spectrogram. Here we show for the first time that MS waves actually have discrete wave elements with rising-tone features in their spectrogram. The frequency sweep rate of MS waves, similar to 1 Hz/s, is between that of chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. For the two events we analyzed, MS waves occur outside the plasmapause and cannot penetrate into the plasmasphere; their power is smaller than that of chorus. We suggest that the rising-tone feature of MS waves is a consequence of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, as is the case with chorus and EMIC waves.

  • 29.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Astronaut, Space Sci Inst, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Cao, J. B.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Astronaut, Space Sci Inst, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Zhima, Z.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Astronaut, Space Sci Inst, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Santolik, O.
    Inst Atmospher Phys ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.;Charles Univ Prague, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Taubenschuss, Ulrich
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Discrete magnetosonic waves as an evidence of nonlinear wave-particle interaction2014In: 2014 XXXITH URSI General Assembly And Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS): General Assembly And Scientific Symposium, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two events, showing strong emissions near the lower hybrid frequency, are studied in detail in this paper. By analyzing the polarization degree, wave normal angle, and ellipticity, we conclude that the emissions are magnetosonic (MS) waves. These MS waves have opposite poynting fluxes in the radial and azimuthal direction, indicating that they were detected near the source region. In the wave spectrogram, discrete and "rising-tone" elements are found, suggesting that MS waves probably are a consequence of nonlinear wave-particle interaction.

  • 30.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Andre, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Sergeev, V. A.
    Huang, S. Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Kronberg, E. A.
    Daly, P. W.
    Pitch angle distribution of suprathermal electrons behind dipolarization fronts: A statistical overview2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, A12221- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of suprathermal electrons (> 40 keV) inside the flux pileup regions (FPRs) that are located behind the dipolarization fronts (DFs), in order to better understand the particle energization mechanisms operating therein. The 303 earthward-propagating DFs observed during 9 years (2001-2009) by Cluster 1 have been analyzed and divided into two groups according to the differential fluxes of the > 40 keV electrons inside the FPR. One group, characterized by the low flux (F < 500/cm(2) , s . sr . keV), consists of 153 events and corresponds to a broad distribution of IMF Bz components. The other group, characterized by the high flux (F >= 500/cm(2) . s . sr . keV), consists of 150 events and corresponds to southward IMF Bz components. Only the high-flux group is considered to investigate the PAD of the > 40 keV electrons as the low-flux situation may lead to large uncertainties in computing the anisotropy factor that is defined as A = F-perpendicular to/F-parallel to - 1 for F-perpendicular to > F-parallel to, and A = -F-parallel to/F-perpendicular to + 1 for F-perpendicular to < F-parallel to. We find that, among the 150 events, 46 events have isotropic distribution (vertical bar A vertical bar <= 0.5); 60 events have perpendicular distribution (A > 0.5), and 44 events have field-aligned distribution inside the FPR (A < -0.5). The perpendicular distribution appears mainly inside the growing FPR, where the flow velocity is increasing and the local flux tube is compressed. The field-aligned distribution occurs mainly inside the decaying FPR, where the flow velocity is decreasing and the local flux tube is expanding. Inside the steady FPR, we observed primarily the isotropic distribution of suprathermal electrons. This statistical result confirms the previous case study and gives an overview of the PAD of suprathermal electrons behind DFs.

  • 31.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Retino, A.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Energetic electron acceleration by unsteady magnetic reconnection2013In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 9, no 7, 426-430 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism that produces energetic electrons during magnetic reconnection is poorly understood. This is a fundamental process responsible for stellar flares(1,2),substorms(34), and disruptions in fusion experiments(5,6).Observations in the solar chromosphere(1) and the Earth's magnetosphere(7-10) indicate significant electron acceleration during reconnection, whereas in the solar wind, energetic electrons are absent(11). Here we show that energetic electron acceleration is caused by unsteady reconnection. In the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar chromosphere, reconnection is unsteady, so energetic electrons are produced; in the solar wind, reconnection is steady(12), so energetic electrons are absent(11). The acceleration mechanism is quasi-adiabatic: betatron and Fermi acceleration in outflow jets are two processes contributing to electron energization during unsteady reconnection. The localized betatron acceleration in the outflow is responsible for at least half of the energy gain for the peak observed fluxes.

  • 32.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Cao, J. B.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Olshevsky, V.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ctr Math Plasma Astrophys, Leuven, Belgium..
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Retino, A.
    UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Intermittent energy dissipation by turbulent reconnection2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 1, 37-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic reconnectionthe process responsible for many explosive phenomena in both nature and laboratoryis efficient at dissipating magnetic energy into particle energy. To date, exactly how this dissipation happens remains unclear, owing to the scarcity of multipoint measurements of the diffusion region at the sub-ion scale. Here we report such a measurement by Clusterfour spacecraft with separation of 1/5 ion scale. We discover numerous current filaments and magnetic nulls inside the diffusion region of magnetic reconnection, with the strongest currents appearing at spiral nulls (O-lines) and the separatrices. Inside each current filament, kinetic-scale turbulence is significantly increased and the energy dissipation, Ej, is 100 times larger than the typical value. At the jet reversal point, where radial nulls (X-lines) are detected, the current, turbulence, and energy dissipations are surprisingly small. All these features clearly demonstrate that energy dissipation in magnetic reconnection occurs at O-lines but not X-lines.

  • 33.
    Fu, H. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Beihang Univ, Space Sci Inst, Sch Astronaut, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Olshevsky, V.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ctr Math Plasma Astrophys, Dept Math, Leuven, Belgium.;Main Astron Observ NAS, Kiev, Ukraine..
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Cao, J. B.
    Beihang Univ, Space Sci Inst, Sch Astronaut, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Huang, S. Y.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UPMC, Lab Phys Plasmas, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.;Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect & Informat, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China.
    Retino, A.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UPMC, Lab Phys Plasmas, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Lapenta, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ctr Math Plasma Astrophys, Dept Math, Leuven, Belgium..
    How to find magnetic nulls and reconstruct field topology with MMS data?2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 5, 3758-3782 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we apply a new method-the first-order Taylor expansion (FOTE)-to find magnetic nulls and reconstruct magnetic field topology, in order to use it with the data from the forthcoming MMS mission. We compare this method with the previously used Poincare index (PI), and find that they are generally consistent, except that the PI method can only find a null inside the spacecraft (SC) tetrahedron, while the FOTE method can find a null both inside and outside the tetrahedron and also deduce its drift velocity. In addition, the FOTE method can (1) avoid limitations of the PI method such as data resolution, instrument uncertainty (Bz offset), and SC separation; (2) identify 3-D null types (A, B, As, and Bs) and determine whether these types can degenerate into 2-D (X and O); (3) reconstruct the magnetic field topology. We quantitatively test the accuracy of FOTE in positioning magnetic nulls and reconstructing field topology by using the data from 3-D kinetic simulations. The influences of SC separation (0.05 similar to 1 d(i)) and null-SC distance (0 similar to 1 d(i)) on the accuracy are both considered. We find that (1) for an isolated null, the method is accurate when the SC separation is smaller than 1 d(i), and the null-SC distance is smaller than 0.25 similar to 0.5 d(i); (2) for a null pair, the accuracy is same as in the isolated-null situation, except at the separator line, where the field is nonlinear. We define a parameter xi vertical bar(lambda(1) +lambda(2) +lambda(3))vertical bar/vertical bar lambda vertical bar(max) in terms of the eigenvalues (lambda(i)) of the null to quantify the quality of our method-the smaller this parameter the better the results. Comparing to the previously used parameter (eta vertical bar del center dot B vertical bar/vertical bar del x B vertical bar), xi is more relevant for null identification. Using the new method, we reconstruct the magnetic field topology around a radial-type null and a spiral-type null, and find that the topologies are well consistent with those predicted in theory. We therefore suggest using this method to find magnetic nulls and reconstruct field topology with four-point measurements, particularly from Cluster and the forthcoming MMS mission. For the MMS mission, this null-finding algorithm can be used to trigger its burst-mode measurements.

  • 34.
    Fu, Huishan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Huang, S. Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Occurrence rate of earthward-propagating dipolarization fronts2012In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 39, L10101- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence rate of earthward-propagating dipolarization fronts (DFs) is investigated in this paper based on the 9 years (2001-2009) of Cluster 1 data. For the first time, we select the DF events by fitting the characteristic increase in B-z using a hyperbolic tangent function. 303 earthward-propagating DFs are found; they have on average a duration of 4 s and a B-z increase of 8 nT. DFs have the maximum occurrence at Z(GSM) approximate to 0 and r approximate to 15 R-E with one event occurring every 3.9 hours, where r is the distance to the center of the Earth in the XYGSM plane. The maximum occurrence rate at Z(GSM) approximate to 0 can be explained by the steep and large increase of B-z near the central current sheet, which is consistent with previous simulations. Along the r direction, the occurrence rate increases gradually from r approximate to 20 to r approximate to 15 R-E but decreases rapidly from r approximate to 15 to r approximate to 10 R-E. This may be due to the increasing pileup of the magnetic flux from r approximate to 20 to r approximate to 15 R-E and the strong background magnetic field at r <similar to 13 R-E, where the magnetic field changes from the tail-like to dipolar shape. The maximum occurrence rate of DFs (one event per 3.9 hours) is comparable to that of substorms, indicating a relation between the two.

  • 35.
    Fu, Huishan S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Huang, S. Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Electric structure of dipolarization front at sub-proton scale2012In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 39, L06105- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Cluster data, we investigate the electric structure of a dipolarization front (DF) - the ion inertial length (c/omega(pi)) scale boundary in the Earth's magnetotail formed at the front edge of an earthward propagating flow with reconnected magnetic flux. We estimate the current density and the electron pressure gradient throughout the DF by both single-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft methods. Comparison of the results from the two methods shows that the single-spacecraft analysis, which is capable of resolving the detailed structure of the boundary, can be applied for the DF we study. Based on this, we use the current density and the electron pressure gradient from the single-spacecraft method to investigate which terms in the generalized Ohm's law balance the electric field throughout the DF. We find that there is an electric field at ion inertia scale directed normal to the DF; it has a duskward component at the dusk flank of DF but a dawnward component at the dawn flank of DF. This electric field is balanced by the Hall (j x B/ne) and electron pressure gradient (del P-e/ne) terms at the DF, with the Hall term being dominant. Outside the narrow DF region, however, the electric field is balanced by the convection (V-i x B) term, meaning the frozen-in condition for ions is broken only at the DF itself. In the reference frame moving with the DF the tangential electric field is almost zero, indicating there is no flow of plasma across the DF and that the DF is a tangential discontinuity. The normal electric field at the DF constitutes a potential drop of similar to 1 keV, which may reflect and accelerate the surrounding ions. 

  • 36.
    Fuselier, S. A.
    et al.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA.;Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Phys & Astron, San Antonio, TX 78249 USA..
    Vines, S. K.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA.;Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Phys & Astron, San Antonio, TX 78249 USA.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Petrinec, S. M.
    Lockheed Martin Adv Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA USA..
    Trattner, K. J.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    West Virginia Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Chen, L. -J
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eriksson, S.
    Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Graham, Daniel B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse, Inst Rech Astrophys & Plantol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, Toulouse, France..
    Lewis, W. S.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Mukherjee, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA..
    Norgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Phan, T. -D
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Webster, J. M.
    Rice Univ, Phys & Astron, Houston, TX USA..
    Large-scale characteristics of reconnection diffusion regions and associated magnetopause crossings observed by MMS2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 5, 5466-5486 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission was designed to make observations in the very small electron diffusion region (EDR), where magnetic reconnection takes place. From a data set of over 4500 magnetopause crossings obtained in the first phase of the mission, MMS had encounters near or within 12 EDRs. These 12 events and associated magnetopause crossings are considered as a group to determine if they span the widest possible range of external and internal conditions (i.e., in the solar wind and magnetosphere). In addition, observations from MMS are used to determine if there are multiple X-lines present and also to provide information on X-line location relative to the spacecraft. These 12 events represent nearly the widest possible range of conditions at the dayside magnetopause. They occur over a wide range of local times and magnetic shear angles between the magnetosheath and magnetospheric magnetic fields. Most show evidence for multiple reconnection sites.

  • 37.
    Goodrich, Katherine A.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Ergun, Robert E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Wilder, Frederick D.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Burch, James
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, Roy
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Russell, Christopher
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, Robert
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Magnes, Werner
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Gershman, Daniel
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, Barbara
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Nakamura, Rumi
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Stawarz, Julia
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Holmes, Justin
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Sturner, Andrew
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Malaspina, David M.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    MMS Multipoint electric field observations of small-scale magnetic holes2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 12, 5953-5959 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earth's magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (rho(i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  • 38.
    Graham, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Swedish Inst Space Phys, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Norgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Marklund, G. T.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Space & Plasma Phys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse UPS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, Toulouse, France..
    Saito, Y.
    JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Russell, C. T.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    SW Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Electron currents and heating in the ion diffusion region of asymmetric reconnection2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 10, 4691-4700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter the structure of the ion diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause is investigated using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft. The ion diffusion region is characterized by a strong DC electric field, approximately equal to the Hall electric field, intense currents, and electron heating parallel to the background magnetic field. Current structures well below ion spatial scales are resolved, and the electron motion associated with lower hybrid drift waves is shown to contribute significantly to the total current density. The electron heating is shown to be consistent with large-scale parallel electric fields trapping and accelerating electrons, rather than wave-particle interactions. These results show that sub-ion scale processes occur in the ion diffusion region and are important for understanding electron heating and acceleration.

  • 39.
    Graham, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Norgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Plasma Physics.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Toledo-Redondo, S.
    European Space Agcy ESAC, Madrid, Spain..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Marklund, G. T.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Space & Plasma Phys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse UPS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Plantol, Toulouse, France.;Ctr Natl Rech Sci, Toulouse, France..
    Saito, Y.
    JAXA, Inst Space & Aeronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Lower hybrid waves in the ion diffusion and magnetospheric inflow regions2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 1, 517-533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role and properties of lower hybrid waves in the ion diffusion region and magnetospheric inflow region of asymmetric reconnection are investigated using the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. Two distinct groups of lower hybrid waves are observed in the ion diffusion region and magnetospheric inflow region, which have distinct properties and propagate in opposite directions along the magnetopause. One group develops near the ion edge in the magnetospheric inflow, where magnetosheath ions enter the magnetosphere through the finite gyroradius effect and are driven by the ion-ion cross-field instability due to the interaction between the magnetosheath ions and cold magnetospheric ions. This leads to heating of the cold magnetospheric ions. The second group develops at the sharpest density gradient, where the Hall electric field is observed and is driven by the lower hybrid drift instability. These drift waves produce cross-field particle diffusion, enabling magnetosheath electrons to enter the magnetospheric inflow region thereby broadening the density gradient in the ion diffusion region.

  • 40.
    Graham, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Andre, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Electrostatic solitary waves and electrostatic waves at the magnetopause2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 4, 3069-3092 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are characterized by localized bipolar electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and are frequently observed in space plasmas. In this paper a study of ESWs and field-aligned electrostatic waves, which do not exhibit localized bipolar fields, near the magnetopause is presented using the Cluster spacecraft. The speeds, length scales, field strengths, and potentials are calculated and compared with the local plasma conditions. A large range of speeds is observed, suggesting different generation mechanisms. In contrast, a smaller range of length scales normalized to the Debye length lambda(D) is found. For ESWs the average length between the positive and negative peak fields is 9 lambda(D), comparable to the average half wavelength of electrostatic waves. Statistically, the lengths and speeds of ESWs and electrostatic waves are shown to be similar. The length scales and potentials of the ESWs are consistent with predictions for stable electron holes. The maximum ESW potentials are shown to be constrained by the length scale and the magnetic field strength at the magnetopause and in the magnetosheath. The observed waves are consistent with those generated by the warm bistreaming instability, beam-plasma instability, and electron-ion instabilities, which account for the observed speeds and length scales. The large range of wave speeds suggests that the waves can couple different electron populations and electrons with ions, heating the plasma and contributing to anomalous resistivity.

  • 41.
    Graham, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Electrostatic solitary waves with distinct speeds associated with asymmetric reconnection2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 42, no 2, 215-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are observed at the magnetopause with distinct time scales. These ESWs are associated with asymmetric reconnection of the cold dense magnetosheath plasma with the hot tenuous magnetospheric plasma. The distinct time scales are shown to be due to ESWs moving at distinct speeds and having distinct length scales. The length scales are of order 5-50 Debye lengths, and the speeds range from approximate to 50 km s(-1) to approximate to 1000 km s(-1). The ESWs are observed near the reconnection separatrices. The observation of ESWs with distinct speeds suggests that multiple instabilities are occurring. The implications for reconnection at the magnetopause are discussed.

  • 42.
    Graham, Daniel B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Fazakerley, A. N.
    Electron Dynamics in the Diffusion Region of an Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 112, no 21, 215004- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a magnetopause crossing near the subsolar point Cluster observes the ion diffusion region of antiparallel magnetic reconnection. The reconnecting plasmas are asymmetric, differing in magnetic field strength, density, and temperature. Spatial changes in the electron distributions in the diffusion region are resolved and investigated in detail. Heating of magnetosheath electrons parallel to the magnetic field is observed. This heating is shown to be consistent with trapping of magnetosheath electrons by parallel electric fields.

  • 43.
    Graham, Daniel. B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division. Swedish Inst Space Phys, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andre, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Whistler emission in the separatrix regions of asymmetric magnetic reconnection2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 3, 1934-1954 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At Earth's dayside magnetopause asymmetric magnetic reconnection occurs between the cold dense magnetosheath plasma and the hot tenuous magnetospheric plasma, which differs significantly from symmetric reconnection. During magnetic reconnection the separatrix regions are potentially unstable to a variety of instabilities. In this paper observations of the separatrix regions of asymmetric reconnection are reported as Cluster crossed the magnetopause near the subsolar point. The small relative motion between the spacecraft and plasma allows spatial changes of electron distributions within the separatrix regions to be resolved over multiple spacecraft spins. The electron distributions are shown to be unstable to the electromagnetic whistler mode and the electrostatic beam mode. Large-amplitude whistler waves are observed in the magnetospheric and magnetosheath separatrix regions, and outflow region. In the magnetospheric separatrix regions the observed whistler waves propagate toward the X line, which are shown to be driven by the loss in magnetospheric electrons propagating away from the X line and are enhanced by the presence of magnetosheath electrons. The beam mode waves are predicted to be produced by beams of magnetosheath electrons propagating away from the X line and potentially account for some of the electrostatic fluctuations observed in the magnetospheric separatrix regions.

  • 44.
    Hasegawa, H.
    et al.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Sonnerup, B. U. O.
    Dartmouth Coll, Thayer Sch Engn, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Denton, R. E.
    Dartmouth Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Phan, T. -D
    Nakamura, T. K. M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.;Oak Ridge Associated Univ, Washington, DC USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    West Virginia Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Morgantown, WV USA..
    Kitamura, N.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Saito, Y.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Reconstruction of the electron diffusion region observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft: First results2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 10, 4566-4574 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present first results of the reconstruction of the electron diffusion region (EDR) based on a two-dimensional, incompressible, and inertialess version of the electron magnetohydrodynamics equations. The method is applied to 30 ms resolution magnetic field, and electron moments data taken when the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed an EDR of near-antiparallel magnetopause reconnection on 16 October 2015. An X-type magnetic field configuration and quadrupolar Hall fields, consistent with the electron inflow and outflow, are successfully recovered. While MMS encountered a region of significant energy dissipation on the magnetospheric side of the sub-ion-scale current sheet, the reconstructions show that the MMS tetrahedron missed the X line by a distance of a few kilometers (similar to 2 electron inertial lengths). The estimated reconnection electric field is 0.42-0.98 mV/m, equivalent to the dimensionless reconnection rate of 0.11-0.25. Signatures of three-dimensional structures and/or time-dependent processes are also identified. Plain Language Summary Magnetic reconnection that often occurs at the outer boundary of Earth's magnetosphere plays a central role in transporting mass and energy of solar wind into the near-Earth space and thus forms the basis of most space weather phenomena, including aurora and geomagnetic storms. However, we still do not fully understand how and how efficiently this process works. We present a two-dimensional image of the magnetic reconnection region reconstructed for the first time from a new data analysis tool by use of high time resolution (30 ms) magnetic field and plasma measurements made by the four-spacecraft Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission launched in March 2015. The magnetic field configuration and electron velocity field pattern recovered from the tool are consistent with fast magnetic reconnection. But the results show that the MMS spacecraft in fact missed the very site of the reconnection by a distance of a few kilometers (similar to 2 electron inertial lengths) in the event on 16 October 2015 reported by Burch et al. (2016). The results also demonstrate that the new tool is powerful in revealing the structure and fundamental processes of magnetic reconnection in space on the basis of in situ observations.

  • 45. Huang, S. Y.
    et al.
    Fu, H. S.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Yuan, Z. G.
    Pang, Y.
    Zhou, M.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Deng, X. H.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Zhang, L.
    Fu, S.
    Li, H. M.
    Wang, D. D.
    Dawn-dusk scale of dipolarization front in the Earth's magnetotail: multi-cases study2015In: Astrophysics and Space Science, ISSN 0004-640X, E-ISSN 1572-946X, Vol. 357, no 1, 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze three dipolarization front (DF) events to investigate their dawn-dusk scales in the Earth's magnetotail using the Cluster measurements in year 2007, when the spacecraft separation is about 1.8 Re (Re is the Earth's radius) and is appropriate for investigating the DF scale. Based on the Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) and the general shape of the DF, we found that Cluster detected the center and the flank (or just beyond the flank) of DF in the same event. This means that the scale of DF is about 3.6 Re in the dawn-dusk direction, larger than that reported in previous studies. Using the semicircle function to fit the observations, we got the dawn-dusk scale of similar to 3.2-3.6 Re, consistent with the rough estimation. Considering large separation among the spacecraft, the timing analysis cannot be used to obtain the normal of DF and the propagation velocity along the normal. One should be careful when performing timing analysis of DF using the Cluster data, and have to carry on MVA analysis to check the normal of DF before do timing analysis.

  • 46.
    Huang, S. Y.
    et al.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;UPMC, Lab Phys Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Palaiseau, France..
    Fu, H. S.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Z. G.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Retino, A.
    UPMC, Lab Phys Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Palaiseau, France..
    Zhou, M.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Graham, Daniel B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Fujimoto, K.
    Natl Astron Observ Japan, Div Theoret Astron, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Sahraoui, F.
    UPMC, Lab Phys Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Palaiseau, France..
    Deng, X. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Ni, B.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Pang, Y.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Fu, S.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Wang, D. D.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, X.
    Liaoning Univ, Sch Phys, Shenyang, Peoples R China..
    Two types of whistler waves in the hall reconnection region2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 121, no 7, 6639-6646 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whistler waves are believed to play an important role during magnetic reconnection. Here we report the near-simultaneous occurrence of two types of the whistler-mode waves in the magnetotail Hall reconnection region. The first type is observed in the magnetic pileup region of downstream and propagates away to downstream along the field lines and is possibly generated by the electron temperature anisotropy at the magnetic equator. The second type, propagating toward the X line, is found around the separatrix region and probably is generated by the electron beam-driven whistler instability or erenkov emission from electron phase-space holes. These observations of two different types of whistler waves are consistent with recent kinetic simulations and suggest that the observed whistler waves are a consequence of magnetic reconnection.

  • 47.
    Huang, S. Y.
    et al.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Sahraoui, F.
    UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Retino, A.
    UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Le Contel, O.
    UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Yuan, Z. G.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Chasapis, A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Aunai, N.
    UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Breuillard, H.
    UPMC, Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Deng, X. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Fu, H. S.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Pang, Y.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Wang, D. D.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Bromund, K.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Leinweber, H.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Anderson, B. J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    MMS observations of ion-scale magnetic island in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 15, 7850-7858 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, first observations of ion-scale magnetic island from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma are presented. The magnetic island is characterized by bipolar variation of magnetic fields with magnetic field compression, strong core field, density depletion, and strong currents dominated by the parallel component to the local magnetic field. The estimated size of magnetic island is about 8 d(i), where d(i) is the ion inertial length. Distinct particle behaviors and wave activities inside and at the edges of the magnetic island are observed: parallel electron beam accompanied with electrostatic solitary waves and strong electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves inside the magnetic island and bidirectional electron beams, whistler waves, weak electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves, and strong broadband electrostatic noise at the edges of the magnetic island. Our observations demonstrate that highly dynamical, strong wave activities and electron-scale physics occur within ion-scale magnetic islands in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma.

  • 48.
    Huang, S. Y.
    et al.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;UPMC, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Sahraoui, F.
    UPMC, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Yuan, Z. G.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    He, J. S.
    Peking Univ, Sch Earth & Space Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, J. S.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Planetary Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Nanjing, Peoples R China..
    Le Contel, O.
    UPMC, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, Lab Phys Plasmas, Palaiseau, France..
    Deng, X. H.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Fu, H. S.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Q. Q.
    Shandong Univ, Inst Space Sci, Shandong Prov Key Lab Opt Astron & Solar Terr Env, Weihai, Peoples R China..
    Lavraud, B.
    Univ Toulouse UPS, Inst Rech & Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France.;CNRS, UMR 5277, Toulouse, France..
    Pang, Y.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Yang, J.
    Beihang Univ, Sch Space & Environm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, D. D.
    Li, H. M.
    Nanchang Univ, Inst Space Sci & Technol, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Yu, X. D.
    Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Informat, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Bromund, K.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Leinweber, H.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Earth Planetary & Space Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Plaschke, F.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, Graz, Austria..
    Anderson, B. J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations of Electron Vortex Magnetic Hole in the Turbulent Magnetosheath Plasma2017In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 836, no 2, L27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the observations of an electron vortex magnetic hole corresponding to a new type of coherent structure in the turbulent magnetosheath plasma using the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission data. The magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. The estimated size of the magnetic hole is about 0.23 rho(i) (similar to 30 rho(e)) in the quasi-circular cross-section perpendicular to its axis, where rho(i) and rho(e) are respectively the proton and electron gyroradius. There are no clear enhancements seen in high-energy electron fluxes. However, there is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90 degrees pitch angle inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components V-em and V-en suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the cross-section in the M-N plane. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations.

  • 49.
    Huang, S. Y.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Zhou, M.
    Fu, Huishan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Retino, A.
    Deng, X. H.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Cully, Christopher M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    He, J. S.
    Sahraoui, F.
    Yuan, Z. G.
    Pang, Y.
    Electron acceleration in the reconnection diffusion region: Cluster observations2012In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 39, L11103- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present one case study of magnetic islands and energetic electrons in the reconnection diffusion region observed by the Cluster spacecraft. The cores of the islands are characterized by strong core magnetic fields and density depletion. Intense currents, with the dominant component parallel to the ambient magnetic field, are detected inside the magnetic islands. A thin current sheet is observed in the close vicinity of one magnetic island. Energetic electron fluxes increase at the location of the thin current sheet, and further increase inside the magnetic island, with the highest fluxes located at the core region of the island. We suggest that these energetic electrons are firstly accelerated in the thin current sheet, and then trapped and further accelerated in the magnetic island by betatron and Fermi acceleration.

  • 50. Hwang, K. -J
    et al.
    Sibeck, D. G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Choi, E.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Space Res Assoc, Ctr Res & Explorat Space Sci & Technol, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Chen, L. -J
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    Denali Sci LLC, Healy, AK USA..
    Gershman, D.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Avanov, L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Paterson, W. R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Burch, J. L.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Geophys & Planetary Phys, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Univ New Hampshire, Ctr Space Sci, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Magnetospheric Multiscale mission observations of the outer electron diffusion region2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 5, 2049-2059 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) observations of the exhaust region in the vicinity of the central reconnection site in Earth's magnetopause current sheet. High-time-resolution measurements of field and particle distributions enable us to explore the fine structure of the diffusion region near the X line. Ions are decoupled from the magnetic field throughout the entire current sheet crossing. Electron jets flow downstream from the X line at speeds greater than the ExB drift velocity. At/around the magnetospheric separatrix, large-amplitude electric fields containing field-aligned components accelerate electrons along the magnetic field toward the X line. Near the neutral sheet, crescent-shaped electron distributions appear coincident with (1) an out-of-plane electric field whose polarity is opposite to that of the reconnection electric field and (2) the energy transfer from bulk kinetic to field energy. The observations indicate that MMS passed through the edge of an elongated electron diffusion region (EDR) or the outer EDR in the exhaust region.

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