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  • 1.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Power and Law in International Society: International Relations as the Sociology of International Law2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When studying international law, there is often a risk of focusing entirely on the content of international rules (i.e. regimes), and ignoring why these regimes exist and to what extent the rules affect state behavior. Similarly, international relations studies can focus so much on theories based on the distribution of power among states that it overlooks the existence and relevance of the rules of international law. Both approaches hold their dangers. The overlooking of international relations risks assuming that states actually follow international law, and discounting the specific rules of international law makes it difficult for readers to understand the impact of the rules in more than a superficial manner. This book unifies international law and international relations by exploring how international law and its institutions may be relevant and how it influences the course of international relations in international trade, protection ofthe environment, human rights, international criminal justice and the use of force.

  • 2.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    The Alternative Hypothesis Approach, Robustness and International Criminal Justice2015In: Journal of International Criminal Justice, ISSN 1478-1387, E-ISSN 1478-1395, Vol. 13, no 3, 535-553 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with issues pertaining to the process of evaluation of evidence in international criminal justice. Initially, the author analyses some theoretical approaches to the evaluation of evidence. He further examines these theoretical constructs, mainly with emphasis on the 'alternative hypothesis approach' in the light of the case law of international criminal courts and tribunals. He then develops the topic from the angle of the various procedural phases of the proceedings focusing on the determination of guilt, eventually arguing for a broader combined and multifaceted approach to the method of assessment of evidence in international criminal justice depending on the stage of the proceedings and the function of the decision to be taken.

  • 3. Ebbesson, Jonas
    et al.
    Jacobsson, MarieKlamberg, MarkUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.Langlet, DavidWrange, Pål
    International law and changing perceptions of security: Liber amicorum Said Mahmoudi2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security the contributors debate how changing concepts and conceptions of security have affected fields such as the use of force, law of the sea, human rights, international environmental law and international humanitarian law.

  • 4.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    International Law in the Age of Asymmetrical Warfare, Virtual Cockpits and Autonomous Robots2014In: International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security: liber amicorum Said Mahmoudi / [ed] Jonas Ebbesson, Marie Jacobsson, Mark Klamberg, David Langlet, Pål Wrange, Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2014, 152-170 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) in the context of counterterrorism operations challenges the traditional conception of security, it is a change in the perception of nature and sources of threats. This text focuses on some of the most contentious issues. First, will the use of UCAVs affect how we perceive state intervention in the territory of other states? Second, the US use UCAVs to target enemies as a part of its counterterrorism operations. This has raised several concerns, including a discussion on the relevant legal framework. Should counterterrorism operate under the armed-conflict or law enforcement model? Under what circumstances are targeted killings allowed under international law? This discussion is influenced by the fact that almost all targeted killings are directed against non-State actors and generally carried out while the targeted person is not visibly engaged in active combat. The use of drones and other robotic weapons concerns human rights law, humanitarian law and the law on the use of force. All three bodies of law may be applicable to a situation, each of them regulates different aspects of the use of force. It is argued as not necessary to adopt new, specific rules on drones. Missiles launched by a drone present the same legal issues as any other weapon system, the principles of necessity, distinction, proportionality and precaution still applies. To the extent drones at the present time are used in an illegitimate manner is rather a question of non-compliance with the existing law, less an absence of adequate rules. However, a different approach may be justified when it comes to autonomous weapons systems capable of taking targeting decisions. It is arguably the military commander deploying such systems that have the ultimate responsibility.

  • 5.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Article 64 Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber2013In: Code of International Criminal Law and Procedure, annotated / [ed] Paul De Hert, Jean Flamme, Mathias Holvoet, Olivia Struyven, Bryssel: Larcier , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comment on article 64 of the Rome Statute, Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber

  • 6.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Evidence in International Criminal Trials: Confronting Legal Gaps and the Reconstruction of Disputed Events2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the difficulties in establishing a universal code of procedural law governing international criminal trials and fact-finding. It covers eight procedural systems: the military tribunals of Nuremberg and Tokyo, the ad hoc tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals, the UN-supported Khmer Rouge Trials, the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the International Criminal Court. The basis for the comparison are specific procedural activities common to the five procedural systems, including evaluation, collection, disclosure, admissibility and presentation of evidence.

    Certain general principles of law are applicable to evidence. However, the judges tend to favour one type of legal system (either adversarial or inquisitorial) when they identify general principles of national law which run counter to the concept of this source of law. The practice of the modern two-tiered systems suggests that pre-trial and trial judges are bound or at least guided by decisions of the Appeals Chamber. In comparison with international law in general, international criminal procedure is thus a sui generis legal system as regards the status of legal precedents. The balance between crime control, fair trial, expeditious proceedings, state sovereignty, truth-seeking,  victims’ participation and witnesses and victims protection may vary. No abstract procedural model (either adversarial or inquisitorial) can be applied in its entirety to an existing procedural framework. Instead, the proceedings are mixed and in relation to a specific procedural activity one model may be more relevant as a tool of analysis than another. The concept of “robustness” is used to discuss quantity in addition to concepts that deal with quality, including “probative value” and “weight”. Finally, the method involving exclusion of every reasonable hypothesis of innocence is examined as one of several analytical steps that may contribute to the systematic evaluation of evidence.

  • 7.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Evidence in International Criminal Procedure: Confronting Legal Gaps and the Reconstruction of Disputed Events2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the difficulties in establishing a universal code of procedural law governing international criminal trials and fact-finding. It covers five procedural systems: the military tribunals of Nuremberg and Tokyo, the ad hoc tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and the International Criminal Court. The basis for the comparison are specific procedural activities common to the five procedural systems, including evaluation, collection, disclosure, admissibility and presentation of evidence.

    Certain general principles of law are applicable to evidence. However, the judges tend to favour one type of legal system (either adversarial or inquisitorial) when they identify general principles of national law which run counter to the concept of this source of law. The practice of the modern two-tiered systems suggests that pre-trial and trial judges are bound or at least guided by decisions of the Appeals Chamber. In comparison with international law in general, international criminal procedure is thus a sui generis legal system as regards the status of legal precedents. The balance between crime control, fair trial, expeditious proceedings, state sovereignty, truth-seeking,  victims’ participation and witnesses and victims protection may vary. No abstract procedural model (either adversarial or inquisitorial) can be applied in its entirety to an existing procedural framework. Instead, the proceedings are mixed and in relation to a specific procedural activity one model may be more relevant as a tool of analysis than another. The concept of “robustness” is used to discuss quantity in addition to concepts that deal with quality, including “probative value” and “weight”. Finally, the method involving exclusion of every reasonable hypothesis of innocence is examined as one of several analytical steps that may contribute to the systematic evaluation of evidence.

  • 8.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Gränsdragningen mellan utlänningslagen och svensk straffrätt beträffande internationellabrott2012In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 2, 286-293 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish migration law grants refugees and other persons in need of protection who are uin Sweden the right to reside in Sweden. There is a clause which provides that a person may be excluded from refugee status if there are reasons to believe that he or she have committed crimes against the peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity or acts in contravention with the purposes of the United Nations. The provisions in the migration law may create uncertainties in two regards. First, the definition of armed conflict in the Swedish migration law which is relevant for persons in need of protection differs from the definition provided for in international law and Swedish legislation on war crimes. Second, crimes that under the migration law may cause exclusion from protection are only partially criminalized in Swedish law. This article explains why this conflicts exist, possible challenges for the relevant state agencies and a recommendation how to deal with these challenges.

  • 9.
    Klamberg, Mark
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Fura, Elisabet
    The Chilling Effect of Counter-Terrorism Measures: A Comparative Analysis of Electronic Surveillance Laws in Europe and the USA2012In: Freedom of Expression: Essays in honour of Nicolas Bratza / [ed] Josep Casadevall; Egbert Myjer, Michael O´Boyle, Anna Austin, Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal Publishers , 2012, 463-481 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic surveillance is an important tool for law enforcement and may contribute to counter-terrorism efforts. The present article examines, from a comparative privacy perspective, systems of electronic surveillance which involves the retention and/or access of large quantities of data and/or communication. This includes data retention of traffic data and signals intelligence, the latter occasionally described as mass surveillance or strategic monitoring. It is concluded that the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution offers a greater protection than Article 8 of the European Convention for the protection of Human Rights (ECHR) to the extent that searches and seizures require probable cause and a warrant. This requires that the measure is covered by the notions “search” or “seizure”, which may explain why law enforcement agencies which use warrant-less surveillance tend to define the notions “search” or “seizure” narrowly. This has implications for the content/non-content distinction. The constitutional protection under the Fourth Amendment has an all-or-nothing character. In comparison, Article 8 of the ECHR does not require probable cause and warrant but it has a broader scope. Thus, there is no problem to expand the scope and protection of Article 8 to content as well as traffic data.

  • 10.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    The Concept of Genocide and the Anfal Campaign2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Unification or Fragmentation?: Structural Tendencies in International Criminal Procedure2012In: Diversification and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law, Brill Academic Publishers , 2012, 593-631 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Unification or Fragmentation?: Structural Tendencies in International Criminal Procedure2012In: The Diversification and Fragmentation of International Criminal Law / [ed] Larissa van den Herik; Carsten Stahn, Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers , 2012, 593-631 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International criminal tribunals and courts all represent procedural hybrids with tensions between adversarial and inquisitorial influences. Any effort to establish a universal code of procedural law governing international trials is met with great difficulties. Part of the explanation is that international criminal procedure, as all other branches of law, is subject to competing objectives. The aim of this article is to examine tensions between objectives in international criminal procedure and suggest an approach that may guide courts in their adjudication of hard cases. A hard case concerns a concrete legal issue and is at hand when it is uncertain whether it should be subsumed by a legal rule.

    This article examines which appraisals of objectives can be made to arrive to certain solutions and whether a method of general applicability is available. Are the objectives the same for various procedural matters? Does the balance between different objectives differ between various procedural matters? Is it possible to justify different solutions with reference to one or several objectives? In other words, can we find a universally acceptable hierarchy of objectives? The aspiration is to outline a web of various objectives, reflected in legislation, case law and offer the practitioner a useful perspective when confronted with a procedural matter.

  • 13.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Utomrättslig avrättning eller legitim krigföring?: Obama kan tvingas ompröva USA:s drönarstrategi2012In: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, no 4, 49-51 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar hur vi ska se på USA:s målinriktade dödande av individer i olika länder, bland annat genom drönare. Hur ser den folkrättsliga grunden för USA:s krig mot al-Qaida ut, hur kan målinriktat dödande klassificeras rättsligt och hur förhåller sig drönare till andra vapen? Bör målinriktat dödande jämställas med utomrättsliga avrättningar eller är det under vissa förutsättningar ett legitimt medel? Grundläggande för denna diskussion är om konflikten mellan USA och al-Qaida ska klassificeras som en väpnad konflikt, där krigets lagar styr, eller som brottsbekämpning i fred, vilken styrs av regelverket om mänskliga rättigheter.

  • 14.
    Klamberg, Mark
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Sántha, Hanga
    Lennartsson Hartmann, Ylva
    Crimes Against Humanity in Western Sahara: The Case Against Morocco2010In: Juridisk Publikation, ISSN 2000-2920, no 2, 175-199 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Western Sahara is occupied by Morocco. The referendum on the territory’s final status set forth by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) has repeatedly been postponed and the so far brokered proposals have been rejected by both parties. Since the Moroccan occupation the Saharawis have been continuously repressed through arbitrary arrests, enforced disappearances, and attacks of the civilian population, persecution and oppression of peaceful demonstrations. The violation of fundamental human rights is an ongoing issue. It is argued that these violations may constitute crimes against humanity, further on this article suggests that the international community should act as soon as possible to end Moroccan impunity and to make greater efforts for a just and lasting solution of the question of Western Sahara.

  • 15.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    FRA and the European Convention on Human Rights: A Paradigm Shift in Swedish Electronic Surveillance Law2010In: Overvåking i en rettstat / [ed] Dag Wiese Schartaum, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget , 2010, 99-134 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic surveillance law is subject to a paradigm shift where traditional principles are reconsidered and the notion of privacy has to be reconstructed. This paradigm shift is the result of four major changes in our society with regard to 1) technology; 2) perceptions of threats, 3) interpretation of human rights and 4) ownership over telecommunications. The above-mentioned changes have created a need to reform both the tools of electronic surveillance and domestic legislation. Surveillance that was previously kept secret is now subject to public debate. The article focuses on systems of “mass surveillance” such as data retention and signal intelligence and whether these are consistent with the European Convention on Human Rights.

  • 16.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    What are the Objectives of International Criminal Procedure?: Reflections on the Fragmentation of a Legal Regime2010In: Nordic Journal of International Law, ISSN 0902-7351, E-ISSN 1571-8107, Vol. 79, no 2, 279-302 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International criminal courts pursue several objectives including retribution, deterrence, creating a historical record and giving a voice to the victims while the rights of the accused are protected. A problem is that these objectives pull in different directions creating tensions and fragmentation in the procedural system. Numerous legal issues, referred to as ‘hard cases’, entail a choice where the Judge has to make a choice between two or several objectives. In the interest of legal certainty solutions should ultimately controlled by the law and not by the discretion of the Judge. This article examines whether it is possible to identify a universally acceptable hierarchy of objectives. It is argued that the relevant objectives which determine the outcome of a hard case vary depending on the procedural stage and in each procedural stage there is a structural bias towards one or several objectives. Considering that law exists as a response to several social needs, it appears as unattainable to identify a universal and fixed hierarchy of objectives.

  • 17.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    FRA:s signalspaning ur ett rättsligt perspektiv2009In: Svensk Juristtidning, Vol. 4, 519-541 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I juni 2008 antog riksdagen lagstiftning som innebar en reglering av signalspaning i etern och en rätt för Försvarets radioanstalt att även spana mot kabelkommunikation. Lagförslaget gav upphov till en debatt där lagstiftningens förespråkare betonade behovet av en effektiv försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet och den precision med vilket signalspaning kan bedrivas med vilket enskilda med ”rent mjöl i påsen” skulle vara fredade. Kritikerna liknade FRA:s tillgång till den kabelbundna kommunikation vid ”massavlyssning”, pekade på utvidgningen av FRA:s mandat för signalspaning och oklarheter i avgränsningen mot polisiär verksamhet. Debatten fördes ofta i termer av avlyssning vilket skapat föreställningen att FRA läser och lyssnar på all kommunikation när tekniken och lagstiftningen även medger andra former av övervakning/underrättelseverksamhet. Vidare fanns en fokus på FRA:s försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet där inhämtning av signaler är förhållandevis smal, när myndighetens breda inhämtning av signaler sker inom dess relativt ouppmärksammade utvecklingsverksamhet. Artikeln uppmärksammar särskilt regleringen av dessa två verksamhetsgrenar, FRA:s verktyg för bearbetning av kommunikation och försvarsunderrättelseverksamhetens avgränsning mot polisiär verksamhet.

  • 18.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    International Criminal Law in Swedish Courts: The Principle of Legality in the Arklöv Case2009In: International Criminal Law Review, ISSN 1567-536X, E-ISSN 1571-8123, Vol. 9, no 2, 395-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The district court of Stockholm convicted on 18 December 2006 Jackie Arklöv for a crime against international law. It was the first and, until the present date, the only time liability for an international crime has been tried before a Swedish court. This comment presents the law applied by the Court, draws attention to the principles of legality, ne bis in idem, and discusses whether a national court in a dualistic legal system can impose criminal responsibility with reference to customary international law.

  • 19.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Det behövs ny svensk lag om internationella brott2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Op-Ed Column in the daily Örnsköldsviks Allehanda, 8 august 2008 concerning the investigation and procesution of international crimes before Swedish domestic courts. It is argued that due to inadeqaute legislation Sweden may serve as a sanctuary for suspected criminals.

  • 20.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Kommersiella avtal kan bli lättare att hävda mot andra stater2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Column in the weekly newsletter "Dagens Juridik", 15 February 2008 concerning the case-law from the Swedish Supreme Court on state immunity and the proposal that Sweden should ratify the United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property from 2004.

  • 21.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Vad är domarens roll?2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Column in the weekly newsletter "Dagens Juridik", 15 january 2008 on the role of the judge in a Swedish context, namely whether he or she should be a "finder of justice" or a "truth-finder".

  • 22.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Fråga om tillämpning av legalitetsprincipen beträffande folkrättsbrott2007In: Juridisk Tidskrift: vid Stockholms Universitet, Vol. 19, no 1, 130- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The district court of Stockholm convicted on 18 December 2006 Jackie Arklöv for a crime against international law. It was the first and, until the present date, the only time liability for an international crime has been tried before a Swedish court. This comment presents the law applied by the Court, draws attention to the principles of legality, ne bis in idem, and discusses whether a national court in a dualistic legal system can impose criminal responsibility with reference to customary international law.

  • 23. Gallmetzer, Reinhold
    et al.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Individual Responsibility for Crimes Under International Law: The UN ad hoc Tribunals and the International Criminal Court2007In: Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, 60-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article concerns individual criminal responsibility under international law. It is based on a lecture at the Summer School of the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, held by Reinhold Gallmetzer in The Hague on 5 July 2005. Reinhold Gallmetzer has turned his presentation into the present article and Mark Klamberg has written the second part on the ICC.

  • 24.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Är Sverige en fristad för krigsförbrytare?2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Column in the weekly newsletter "Dagens Juridik", 15 November 2007 concerning the investigation and procesution of international crimes before Swedish domestic courts. It is argued that due to inadeqaute legislation Sweden may serve as a sanctuary for suspected criminals.

  • 25.
    Klamberg, Mark
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska institutionen.
    Saddam borde ha tystats2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Op-Ed Column in the daily Svenska Dagbladet, 6 November 2006, commenting upon the verdict in the Saddam Hussein trial, one day earlier.

1 - 25 of 25
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