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  • 1.
    Islami, Lander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Education for Sustainable Development in the Kosovo: The Voice of Youth2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to explore the state of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Kosovo, from a student's perspective. The education system in Kosovo has for some years undergone reform. The principles of Education for Sustainable Development have been incorporated in ministerial policy and the curriculum. Throughout the past years, numerous research papers and reports have assessed the practice of ESD in Kosovo. An assessment of the voice of youth regarding this topic seems to be lacking. This project contributes towards filling this gap. The results of this study show that official policy in Kosovo makes reference to ESD, yet educational practice remains far from living up to what is desirable and doable in terms of ESD. By and large, this study suggests there is a large gap between the rhetoric of ESD in the education system in Kosovo and the actual practice in schools. Further research is hence needed to provide a more in-depth and representative analysis of ESD in the Kosovo education practice. Moreover, this study concludes that it is increasingly important to recognize the opinion of young people, they are marginalized and have been left out of the decision making about the future of the country. More importantly, youth will determine what Kosovo will be in 10-20 years and therefore they should be heard more strongly and more often.

  • 2.
    Habibi Shahbolaghi, Sanaz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    GMO perceptions among Swedish stakeholders and their implication on the acceptance of a new biotechnological advancement2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the global population expected to reach more than 10 billion by the year 2050, one of the global challenges will be in meeting the growing food demand. Coupled with the effects of climate change on the environment, the world will need plant varieties that can adapt to changing environmental conditions to meet the food production challenge. A viable option to aid food production is using genetic modification for more specific plant breeding and crop optimization. The usage of genetic modification has been highly debated since the course of its first developed commercialized crop. The consumer concerns, stringent regulations and rigorous testing genetically modified crops face, may be circumvented with the legally undefined development of new biotechnological advancements such as CRISPR. This study aims to investigate whether arguments used against GMOs from different stakeholders and antiGM NGOs in Sweden are applicable to the CRISPR technique. Through content analysis of policy documents of influential stakeholders and a literature review of the scientific literature, major concerns with GMOs are identified and their applicability to the CRISPR technique analyzed. This study finds that the most prevalent reservations against GMOs do not apply to the new biotechnology, although the applicability and in effect acceptance of CRISPR among Swedish stakeholders depends on its legal classification, which the European Commission has yet to determine. The findings in this study also indicate that the reservations against GMOs are based on misconceptions and that if CRISPR falls into the same legal category, it will be subject to the same obstacles in its implementation. The implications of its categorical classification may in addition affect a possible utilization of CRISPR among Swedish crop producers in taking part in the global food production challenge. This study concludes that while the prevalent reservations against GMOs do not apply to CRISPR, its acceptance may solely rely on its legal classification and as such there is a need for a closer look on the regulations around the various biotechnologies, as well as a need for better biotechnological communication between researchers, decision makers and consumers.

  • 3.
    Fuentes, Andrés
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Abolishing Stockholm’s Public Transport Fares2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The decrease of car emission levels has stagnated in the latter years in Stockholm, Sweden. Since the city’s publictransit system is highly developed via its large access to areas located in the city’s outskirts, it could serve as a tool topartially replace the city's car traffic and reduce emissions. This study therefore aims to examine expected travelbehavior changes from a fare-free public transport system and investigate potential limitations when increasing thepublic transport travel degree in Stockholm. The theoretical background consists of the mode choice theory thatdissects the reasons behind travel habits, and the zero-price effect which explains the effects from abolishing priceswhen purchasing a service product. The methodological approach was conducted through a random probabilitysurvey conducted in a face-to-face mix mode survey interviews in outdoor environments and via computer-assistedtelephone interviewing. The data was then analyzed through MS Excel and SPSS to extract patterns and correlations.The results thereafter implicated preferences from the survey participants implying their desire to primarily reduce orabolish the public transport fares, which would lead to significant travel habits changes among the majority ofrespondents. This would result in a high number of both frequent car drivers and frequent public transit commutersthat would commute more by public transit and drive less.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Accounting for foods’ nutritional value when implementing a climate tax on food2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing and increasingly more affluent world population leads to an increase in food demand putting pressure on the planet’s natural resources and contributing to anthropogenic climate change. At the same time, a large part of our population suffers from nutrition related non-communicable diseases. There is an urgent need to develop a food system which provides healthy and sustainable food for all. An increase of public policies and regulations within this area has been deemed important in this quest. However, climate impact and nutrient content can have an inverse correlation, if a climate tax which includes nutrition would be implemented this would need attention so that an increased consumption of unhealthy foods with low climate impact does not increase. Aim: The aim of this project is to evaluate different methods for accounting for food’s nutritional value when implementing a climate tax on food in order to avoid the risk of environmental fiscal policies leading to less healthy eating. The focus is on the use of nutrient indices, which concerns the characterizing of foods based on an assessment of their nutrient quality. The objective is to create a quantitative scoring arrangement based on nutritional information resulting in a composite index which could potentially be used to account for foods’ nutritional content when implementing a climate tax on food. Other methods to account for foods’ nutritional value in a climate tax are also evaluated such as Nyckelhålet, complementing the climate tax with a tax on single nutrients or food items or subsidies on healthy foods. Method: The different methods were evaluated according to the following criteria; capturing of ‘healthiness’, cost to implement the methods, practical concerns during implementation, transparency, credibility and scientific base, risk of driving undesirable consumption, risk for fraud and acceptance of the method among the general public. To investigate the possibility to use nutrient indices as a base for a health- and climate related food tax, a nutrient index applicable to Swedish conditions was designed. This index was called Swedish Nutrient Index [SNI] and when including foods climate impact, it was called Swedish Nutrient Index in relation to Climate Impact [SNICI]. Findings: Of the evaluated methods, nutrient indices capture ‘healthiness’ best but would be more complicated and costly to implement than using Nyckelhålet or a tax on single food items or nutrients. The acceptance and credibility might be higher for nutrient indices and Nyckelhålet than for the other methods and these methods would most likely lead to less unwanted consumption since a wider range of food items will be affected by the method. To create a nutrient index suitable for Sweden, like SNICI, is possible. It’s important that the method is objective, transparent and scientifically justifiable, something that can be difficult as there are so many choices to be made when designing a nutrient index. Conclusion: Nutrient indices captures ‘healthiness’ well and could be a useful yet complicated tool to include nutrition in a climate tax on food. When putting nutrition in relation to climate impact it is important that undesirable, unhealthy consumption does not appear caused by the fact that some foods high nutritional value can get offset by its large climate impact and that some foods with low nutritional value can get favoured if they have a small climate impact. Other methods for including food’s nutritional value such as Nyckelhålet, taxing single nutrients, single food items and/or subsidizing healthy food items could be a preferable option, mainly as it would be easier to implement. However, before introducing such a method in combination with a climate tax, a thorough assessments on the risk of undesirable consumption, health effects, practical implementation, cost, political- and public acceptance, scientific evidence, credibility and transparency would be needed. 

  • 5.
    Norrlander, Amanda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Agents of Change or Not? A Case Study of Earthchild Project in South Africa.2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This present case study is exploring whether an Education for Sustainable Development initiative, as exemplified by the South African Earthchild Project (ECP), which is focused on yoga, environmental education and hiking, can empower children and enhance their agency to become agents of change for Sustainable Development. With empowerment and agency theories as a backdrop, a quasi-experimental design is adopted. A drawing method is used in combination with follow-up interviews with an experimental group (children exposed to ECP) and a control group (children not exposed to ECP). Additional data were collected by a focus group session, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. These additional sources are youth who have been members of ECP for numerous years. The findings of this research suggest that that children and youth who are exposed to ECP’s activities are more empowered and have more agency in terms of Sustainable Development than those who are not exposed. Taking into account the study’s limitations and imperfections, it can be concluded that ECP, using an ESD-inspired approach, is meeting its intended objectives.

  • 6.
    Svartson, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    An investigation of what the changes in ISO 14001:2015 mean from an organisational perspective2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of an environmental management system such as the standard ISO 14001 is a common way to manage environmental responsibilities in an organisation. In 2015 ISO 14001 was updated with some major changes like Annex SL, management engagement, strategic engagement, risk-based thinking, life cycle perspective, improved environmental management and interested parties. The purpose of ISO 14001 is to improve the environmental performance of the organisation, but also to increase the degree of employee involvement and with that sustainable development can be supported through the implementation of the standard. The involvement of employees in an organisation with an environmental management system was studied at the Swedish University of Agricultural Science (SLU). By law a Swedish university must have an environmental management system. SLU has implemented ISO 14001 as their environmental management system and was chosen for the research.

    The applied methods were a literature review and case study where interviews and a survey were used. The changes in ISO 14001:2015 were investigated as a part of the literature review. In this method, review studies were investigated to see if any of the changes were discussed before the standard was updated. There was no found research that discussed if drawbacks of version 14001:2004 were actually taken into account when the newest version of the standard was produced. This subject therefore makes the study important to perform. Environmental coordinators were interviewed to find out if the changes in 14001:2015 supported increased participation in the standard. A survey was conducted with environmental coordinators at SLU to investigate how the changes in ISO 14001:2015 were viewed and if the results differed if performed from those obtained from a similar comparison at companies. The reason to study the effects of the changes in the standard at a university and to compare the results with companies is important since it is not optional for the university to adopt an environmental management system as it is for another type of organisation.

    Most of the discussed shortcomings from ISO 14001:2004 did match what was changed in the version from 2015. However, the review studies that were investigated did not discuss the life cycle perspective which was considered to be a major and important change. Therefore, this lack of discussion is viewed as a weakness in the review studies. It was also concluded that, even though employees did become involved to a greater extent in the environmental management system at SLU, it could not be made sure if it was because of the implementations of the changes in ISO 14001:2015. It was most likely because of the major work SLU had done the last three years when certifying the whole organisation. Instead, the conclusion was that it is important to work inclusively with the environmental management system and it seems that the more it is discussed in an organisation, the more employees will become involved. Lastly, it was seen in the thesis that a university and the studied companies viewed the environmental work both similarly and differently. Both thought that only small benefits would be the result of the implementation of the changes in ISO 14001:2015. What differed between the two groups of organisations was that SLU thought that the changes would not give any major difficulties while the companies on the other hand thought that it would create substantial extra work.

  • 7.
    Tibbelin, Isabelle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Lawless, Leona
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Ansvarsfulla investeringar: En studie om hur ansvarstagande integreras i miljö- och etikmärkta fonder2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har vuxit fram som resultat av en ökad medvetenhet

    för etik- och miljöfrågor i samhället. I takt med denna utveckling har ansvarsfulla

    investeringar blivit ett självklart inslag i nästan all fondförvaltning. Fondbolag bestämmer

    själva vilka placeringskriterier som investeringar måste uppfylla för att ingå i deras etiska och

    hållbara fonder. Detta skapar förvirrande förutsättningar för privatspararen som vill investera

    ansvarsfullt. Denna studie har utifrån en kartläggning av Premiepensionens miljö- och

    etikmärkta fonder studerat hur investeringsstrategier ser ut hos dessa fonder och varför, samt

    vilka kriterier som måste uppfyllas. Detta har kompletterats med intervjuer med

    representanter från fem olika institutioner som verkar på fondmarknaden. Det teoretiska

    ramverket för denna studie utgörs av en analysmodell av tre olika investeringsstrategier;

    negativ screening, positiv screening samt aktiv påverkan. Utöver detta används även

    legitimitetsteorin; teorin om att företag agerar för att erhålla ett slags erkännande från sina

    intressenter. Resultatet visar att negativ screening förekommer i störst utsträckning, följt av

    aktiv påverkan och sist positiv screening. Trots att negativ screening kritiseras av de som är

    väl insatta i branschen för att vara kontraproduktiv är den ändå mest populär. Avgörande

    kriterier varierar mellan strategier, men miljö- och socialt ansvar utmärker sig som viktiga

    bedömningsgrunder. Detta antas vara ett resultat av de ökade kraven som ställs från

    omvärlden. Resultatet visar att fondbolag är benägna att välja den strategi som utlovar mest

    legitimitet samt är mest kostnadseffektiv.

  • 8.
    Hansson, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Approaches to the Bioenergy Potential in 2050: An assessment of bioenergy projections2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an abundance of reports and articles on the extent of future bioenergy usage. Decision-makers might turn to bioenergy projections in hopes of making informed decisions for policies or investments. This report aims to highlight irregularities and differences regarding calculations and results in 15 global bioenergy projection studies for the year 2050, and to find underlying connections by applying a metaanalysis with a methodological focus. Statistical distributions were made for the projected global bioenergy potentials. A growth rate study based on the projected global bioenergy potentials was made and used as a simple “reality check”. Regarding Sweden and the EU, it was investigated whether decisions has been made based on estimated bioenergy potentials. The final aim was to make recommendations for bioenergy decision-makers and policy-makers.

    There are many statistical distributions fitting the projections for 2050. The distribution functions showed that with a 95 % confidence level, the bioenergy projections in 2050 is 151.3 EJ. The interquartile range of all studies included in this report for primary bioenergy in the year 2050 was shown to be 120-400 EJ, with minimum value of 30 EJ and maximum of 1600 EJ. A mere third of the projection values were in the vicinity of a linear or exponential trendline based on historical values. The historical annual average growth rate for bioenergy from 1971 to 2011 was found to be 1.9 percent. A higher growth rate is required to achieve the larger quantities that are projected in most studies, the most extreme rate was 7.6 percent, which is far above the average.

    The EU has adopted a biomass action plan partly based on bioenergy projections by the European Energy Agency in 2006. National and international energy projection reports influence Swedish politics, albeit not directly in propositions.

    The difference between individual reports and articles projected bioenergy level in 2050 is significant. It is recommended to read more than one. Most forecasting models and estimates will likely perform poorly numerically, so it is recommended to look for underlying factors, connected longterm trends, or behavioral consequences.

  • 9. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Primavera, Jurgenne
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Folke, Carl
    Jonell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Aquaculture2017Ingår i: Reference Module in Life Sciences, ISSN 978-0-12-809633-8Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.

  • 10.
    Suen, Choi Kan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Are residents living in eco-districts environmentally conscious? A case study of environmental attitudes of residents living in the European Green Capital of Stockholm, Sweden2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med den snabba urbaniseringen, klimatförändringen och befolkningstillväxten under 2000-talet, är utvecklingen av eko-städer i de snabbväxande befolkade områdena som Kina och Indien viktig för att minska den mänskliga påverkan på planeten. Emellertid, om en eko-stads invånare inte är miljömedvetna så kommer en väldesignad eko-stad endast vara hållbar på sin materiella del (teknik och infrastruktur) men inte på sin immateriella del (miljöattityder och beteendemönster hos invånare). Den immateriella delen är viktig eftersom MÄNNISKOR är grundorsaken till den nuvarande klimatförändringen (IPCC, 2014). När beslutsfattarna bestämmer sig för att bygga en eko-stad, hävdar den här uppsatsen att de inte bara bör överväga den materiella delen av staden, utan också överväga den immateriella delen av staden - miljöattityder och beteendemönster hos invånare.

    Den här uppsatsen bygger på en undersökning om miljöattityder hos 150 boende som bor i tre olika områden i Stockholm: Hammarby Sjöstad, Östermalm och Bromma, samt beskriver ett välutvecklat miljöprojekt som leds av invånare i eko-distriktet - Hammarby Sjöstad.

    Målen för denna forskning är:

    (1) att ta reda på miljöattityder hos invånare i tre utvalda områden i Stockholm;

    (2) att förstå utvecklingen av Hammarby Sjöstad samt ta reda på om invånare i Hammarby Sjöstad är särskilt miljömedvetna;

    (3) att ge förslag till beslutsfattare (t.ex. kinesiska och indiska) om hur man tar hänsyn till miljöattityder hos invånare när de planerar och utvecklar projekt som eko-städer.

    Bland forskningsresultaten finns följande:

    (1) i de politiskt konservativa Stockholmsdistrikten med många välutbildade invånare med hög inkomst där jag utförde mina undersökningar rapporterar respondenterna generellt en hög nivå av miljöhänsyn och miljövänligt beteende;

    (2) när det gäller frågor som rör bilar (parkeringsrestriktioner, begränsning eller förbud mot bilar i deras distrikt eller Stockholm som helhet), var åsikterna emellertid mycket uppdelade. Det föreföll att många svarande inte är villiga att sätta stränga restriktioner på användningen av bilar;

    (3) invånare i eko-distrikt, Hammarby Sjöstad, verkade inte som om de var särskilt miljömedvetna. Många svarande flyttade in i distriktet på grund av olika orsaker än miljö;

    (4) ett välutvecklat miljöprojekt som leds av invånare i Hammarby Sjöstad har emellertid uppstått i eko-distriktet. Jämförbara projekt hittades inte i övriga distrikt i Stockholm.

  • 11.
    Skagegård, Maya
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Att förebygga könsbaserat våld i Burma: En kvalitativ studie av trosbaserade organisationers förebyggande arbete mot könsbaserat våld i Burma.2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 12.
    Ishihara, Sachiko
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, Cemus.
    Back from the Future We Want: Backcasting as a pedagogical practice towards sustainable futures2017Ingår i: Envisioning futures for environmental and sustainability education / [ed] Peter Blaze Corcoran, Joseph P. Weakland and Arjen E.J. Wals, Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can education train imagination and creativity to think about ‘the future we want?’ How can we create learning experiences to head towards these desirable futures? In this chapter, we explore backcasting as a pedagogical practice in the group project ‘Back from the Future We Want’, as a part of the interdisciplinary student-led course ‘Global Challenges and Sustainable Futures’. In small groups, students were asked to choose a specific city/village in the world and: (1) describe their visions of a ‘sustainable and desirable future’ for the region in year 2100; (2) develop a transition strategy to reach the described future written as a fictional ‘history’ between 2015 and 2100; and (3) form concrete recommendations for today. Overall, this assignment gave students the opportunity to think and discuss what a ‘sustainable and desirable future’ would include, and provided new ways of looking at the present from a future perspective. Their visions suggested new normativity in each region, which expressed critiques towards present society in various forms, and the process allowed students to think of solutions and how to transform society. The assignment holds further potential as material to have critical discussions about societal directions, including technological, cultural, and ideological assumptions. This chapter intends to inspire further development of sustainable futures education.

  • 13.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lenz, Conny
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Mellström, Anette
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reinholdsson, Maja
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Swedish Geol Survey, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bulk sediment C-14 dating in an estuarine environment: How accurate can it be?2017Ingår i: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 123-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a lack of marine macrofossils in many sediment cores from the estuarine Baltic Sea, researchers are often forced to carry out C-14 determinations on bulk sediment samples. However, ambiguity surrounding the carbon source pathways that contribute to bulk sediment formation introduces a large uncertainty into C-14 geochronologies based on such samples, and such uncertainty may not have been fully considered in previous Baltic Sea studies. We quantify this uncertainty by analyzing bulk sediment C-14 determinations carried out on densely spaced intervals in independently dated late-Holocene sediment sequences from two central Baltic Sea cores. Our results show a difference of similar to 600 C-14 yr in median bulk sediment reservoir age, or R(t)(bulk), between the two core locations (similar to 1200 C-14 yr for one core, similar to 620 C-14 yr for the other), indicating large spatial variation. Furthermore, we also find large downcore (i.e., temporal) R(t)(bulk) variation of at least similar to 200 C-14 yr for both cores. We also find a difference of 585 C-14 yr between two samples taken from the same core depth. We propose that studies using bulk sediment C-14 dating in large brackish water bodies should take such spatiotemporal variation in R(t)(bulk) into account when assessing uncertainties, thus leading to a larger, but more accurate, calibrated age range.

  • 14.
    Borgersen, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Business models for sustainable investments in the context of tropical forest restoration2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tropics continue to provide the most biologically diverse and carbon rich forest in the world, but they are being lost at alarming rates. To meet the global climate change targets and the UN sustainable development goals, financing is urgently needed to speed up and increase tropical forest restoration. The aim of this thesis is to show that sustainable timber and non-timber forest products offer are a viable vehicle for investment in tropical forest restoration and to identify the needed incentives and tools to enable sustainable investment.

     

    There is a lack of research on the integration between business model design and sustainability generally and an absence of business models for tropical forest restoration. Very little research if any, has been undertaken to link the two and evaluate the feasibility of applying business models on tropical forest restoration, especially with regard to its potential as an interesting investment option. This thesis gives a background about tropical forest restorations, sustainable investment, presents three tropical reforestation projects and a conceptual framework. The conceptual framework will be used to evaluate the potential for business model application to finance restoration and enable sustainable investments.

     

    Using a business model for tropical forest restoration projects, which in most cases are not defined as businesses, is an innovative approach and an agent of needed radical change. A business model is a crucial strategic management tool to enable success of tropical forest restorations. The core logic of the business model can offer equitable customer value and the fulfillment of new types of needs. Merging economic development and forest restoration is a powerful tool for innovation. The critical variables for financing are management, monitoring, operational efficiency, political incentives and regulations, stakeholder involvement, community benefits, transparency and information communication technology.

  • 15. Primmer, Eeva
    et al.
    Termansen, Mette
    Bredin, Yennie
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Garcia-Llorente, Marina
    Berry, Pam
    Jääskeläinen, Tiina
    Bela, Györgyi
    Fabok, Veronika
    Geamana, Nicoleta
    Harrison, Paula A.
    Haslett, John R.
    Cosor, Georgia Lavinia
    Andersen, Anne H.K.
    Caught between personal and collective values: biodiversity conservation in European decision-making2017Ingår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 588-604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual decision-makers at different governance levels operate in social contexts, which means that they sometimes need to compromise their personal values. Yet, this dissonance is rarely the direct target of empirical analyses of environmental decision-making. We undertake a Q-analysis of decision-makers' personal perspectives and the perspectives they perceive to dominate in their decision-making contexts. Our empirical analysis addresses biodiversity conservation, which has traditionally been justified with intrinsic value- and science-based arguments. The arguments have recently been broadened with the concept of ecosystem services, highlighting human benefits and values. This evolving context is interesting because of the new rise of anthropocentric values, which can lead to decision-makers experiencing dissonance. Our analysis of interviews with 43 biodiversity conservation decision-makers from nine European countries reveals four personally held perspectives that highlight different, yet partly overlapping, values – intrinsic, human benefit, conservation and connection – as well as three perspectives perceived to dominate in decision-making – utilitarian, insurance and knowledge values. The comparison of personally held and perceived dominant perspectives points to one major conflict: those decision-makers who personally associate with intrinsic values and perceive utilitarian values to dominate in decision-making experience dissonance. By contrast, personally held human benefit values are accommodated well in decision-making contexts and decision-makers who perceive insurance values to dominate experience the least conflict with personally held values. These findings demonstrate the potential of arguments stressing long-term benefits for easing tension and conflicts in conservation decision-making, and the usefulness of empirically testing of the coincidence of individual and social values. 

  • 16.
    Björnegran, Amalia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Challenges and Possibilities for Accommodating Wild Animals in the Realm of Justice2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This research seeks to investigate the possibilities and inadequacies of including wild animals within the justice realm. It bases this research on the reasons and rationales of representatives within environmental non- governmental organizations (ENGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and public agency working with animal- rights and welfare or environmental protection. These representatives reason from a personal and organizational perspective concerning justice, ethics and morals to wild animals. Environmental Justice (EJ) and Ecological Justice (EcJ) serves as the main theories for this research where EJ is often perceived as anthropocentric and EcJ as a non- anthropocentric amelioration of the former. The results indicate that Animal Rights (AR) and World Animal Protection (WAP) think more of animals in terms of individualism, whilst World Wide Foundation (WWF), Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC) think in terms of consideration for species and ecosystems holistically. Some respondents perceived justice exclusively as a human term, however with regard to altered paths of reasoning later in the interview as most respondents continuously struggled, to various degrees, to make sense of justice in relation to wild animals. There were occasional uncertainties concerning ethics and morals, however less alien than the justice term and more relevant in relation to other NGOs, i.e. animal- rights and welfare organizations and less outspoken, though not entirely dismissed, within ENGOs and public agency. However, although some respondents occasionally argued that they do not reflect on ethics, morals and justice, these interviews are testament that they do, but with other terms and concepts that could be argued to be synonymous to ethics, morals and justice and perhaps used consciously and/or unconsciously at work. In other words, one can say that a different kind of rhetoric was applied i.e. justice in form of rights, respect.

    Another finding of the research was a structuration concern: specifically, on whether morals and ethics are reflected in law, or whether the law becomes what constitutes our morals and ethics, given as a majority of the respondents often refer to laws as general guidelines. In other words, does the law reflect reality, or does the law constitute reality? What is the dialectic here? In conclusion, wild animals might never receive full justice, where the researcher analyses it as a sequence of animals not holding moral capacities enough to be moral agents, though with the exception of having rights. As shown in the results, some wild animals can already be said to receive justice, e.g. wild animals as state property and hunting legislation, whilst other wild animals are excluded altogether, e.g. wild animals not being considered in welfare law. In this way, many future challenges include expanding the legal stance of wild animals. Human precedence barricades the opportunities for extending justice which are shown in this study and can be said to link to relational-, aesthetical-, contextual factors and deep cultural values and associations, aspects which overshadow human flourishing, wild animals not having a counterpart, animals as objects and so forth. Though, by giving e.g. wild animals a heightened status in legislation, extending the moral circle to include wild animals the utility of justice may prove helpful in furthering the rights and welfare of animals. Additionally, properties as recognition through, e.g. agency and capabilities could also guide us in giving justice to the natural world, as highlighted by Schlosberg (2007), but also the idea of intrinsic value as highlighted by many respondents. Future research may consider the holistic and individualistic tendencies held within ENGOs, NGOs and public agency to see how it could be mutually considered to a larger extent. As highlighted by one of the respondents, perhaps laws and legislation are not enough and that one could investigate more in how one perceive animals culturally, in other words human dimensions socially and culturally. 

  • 17.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, Cemus.
    Chibuene2017Ingår i: The Swahili World / [ed] In: Wynne-Jones, S., LaViolette, A. The Swahili World. Routledge., Abingdon: Routledge , 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Han, Shangfeng
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Sun, Xiaoyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Han, Song
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    China's Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective2017Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id 600Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  • 19.
    Lehoux, Alizée P.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Sanchez-Hachair, Arnaud
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Lefebvre, Gaëtan
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Carlier, Guillaume
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Hébrard, Celine
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Lima, Ana T.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Hofmann, Annette
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Chromium (VI) Retrieval from Chromium Ore Processing Residues by Electrokinetic Treatment2017Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, nr 9, artikel-id 378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrokinetics (EK) was investigated as a possible technique for in-situ treatment of leachable chromium at a built site contaminated with chromium ore processing residues (COPR). A preliminary EK experiment was carried out at the laboratory scale on an undisturbed COPR core sample. Methods applied for material and pore water characterization before and after EK treatment addressed physical aspects by laser diffraction granulometry, pycnometry and pore water content, mineralogical aspects by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and chemical aspects by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy for elemental composition, spectrophotometry for Cr(VI) analysis, and potentiometry for pH determination. EK was run at 1 V/cm with no external constraints on current intensity. The EK experiment reached an extraction of 72% of the total leachable Cr(VI) after only 10 days of treatment and 84% after 20 days. Material texture, composition, and pH remained similar. These results indicate that EK presents a potential solution for extracting leachable Cr(VI) from COPR sites. The impounded COPR material appeared to be heterogeneous in composition at all scales, from field to lab sample, adding to the challenge of in-situ treatment.

  • 20.
    Howard, Ethan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Collaborative learning and the mitigation of UK ammonia emissions2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study on the conditions of collaborative learning in the context of UK ammonia emissions. By conducting an extensive review of over 40 scientific articles, this study identifies and synthesizes a list of nine conditions deemed necessary for successful collaborative learning processes and explores their extent and overall influence between three stakeholders involved in UK ammonia emissions. Hybrid focus group/key informant interviews provided the data for this exploration. This study suggests that the extent of these 9 conditions are present enough between the three stakeholders to initiate a collaborative learning process. By conducting further studies with a wider field of stakeholders, a collaborative learning process could identify possible ways to mitigate UK ammonia emissions.

  • 21. Eriksson, Ove
    et al.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, Cemus.
    Lennartsson, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi.
    Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology2017Ingår i: Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: The Past and Future of Landscapes andregions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press / [ed] Crumley, C.L., Lennartsson, T., Westin, A., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Fredriksson, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Digital Marine Osteoarchaeology: The problematization of bodies and bones in water2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna master uppsats är ämnad som grund för vidare utveckling av metoder för digital marinosteoarkeologi. Det huvudsakliga syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och problematisera problemen kring at lokalisera, dokumentera, och analysera skeletala kvarlevor vid marinarkeologiska, och andra svåråtkomliga lokaler. Tre olika slags osteologiska analyser utfördes: en baserad på analyser av skeletala kvarlevor, en annan baserad analyser av 2D dokumenterade skeletala kvarlevor, och en tredje baserat på analyser av 3D rekonstruerade skeletala kvarlevor. Det sekundära syftet uppsatsen var att problematisera den tafonomiska påverkan på kroppar, kroppsdelar, och ben i marina miljöer, nödvändiga för utvärderingen för de olika metoderna. Analyserna har utförts på källmaterial som tillgängliggjorts genom forskningsprojekten för skeppen Mars och Gribshunden, Statens Maritima Museer i Sverige, Sandby borg projektet, och Catalhöyük projektet. Utöver detta har även en studie utförts tillsammans med åtta frivilliga osteologistudenter vid Campus Gotland, Uppsala Universitet, under en seminarieövning. Resultaten som samlades in genom de osteologiska analyserna av de tre olika källmaterialen och student studien användes för att kunna understryka den datavariation som fanns tillgänglig för de olika källmaterialen. Resultaten användes för att skapa en grund för framtida digitala dokumentationsmetoder som kan appliceras i fält. Det sekundära syftet med studien besvarades genom att använda skeppen Mars och Gribshunden som exempel för att kunna diskutera den begränsade mängden skeletala kvarlevor som hittills hittats vid de marinarkeologiska lokalerna.

  • 23.
    Hallander, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Electrification and Development:The case study of Rwanda2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As of today, 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to electricity, while 2.9 billion rely on polluting fuels such as firewood, charcoal and kerosene for cooking. This is most prominent in Sub-Saharan Africa where two thirds of the population do not have access to electricity and modern cooking fuels. As electricity serves a prominent part of modern society, electrification is often referred to as a key enabler for socio-economic development. The United Nations have agreed on 17 Sustainable development Goals with the aim to stimulate action over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for ending poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. According to the World Bank, energy is interconnected with 125 out of the total 169 sub-targets that are included in the Sustainable Development Goals. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the relation between access to electricity and relevant development indicators. By assessing previous research within the field of electrification and development, a number of key indicators have been selected for further analysis. A statistical analysis on the development of these indicators in the case study of Rwanda was performed and demonstrated that access to electricity services does have considerable impact on socio-economic development. 

  • 24.
    Maassen, Jacinda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Emergy of an Urban Food Production System: a Case Study of Urban Agriculture in Detroit, Michigan2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to sustain present needs while ensuring the needs of future generations is a surmounting challenge. One pressing challenge is that of meeting the current and future demand for food. In addition, with higher environmental impacts, cities as densely inhabited regions with limited space are increasingly important centers of attention. Accordingly, this study analyzes the sustainability and renewability of urban agriculture and its ability to contribute to an urban food system using a Detroit urban farm as an example of an urban food production system. Using a participatory approach for data collection and emergy synthesis to evaluate the urban farm’s performance, the results show that food production is largely based on organic methods. When examining the farms potential of sustaining Detroiters’ vegetable and fruit consumption, the results suggest that the current vegetable demand could be met if farms similar to the one analyzed in this study are increased. However, with lower quantities of fruit produced, the results indicate that it is not likely to meet the current fruit demand without changes in production. Yet, based on the emergy synthesis, the urban farm is not sustainable due to its large reliance on imported resources. Therefore, three alternative scenarios are developed where the initial study is scenario one. Scenario two includes the resources needed to support chickens and egg production, which reveals it is less sustainable than the initial system or scenario one (no chicken inputs). The other additional two scenarios, scenarios three and four, expand the system boundaries past that of the urban farm by including the renewable fraction of imported inputs and by hypothetically expanding the window of attention to the city scale, respectively. The third scenario slightly increases the renewability and sustainability. Yet hypothetically examining the system from the city scale in scenario four, the results show that a quarter of the resources inputs are renewable. However, for the sustainable development of future urban food systems, emergy suggests that more of these resources need to be local renewable resource inputs. To improve the viability of urban agriculture as an alternative and more sustainable food system, it is suggested that more feedbacks and storages need to be generated within the urban farm system as well as expanded to produce food for the city’s inhabitants.

  • 25.
    Chen, Yingchao
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Lianyong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Jianliang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Emergy-based energy return on investment method for evaluating energy exploitation2017Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 128, s. 540-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To consider the environmental impacts of energy resource exploitation and better estimate the energy return of investment (EROI), this paper establishes a new emergy-based method (EmEROI) that can capture the essence of energy resource exploitation. The EmEROI method treats environmental impacts and labor as particular forms of energy, and all forms of energy can be quantified by solar transformity, which is expressed in emjoules as a common unit. The Daqing oilfield is used as an example, and the corresponding EmEROI value is calculated via the proposed method. The results are then compared with standard EROI estimates. Our EmEROI result is much lower than the standard EROI result and presents a more pronounced declining trend. Our results also indicated that the EmEROI estimates conform well to actual conditions and are not as affected by industrial energy intensity levels as the standard EROI. Thus, EmEROI has the potential for use as an integral aspect of energy resource exploitation project evaluations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Shephard, Kerry
    et al.
    University of Otago.
    Brown, Kim
    University of Otago.
    Connelly, Sean
    University of Otago.
    Hall, Madeline
    University of Otago.
    Harraway, John
    University of Otago.
    Martin, Jonny
    University of Otago.
    Mirosa, Miranda
    University of Otago.
    Payne-Harker, Hannah
    University of Otago.
    Payne-Harker, Nyssa
    University of Otago.
    Rock, Jenny
    University of Otago.
    Simmons, Elizabeth
    University of Otago.
    Stoddard, Isak
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala, Cemus.
    Empowering Students in Higher-Education to Teach and Learn2017Ingår i: New Zealand journal of educational studies, ISSN 0028-8276, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 41-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored opportunities, advantages and barriers to enabling students to establish student-led learning events at a New Zealand university. We used an action-research approach to explore if students felt empowered to use the infrastructure of this university to realise something that they themselves set out to achieve. We discovered that, in achieving a series of open discussions about sustainability, students adopted a democratic, distributed form of decision-making, not unlike a typical academic model, with leaders taking temporary roles that included passing on responsibility to those who followed. Students were proud of the events they created and identified the discussion format as something different from their experience as undergraduate students in our institution. This article, co-authored by staff and students, considers whether higher education processes that do empower students do so adequately and the extent to which students are prepared by higher education to take on powerful roles after they graduate.

  • 27.
    Jin, Yi
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Cuiyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy and water conservation synergy in China: 2007-20122017Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 127, s. 206-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and water issues are interrelated and have significant impacts on the economy. The amount and intensity of energy and water consumption must be controlled, which was clearly stated in the "11th Five-Year" Plan and "12th Five-Year" Plan. The energy-water nexus is a useful approach to integrate economic sectors. Energy production consumes large inputs of energy and water, while producing most of the energy required by other sectors. This synergy between energy conservation and water saving in energy sectors is intricate. This study assesses the synergistic effect between energy conservation and water saving that has been achieved by energy sectors in China during the 2007-2012 period. The research results suggest that energy sectors have completely achieved 12.40 x 10(8) m(3) water saving through energy conservation and 1.12 x 10(6) tce energy conservation through water saving. Coal, oil and gas production mainly consumed water in indirect ways, while electricity generation primarily consumed water in a direct way. The synergistic energy conservation of the electric power sector was significant and was much larger than that of the coal production sector as well as oil and gas production sector. Prominent water saving can be obtained through improved energy conservation in China's energy sectors.

  • 28.
    VIE, Isaak
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Energy for information: the green promise of the Node Pole data centres2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Data centres are key to high availability and around the clock access to information. As the number of data centres increases to satisfy the demand for data, so does their energy consumption. This thesis is a case study of the data centres located in the Node Pole region in the North of Sweden. It aims to look at aspects of both the energy supply of Norrbotten and the actual technologies used by the data centres to utilise this energy supply. Using a literature review to gather primary data, the first research question analyses the energy supply of Norrbotten, investigating its specificities through energy security theories, particularly looking through the aspects of availability, accessibility and affordability. The second question examines the Node Pole’s implementation response to the specific energy supply of the North of Sweden, and whether this response is efficient and sustainable, using the four Rs theory and the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED). The results of the analysis show that the North of Sweden is currently in a privileged position: the energy produced in Norrbotten benefits from high availability criteria, is in oversupply, and thanks to the prevalence of hydropower and wind power in the energy mix, is very low in GHG emissions. The Swedish grid is reliable and robust, and Norbotten is no exception to that rule, providing the Node Pole with an accessible “plug and play” module to the electricity grid. In addition, the recent tax rebate aimed at the data centre industry means that the energy is affordable, more so in fact than in many other European countries. This assessment makes for a favourable breeding ground for data centres in the region from an energy security perspective. Meanwhile, the Node Pole data centres use ground-breaking cooling technologies consisting of airside cooling combined with adiabatic pads for humidity control (no separate humidification system), simple air filtration facilities (thanks to the outstanding air quality of the area),  and aerodynamic architectural premises layouts for better flow, reducing the cooling costs by increasing the efficiency of the overall air conditioning system. This technology is paired with innovative power distribution solutions (non-standard voltage and less UPS batteries), thereby considerably reducing the electricity consumption again and the waste of energy caused by voltage conversion. Combining the auspicious energy offerings of the Norrbotten region with the ingenious practical implementations of the data centres thus unleashes a new potential for more efficient and sustainable data centres.

  • 29.
    Scherling, Theresa Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Energy-saving behavior in industrial management ─A case study of an automobile producer in Central Europe2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is one of the major energy consumers resulting in negative environmental impacts in the world. In this context, industrial energy management becomes critically important when improving industrial energy savings. Emphasized is the careful energy treatment in the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. The dominance of a technical approach in current research of industrial energy management suppresses significant potentials of human behavior for energy efficiency. Societal problems such as the energy efficiency gap and the rebound effect may be tackled by involving energysaving behavior in interventions. This thesis aims to explain characteristics of energy-saving behavior in the industrial settings of an automobile producer in Central Europe. The manufacturer utilizes an energy management program, named QUEST, which is facilitated by the external advisor HE Consulting s.r.o. Questions of particular interest are therefore related to perceived organizational readiness to engage in energy-saving behavior. Data gathering include a structured-questionnaire of perceptions on energy savings at the plants with managers of the automobile producer. Additionally, a semi-structured interview with the CEO of HE Consulting s.r.o. offers a more in-depth view on practical implications of energysaving behavior. As a base for data collection serves a psychological perspective of perceptional theories. Strongly related is that approach to the change management discipline. Results of the study show that, indeed, managers in the QUEST program tend to perceive organizational readiness on energy savings re latively more positive than managers outside the program. Resistance to change can be marginally observed in lower management levels. However, the managers emphasize a lack of time to engage in energy savings. Indicators of perceived organizational readiness on energy savings alone do not show the actual energy-saving behavior. This means that this thesis does not directly observe energy-saving behavior. Nevertheless, the impact of such indicators on the actual performed energy-saving behavior may be seen in combination with quantified energy savings. All findings can only be interpreted in the frame of this study.

  • 30.
    Markcrow, Katelin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Engineering Nature under Climate Change – Implications of Assisted Migration on Sustainable Development in Mountain Ranges2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Planet has entered a new epoch - the Anthropocene; where human activities, such as mining for and burning of fossil fuels, land-use change, and industrialization are actively disrupting the planet’s state. The rate at which climate change is occurring as a result of human activity is unprecedented in recent millennia and poses many threats through drastic changes in rain fall patterns, rising sea level, retreating glaciers, and an increase in extreme weather events. Mountain ranges and the plant and animal species that thrive in specific ‘life zones’ on the mountain slope are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by climate change. As temperatures increase, these ‘life zones’ will essentially shift upwards - and flora and fauna either adapt to warmer conditions, or migrate to avoid extinction. This begs the questions, where will species retreat to when there is nowhere further up the mountain to migrate? Assisted migration has been proposed as a potential solution for species unable to adapt to climate change or unable to migrate, and involves the deliberate interference of humans in relocating species to habitats, outside their historic range, in hopes of preventing the species from going extinct.

    I examined key patterns within assisted migration research from peer-reviewed literature, to highlight the current state of assisted migration research and debate. My aim is to identify whether research favored certain species or geographic locations, to highlight the ethical dilemmas associated with engineering nature, and the potential assisted migration has for sustainable development in mountain ranges. I conducted a literature review and content analysis of 68 journal articles. The results suggest that assisted migration research is heavily debated from scientific, ethical, political and economic perspectives; with a largely theoretical debate and with limited transfer into field experiments. Furthermore, there is an element of bias in research focusing on plant species of economic value as opposed to other species. Moreover, many ethical dilemmas in assisted migration research exist, but no consensus as to whether assisted migration is ethically justifiable. Lastly, I suggest there could be potential for assisted migration for sustainable development in mountain ranges, however there is a need for inter/transdisciplinary research to collaborate in implementing assisted migration.

  • 31.
    Klövheden, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Ett peruanskt småföretags väg till hållbart företagande: Möjligheter, hinder och implementation2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vilka möjligheter och hinder som finns för ett småföretag i Peru att utveckla för mer hållbart företagande samt vilka metoder och strategier som finns tillgängliga för organisationen att implementera i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Hållbar utveckling och ansvarsfullt företagande är teman som blir allt viktigare i en global informationsrik omvärld. Sociala missförhållanden, ekonomiska orättvisor och klimatförändringar är saker vi ständigt blir påminda om. Myndigheter spelar en allt större roll i hur de försäkrar att den inhemska marknaden utvecklar ett ansvarstagande inom de sociala, ekonomiska och miljömässiga områdena.

    Organisationen som studeras är en kycklingrestaurang i Lima, Peru. Området för hållbart företagande är viktigt för att ägarna ska kunna få insikt om verksamhetens olika delar samt hur deras verksamhet påverkar dess omgivning. Den teoretiska bakgrunden innehåller delar från Corporate Social Responsability (CSR), hållbar utveckling, värdekedjan, marknadsföring, lärande organisationer, organisationsutveckling samt offensiv kvalitetsutveckling. Arbetsmetoden är i form av en fallstudie och kvalitativ dataanalys, där insamling av data görs med personliga intervjuer, artiklar och dokument.

    Resultatet visar på att Peru ligger i fronten vad gäller hållbar utveckling inom regionen för Sydamerika. Den peruanska myndigheten har utvecklat flertalet program och metoder, med detaljerade implementeringsplaner, som företag kan använda sig av i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Slutsatsen är att organisationen kan kombinera de metoder och strategier som framkommit i resultatet till en genomförandemodell som baseras på hållbart värde.

  • 32.
    Skilberg, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Vestman, Hampus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Hayer, Carin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Eriksson, Lovisa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Bartek, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Lindholm, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Ett självförsörjande lantbruk i Sverige: En studie kring förutsättningar att göra det svenska lantbruket oberoende av energiimport2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är idag beroende av importerad råolja och handelsgödsel för att kunna driva det inhemska lantbru- ket. Vid en politisk eller klimatmässig krissituation, som leder till importstopp, skulle bränsleförråden sina och ta slut på mindre än tre månader. Då hela det svenska lantbrukets maskinpark drivs av diesel skulle jordbruket stanna helt och landet bli utan livsmedelsproduktion. I arbetet undersöks hur ny teknik och för- nybara energikällor kan kombineras för att nå en högre självförsörjandegrad inom lantbruket med avseende på el, drivmedel och handelsgödsel.

    För att få en bred kunskap inom ämnet genomfördes en litteraturstudie som kompletterades med intervjuer med lantbrukare, traktoråterförsäljare och sakkunniga inom svenskt lantbruk. Från intervjuerna framgick att lantbrukare har viljan att investera i förnybara energilösningar, men saknar i dagsläget lättillgänglig information och en ekonomisk säkerhet för att investera i mindre beprövad teknik. En uppfattning som delas av samtliga tillfrågade lantbrukare är att satsningar krävs för att utveckla förnybara energikällor och ny teknik.

    Utifrån intervjusvar och litteraturstudie formas slutsatsen att ny teknik behöver göras mer tillgänglig för lantbrukare, både i form av subventioner och ett bredare utbud av fossilfria alternativ inom lantbruks- maskiner. För att uppnå detta krävs regeringsbeslut som främjar utveckling och forskning kring ny teknik tillsammans med riktade subventioner som gynnar en omställning från fossila drivmedel mot förnybar energi.

    Rapporten resulterade även i en trestegsmodell som sammanfattar de åtgärder och investeringar som krävs för att nå en högre självförsörjandegrad. Den riktar sig till lantbrukare och beslutsfattare för att underlätta arbetet och innefattar initiativ som kan implementeras idag, imorgon och i framtiden. 

  • 33.
    Nordenskjöld, Edvard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Evaluation of sustainability criteria for small-scale wastewater treatment facilities2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ungefär 700,000 enskilda avlopp i Sverige, varav ca en fjärdedel endast består av trekammarbrunnar, eller liknande system, utan någon form av post-rening. Alla dessa enskilda avlopp belastar ungefär 10 % av den totala antropogena fosforn (P) från svenska kuster till Östersjön. Det sker också ett läckage av en betydande, men svår-kvantifierbar, mängd mikroföroreningar (MF). Detta är en stor, divers grupp av organiska spårföroreningar som t. ex inkluderar läkemedelsrester och tvättmedel. De övergripande intressena angående enskilda avlopp i Sverige har över tid skiftat från frågor gällande dess bortskaffande, till hälsa (avskiljning av smittämnen) och vidare till näringsläckage.

     

    Under de senaste åren har det blivit ett växande intresse för ett mer omfattande hållbarhetsperspektiv. Under det här examensarbetet bedömdes miljö-kriterier (n=5) och socio-ekonomiska kriterier (n=5) för tre teoretiska, fullskaliga enskilda avlopp. Utvärderingen baserades på avloppsreningens effektivitet från ett enskilt hushåll. Dessa avloppssystem innefattade konventionell post-rening, såväl som ytterligare förmåga att behandla P och MF. Metoden som användes för utvärderingen var en multi-kriterie analys (MKA), vars mål var att förse en konceptuell analys av de här tre avloppssystemen med syfte att tjäna som beslutsstöd på en nationell policy-nivå.

     

    Det första beslutsalternativet var en markbädd med Polonite® och granulärt aktivt kol (GAK) filter, för adsorption av P och MF. Det andra alternativet var ett referens minireningsverk (MRV) med fällningskemikalier för utfällning av P, men ingenting specifikt för avskiljning av MF från avloppsvattnet. Den tredje avloppslösningen var även den ett MRV, men med Polonite och GAK filter, som markbädden. Intressenterna som valdes i den här studien var Havs- och vattenmyndigheten (HaV), ett kommunalt miljökontor och en fastighetsbrukare. De 10 hållbarhetskriterierna fick var och en 100 viktpoäng tilldelade. De lägsta och högsta viktpoängen från de tre intressenterna skapade ett intervall för varje kriterie, vilket multiplicerades med betygen 1-5 och summerades.

     

    Det mest hållbara alternativet i den här studien befanns vara markbädden med 102-694 poäng (mittvärde 398), följt av referens MRV med 79-560 poäng (mittvärde 319.5) och MRV med filter med 82-500 poäng (mittvärde 291). Fastighetsbrukaren tilldelade högst viktpoäng till ekonomin, medan HaV gjorde detsamma till miljökriterierna och miljökontoret till de sociala kriterierna. Känslighetsanalysen indikerade möjlig påverkan av de analyserade ändringarna genom att förändra den ovanstående rankingen mellan de båda MRV. Detta bedömdes vara troligast för viktändringen av livs-cykel kostnader och betygsändringen av kriteriet som avser lättheten att efterleva nutida och framtida (lagliga) krav, men den högsta rankingen av markbädden verkade svår att ändra på.

  • 34.
    Lithman, Amanda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Folkvandringstiden-en orolig tid: Debatten om kristiden2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration period was played out during 400-550 AD. This period has also been called the Norths golden era. This is because of the substantial number of gold and jewellery finds from this period. Archaeologists has since the 1930s been debating if the migration period was a time of crisis. This is because of all the discoveries that has been made and interpret as a crisis in Europe. Both the abandonment of the stone settlements and the ring-forts in Öland and Gotland has been used as evidence of a catastrophic crisis.

    The purpose of this essay is to present the most debated interpretations of the migration period. The questions for this essay is: How does the debate look like from it´s beginning to our present day? Has the debate had any changes? Could the archaeologists have been influenced by their own society?

    The essay is based on literature studies and presents the different scientists thoughts in the debate. Both the ring-fort and the abandonment of the settlements have had a significant role in the debate and therefore will be presented in this essay.

    This essay shows that the debate has taken a lot of changes through the years. The conclusion is that archaeologists have been influenced by both their present times and the existing archaeological theory.

     

    Keywords: Migration period, iron age, debate, crisis, climate change, stone-house settlements, ring-fort.

     

     

     

     

  • 35.
    Monzon Santos, Juan Luis Andre
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Food Waste Management - Perceptions, Decisions, and Actions: The case of Guatemala City Department Restaurants2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has implications for the people, the planet, and profits. It presents a global problem which normally requires a local solution. Around 6% of the global food loss occurs in Latin America. However, the region lacks a clear strategy to address the issue, which is also true at the national level for countries such as Guatemala. Furthermore, the perception of different actors in the country towards food waste and its management remains unknown. The aim of this research is to explore on the attitudes towards food waste that might exist in the country by focusing on the restaurant sector with the objective of producing a holistic understanding of the issue. Concentration on the restaurant sector provides additional information of the matter, on a sector that shows limited research on it. To fulfill this objective, a case study was conducted, one that involved the participation of three actors directly related to restaurants as either managers or owners and an actor involved in the Municipality of Guatemala City. The research utilized semi-structured interviews and a review of the literature available on the subject as means of data gathering. The analysis was supported using the Triple Bottom Line Framework, a Positional Analysis ideology, the Sustainable Development Goals and the EU Waste Framework Directive.

    The results showed varied perceptions from the actors on the categorization of food waste, although impacts on an economic, environmental, and social dimension derived from food waste were acknowledged by all of them; being the latter the most prominent. For the actors, the generation of food waste was significant at the customer level, but was also influenced by the type of service provided by the restaurants. Additionally, the approaches selected by them to either directly or indirectly manage food waste covered a vast range of actions. Finally, the actors understood as key for addressing the food waste issue, the raising of awareness on the subject.      

  • 36.
    Asp, Jaana
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    För framtida landskap: genom implementering av EU-strategin grön infrastruktur2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines how the EU Green Infrastructure Strategy is intended to promote sustainable development. The study addresses the need for a social transformation, the process of implementing the Green Infrastructure Strategy, the strategy's objectives, and experience from the work on developing regional Green Infrastructure Action Plans. The objective of the EU Green Infrastructure Strategy is to lift the values ecosystems and biodiversity provide and to see and understand the landscape as a whole. The aim of the strategy is to increase the possibilities for implementing ecosystem-based solutions in several policy areas. The results show that, like sustainable development, the concept of green infrastructure is broad and complex. The results show a hopeful endeavor and ambitious goal setting efforts towards sustainable development, but also the challenges that the County Administrative Board meets in the implementation process.

  • 37.
    Folkesson, Ida
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Förtätning i Uppsala: En socialt hållbar stadsplaneringsmetod?2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förtätning är idag en aktuell stadsplaneringsmetod när dagens städer behöver byggas med hänsyn till den snabba urbaniseringen som sker. De utmaningar många städer står inför med kraftigt ökat antal invånare kräver hållbara planeringslösningar där förtätning anses utgöra en del av denna hållbara inriktning. Den ekologiska hållbarheten har dock dominerat debatten om huruvida förtätning främjar hållbarhet. I denna studie har istället förtätning studerats utifrån social hållbarhet. Syftet är att undersöka hur den sociala hållbarheten påverkas av stadsplaneringsmetoden förtätning i Uppsala. Då staden har en snabb befolkningstillväxt är förtätning en central strategi i Uppsalas framtida utveckling vilket gör staden relevant för denna studie. I genomförandet av studien har kvalitativ metod använts, främst genom intervjuer men även genom att analysera dokument från Uppsala kommun samt fotografering av den fysiska miljön i områdena Sala backe och Kvarngärdet. Denna studie har påvisat att förtätningens inverkan på den sociala hållbarheten är komplex då det både finns möjligheter och utmaningar med denna metod. Uppsala kommun förtätar staden samtidigt som de arbetar för att skapa mervärden, bland annat genom att koppla samman stadens funktioner och skapa blandning.

  • 38.
    Helander, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Geographic Disparities in Future Global Food Security: Exploring the Impacts of Population Development and Climate Change2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the food demands of a growing population is one of the currently most critical issues for the world community. Additionally, negative impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected in some densely populated regions of developing economies. In this thesis, I examine spatial patterns of future impacts of population development and climate change on food security and how these impacts correlate with current patterns of food security and poverty. I aim to assess the global spatial patterns of food insecurity, concerning the current situation and future prognosis, to quantify the impact of population development and climate change on food security, and to examine to what extent poverty can explain spatial patterns.

    To identify spatial patterns, I performed a multiple correlation analysis. The aggregated impact estimate of population development and climate change was calculated by adding their respective national predictions. The explanatory power of poverty was evaluated using regression models which contained population development  predictions and current food security as functions of poverty rate. Based on the my results and a literature review I discuss the future geographic disparities of food security and the corresponding consequences for combating hunger.

    My results show that global geographic disparities are likely to increase substantially, mainly because population, and in turn food demand, will increase strongly in sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest decline of resources in relation to population. Impacts of climate change show a similar geographic pattern where foodinsecure regions will be affected the most. I found that poverty is a significant explanatory variable for both population growth and food security. The literature review support causality between variables, which places poverty at the core of food security issues. Poverty causes both a barrier to access food markets and population growth,which ultimately decrease food availability. In order to reach zero hunger for the coming generations, there is an urgent need to redistribute resources, change direction in agriculture practices and implement extensive political measures that carefully consider both local and global contexts.

  • 39.
    Schmiers, Tina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Getting Europe back on Track? Learning Experiences during Interrail and how a free Interrail Ticket could foster Global Citizenship2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates learning experiences and outcomes during the train travel phenomenon Interrail. It especially focuses on transformational learning and whether and in what scope these learning outcomes correlate with the concept of global citizenship. It further analyses how the proposal of a free Interrail ticket, that is currently debated within the European Commission, could foster global citizenship in the wider context of Education for Sustainable Development. Although there has been much research on educative benefits of travel, Interrail in general and as an informal learning environment in particular, is an under-researched phenomenon. By providing a deeper understanding about transformative learning processes and outcomes during the specific case of Interrail in the context of sustainable development, this study contributes towards closing this niche. This research was carried out in form of a qualitative case study research. In total, 18 in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults representing 13 different nationalities. The interviews were thoroughly analysed by applying Jack Mezirows´ transformative learning theory and the concept of global citizenship. The results were completed with an additional documentation analysis. The study results reveal that Interrail with its specific characteristics and elements may provide an informal learning environment that can foster and promote both transformative learning and global citizenship to the individual traveller. The identified patterns and commonalities of learning experiences and outcomes were summarized within the main topics of personal development, critical thinking and reflection, cultural sensitivity and pluralism, shaping identity and sense of belonging, broadening view and change of behavior or action. Implementing a free Interrail ticket could thus arguably contribute to greater accessibility and more equal opportunities for youth to discover, experience and learn from travelling through Europe by train. Subsequently, this could help to foster Education for Sustainable Development and global citizenship. Based on the study results it is suggested, that transformative learning during Interrail could be enhanced through providing incentives and formal guidance in critical thinking and engagement in rational discourse in formal education.

  • 40.
    Miklós, Zsófia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Governance of Innovative Building Practices: Case of the 3rd District Municipality of Budapest2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analytical framework of governing innovative building practices at a municipal level based on conclusions drawn from the Strategic Niche Management (SNM) approach. The analytical framework viewed the Village House Block demonstration project and EnSURE transnational research collaboration as important facilitators to create the necessary conditions for governing innovation during the renovation of the outdated building stock located in the 3rd District Municipality of Budapest, Hungary. These necessary conditions were articulated in accordance with the three internal processes (the articulation of expectations and visions, the building of social networks and the fostering of learning processes) defined by SNM research. Additionally, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) methodology was considered as a viable tool to guide energy efficient urban development in the district.

    It was found in this research that the Village House Block renovation represented a local technological niche project during which the feasibility of active and passive building technology was tested. This study revealed that the necessary conditions for governing innovation were present in this project. EnSURE was a collaborative research project which did not represent a clear example of technological niche development. It was defined as an important initiative to collect and accumulate knowledge and experiences from local niche projects to create a strategic tool for supporting energy efficient urban development at the municipal level. In this case study, the tool was the Sustainable Energy Action Plan. Overall, it was found that the necessary conditions did not only appear in technological niche projects, such as the Village House Block demonstration project but also in other types of projects, such as EnSURE. Furthermore, it could be argued that the governance of innovative approaches requires an operational framework in which different projects are managed to create these necessary conditions for local technological niche development. At global niche-level, it was revealed that the SEAP or other action plan methodologies could offer a tool to utilise experiences gained from local niches to create an energy efficient urban development strategy. In practice, it was shown that the importance of experimentation with new technologies and the governance of innovation on a strategic way still in its infancy in the 3rd District.

  • 41.
    Bernal, Lydia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Grön islam: En komparativ innehållsanalys av islamisk miljöetik.2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to pinpoint the main rudiments of Islamic-normative environmental ethics, and also to give an overview of its similarities and/or differences from secular-normative environmental ethics, as they can be interpreted in Islamic Declaration on Global Climate Change, and in Declaration on Ethical Principles in Relation to Climate Change. As a theoretical framework, the study uses specifically selected features of Mikael Stenmark’s Miljöetik och miljövård, and of Ibrahim Özdemir’s The Ethical Dimension of Human Attitude Towards Nature: a Muslim Perspective. The material has been divided into the following four categories: Values, Humanity, Lifestyle, and Relations. The material has then been analyzed by using a qualitative content analysis. The results of the study show that the Islamic- and the secular-normative environmental ethics share many valuational standpoints, but their differences stem from what they use as the source to legitimize their ethics. The secular environmental ethics puts humanity in the center, whereas the Islamic environmental ethics places God in the center.

  • 42.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Kekalainen, P.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;WSP Finland Oy, Heikkilantie 7, FI-00210 Helsinki, Finland..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita Univ, Fac Int Resource Sci, 1-1 Tegatagakuen Machi, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, SE-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017Ingår i: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 273-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation-postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 43. Smith, A.C.
    et al.
    Harrison, P.A.
    Pérez Sobac, M.
    Archauxd, F.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Egoh, B.
    Erős, T.
    Fabrega Domenech, N.
    György, A.
    Haines-Young, R.
    Li, S.
    Lommelen, E.
    Meiresonne, L.
    Miguel Ayala, L.
    Mononen, L.
    Simpson, G.
    Stange, E.
    Turkelboomh, F.
    Uiterwijk, M.
    Veerkamp, C.J.
    Wyllie de Echeverria, V.
    How natural capital delivers ecosystem services: a typology derived from a systematic review2017Ingår i: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 26, s. 111-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Westberg, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Hållbar stadsutveckling: En fallstudie av nya stadsdelen Rosendal i södra Uppsala2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Världens städer expanderar kraftigt och det ökade invånarantalet leder till en stor efterfråga på bostäder och en större belastning på miljön. Det ställer i sin tur allt högre krav på att den globala stadsutvecklingen sker på ett hållbart sätt. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka nybyggnationen av Rosendal i Uppsala samt på vilket sätt Rosendal kan betraktas som en ny hållbar stadsdel. För att göra det genomförs en empirisk undersökning av Rosendalsfältet, ett större nybyggnationsområde i Rosendal som är avgörande för hur hela området kommer att betraktas. Undersökningen baseras på kvalitativa intervjuer med de aktörer som är inblandade i planeringen av Rosendalsfältet samt på en litteraturstudie. Resultatet av den empiriska undersökningen visar att ambitionerna för att Rosendal ska kunna betraktas som en ny hållbar stadsdel är höga. Visionen och målen med planeringen av Rosendalsfältet stämmer väl överens med vad som krävs för en hållbar stadsutveckling. Men för att detta ska uppnås måste även dessa lyckas uppfyllas i praktiken. En stor osäkerhetsfaktor är den framtida trafikmängden i området men även boendekostnaden. Om det blir för dyrt att bo i området motverkas visionen av Rosendalsfältet som en stadsdel med mångfald.

  • 45.
    Sabel Plantinger, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hållbar utveckling eller grön medvetenhet?: En frameanalys av hållbar utveckling i läroböcker i samhällskunskap2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 46.
    Wiggen, Frida
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Hållbar utveckling i geografiundervisningen: Lärares inställningar och undervisningsmetoder2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker hur undervisningen i hållbar utveckling ser ut i geografi i årskurs 7–9. Syftet var att undersöka hur lärare arbetar mot och tolkar hållbar utveckling gentemot läroplanen och kursplanen i geografi för skolans årskurs 7–9. För att ta reda på syftet och besvara frågeställningarna utfördes kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra lärare verksamma inom SO-ämnena i Eskilstuna. Resultatet visar att lärare till viss del tolkar begreppet hållbar utveckling olika, något som kan tyda på bristande information och en avsaknad av tydliga riktlinjer. Begreppet definieras i hög grad utifrån ett ekologiskt perspektiv, medan andra aspekter av begreppet såsom sociala och ekonomiska nämns mer implicit. Undervisningen inom hållbar utveckling kan se mycket olika ut, men många arbetar med fältstudier och temaarbeten. Samtliga respondenter ansåg att det är både möjligt och fördelaktigt att arbeta ämnesövergripande inom hållbar utveckling. I resultatet belyses eventuella brister i lärares kunskaper inom ämnet, vilka också efterfrågar fortbildningar kring ämnet. Detta förhindras dock av en brist på både tid och pengar inom skolan. 

  • 47.
    Sjölander, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Wahlqvist, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Hållbar utveckling, är det bara en fråga om miljö?: En kvalitativ fallstudie om undervisning för hållbar och den sociala dimensionen i förskolan2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna fallstudie är att undersöka hur en grupp förskollärare beskriverundervisning för hållbar utveckling samt den sociala dimensionen. Kvalitativa intervjuer användes som metod där sex förskollärare från en förskola utgjorde grunden för studiens underlag.Tre undervisningstraditioner har använts som utgångspunkt för att svara på syfte och frågeställningar som visade att den sociala dimensionen påverkar vilken typ av undervisning för hållbar utveckling barnen får ta del av. Studien visade också att förskollärarna behöver kunskap om vad begreppen hållbar utveckling och den sociala dimensionen innefattas av för att kunna ge barnen förutsättningar som leder till ett positivt förhållningssätt för en hållbar utveckling.

  • 48.
    Pär, Holmberg
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Input-Output Analysis of Emissions Embodied in Swedish Imports from China, 1995-20092017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growth of international trade many researchers are questioning the effects on the environment by emissions embodied in international trade flows. The embodied emissions in the import (EEI) and export of Sweden are relatively unexplored despite being a trade-dependent country. However, a few earlier studies indicate that the largest share of embodied CO2 in the international trade of Sweden is in the import from China.

    This thesis evaluates Sweden’s EEI from China during the years 1995-2009 by using an input-output analysis with the emissions in bilateral trade approach. Different from existing studies, the sector distributions of the EEI are outlined with high transparency and the driving factors for the change in EEI are identified by using a structural decomposition analysis (SDA).

    Results shows that the EEI increased significantly from 1995-2009 and that the main increase occurred during 2002-2007. The import of electrical and optical equipment, textile products and renting of machinery and equipment contributed to the largest share of the EEI. The EEI induced from the total import were mainly generated from electricity, gas and water supply and other heavy industries.

    Results from the SDA showed that the scale effect from increased imports from especially heavy industries had a large influence on the growth in embodied CO2 emissions. The service sectors contributed to the second largest share of the increase in the EEI due to scale and structural effects. The technical effect, on the contrary, was markedly offsetting the increase of embodied CO2 emissions both for heavy and light industries.

  • 49.
    Packer, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Institutional conditions for food waste management: A study of horticultural conditions in the UK2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the institutional conditions that are afforded to horticultural producers, in the UK, to perform food waste management. This study identifies three important topics of focus regarding food waste management, and performs a thorough literature review in order to critically examine the influence of cosmetic standards, the waste management hierarchy, and historical motivations among citizens. Semi-structured interviewing as well as field observations collaborate with the literature review in representing the stakeholder perspective and experiences of the local horticultural producer. This study suggests conditions for horticultural food waste management are sufficient if stakeholders are willing to collaborate consistently, and if stakeholders voluntarily seek knowledge and competence in order to practise and perform waste management. This voluntary approach and top down encouragement produces conditions for food waste management which could lead to the reduction of food waste in its most unattractive form.

  • 50.
    skoglund, vilhelm
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Intressentinkludering i hållbarhetsredovisning: En utvärderande jämförelse av ett utvecklat land och ett utvecklingsland2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare tid har allt fler företag börjat hållbarhetsredovisa, vilket innebär att de på årlig basis sammanställer och kommunicerar information om miljömässiga, sociala och ekonomiska aspekter av sin verksamhet. Hållbarhetsredovisning kan stötta hållbar utveckling på två huvudsakliga sätt. För det första kan det öka transparensen i samhället genom att förbättra tillgång till samt utgöra en plattform för att lämna och hantera hållbarhetsrelaterad information om företag. För det andra kan det stärka hållbarhetsarbete inom företag genom att de får insikt i hur de inverkar på omvärlden samt bereder dem strukturer och mål för hållbarhetsarbete.

    För att fylla dessa funktioner krävs emellertid att företag inkluderar aktörer som påverkas av och påverkar företaget, s.k. intressenter, i upprättandet av hållbarhetsredovisningen. En central princip inom hållbarhetsredovisning är följaktligen intressentinkludering. I denna uppsats utvärderar och jämför jag intressentinkludering i hållbarhetsredovisning i det utvecklade landet Spanien och utvecklingslandet Colombia genom innehållsanalys av tio hållbarhetsredovisningar från företag i respektive land. Jag finner, i likhet med tidigare forskning, att intressentinkludering i hållbarhetsredovisning är bristfällig, särskilt i utvecklingslandet Colombia. Härtill bidrar jag till existerande forskning genom att närmare beskriva på vilket sätt intressentinkludering i hållbarhetsredovisning är bristfällig samt skiljer sig mellan det utvecklade landet Spanien och utvecklingslandet Colombia.

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