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  • 1. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Primavera, Jurgenne
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Folke, Carl
    Jonell, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Aquaculture2017In: Reference Module in Life Sciences, ISSN 978-0-12-809633-8Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.

  • 2.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lenz, Conny
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Mellström, Anette
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reinholdsson, Maja
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Swedish Geol Survey, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bulk sediment C-14 dating in an estuarine environment: How accurate can it be?2017In: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 32, no 2, 123-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a lack of marine macrofossils in many sediment cores from the estuarine Baltic Sea, researchers are often forced to carry out C-14 determinations on bulk sediment samples. However, ambiguity surrounding the carbon source pathways that contribute to bulk sediment formation introduces a large uncertainty into C-14 geochronologies based on such samples, and such uncertainty may not have been fully considered in previous Baltic Sea studies. We quantify this uncertainty by analyzing bulk sediment C-14 determinations carried out on densely spaced intervals in independently dated late-Holocene sediment sequences from two central Baltic Sea cores. Our results show a difference of similar to 600 C-14 yr in median bulk sediment reservoir age, or R(t)(bulk), between the two core locations (similar to 1200 C-14 yr for one core, similar to 620 C-14 yr for the other), indicating large spatial variation. Furthermore, we also find large downcore (i.e., temporal) R(t)(bulk) variation of at least similar to 200 C-14 yr for both cores. We also find a difference of 585 C-14 yr between two samples taken from the same core depth. We propose that studies using bulk sediment C-14 dating in large brackish water bodies should take such spatiotemporal variation in R(t)(bulk) into account when assessing uncertainties, thus leading to a larger, but more accurate, calibrated age range.

  • 3.
    Han, Shangfeng
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Sun, Xiaoyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Han, Song
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    China's Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 5, 600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  • 4.
    Chen, Yingchao
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Lianyong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Jianliang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Emergy-based energy return on investment method for evaluating energy exploitation2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 128, 540-549 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To consider the environmental impacts of energy resource exploitation and better estimate the energy return of investment (EROI), this paper establishes a new emergy-based method (EmEROI) that can capture the essence of energy resource exploitation. The EmEROI method treats environmental impacts and labor as particular forms of energy, and all forms of energy can be quantified by solar transformity, which is expressed in emjoules as a common unit. The Daqing oilfield is used as an example, and the corresponding EmEROI value is calculated via the proposed method. The results are then compared with standard EROI estimates. Our EmEROI result is much lower than the standard EROI result and presents a more pronounced declining trend. Our results also indicated that the EmEROI estimates conform well to actual conditions and are not as affected by industrial energy intensity levels as the standard EROI. Thus, EmEROI has the potential for use as an integral aspect of energy resource exploitation project evaluations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Kekalainen, P.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;WSP Finland Oy, Heikkilantie 7, FI-00210 Helsinki, Finland..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita Univ, Fac Int Resource Sci, 1-1 Tegatagakuen Machi, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, SE-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, no 3, 273-288 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation-postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 6.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Post-conventional energy futures: Rendering Europe's shale gas resources governable2017In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 31, 32-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the shale gas boom in the United States, unconventional natural gas extracted from organic-rich shale rock formations has generated increasing attention in the European Union (EU). This considerable interest has been spurred by a range of optimistic volumetric appraisals of shale gas resource potential trapped beneath the European continent. The paper critically examines rationalities and practices through which states of resource availability and recoverability are made visible, measurable, intelligible, and thus rendered governable, namely open to new fields of possibilities to act upon. By implementing the concept of socio-technical imaginaries as governmentality approach, the analysis is guided by two objectives: first, to identify visions of shale gas potential contained in a range of resource estimates; second, to scrutinize rationalities of government, that is how shale gas resources are made knowable and purposeful, as well as technologies of government that operationalize these rationalities via practices of calculation, visualization, and inscription. The paper illustrates that, these highly speculative and uncertain assessments can forge powerful volumetric imaginaries of shale gas potential that yield specific governing effects concerned with securitization of unconventional hydrocarbons availability. Consequently, these imaginaries prescribe and legitimize techno-political hopes for certain post-conventional energy futures underpinning the fossil fuel abundance narrative.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-06-07 00:01
  • 7.
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lund, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Production Decline Curves of Tight Oil Wells in Eagle Ford Shale2017In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 26, no 3, 365-377 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study derives typical production curves of tight oil wells based on monthly production data from multiple horizontal Eagle Ford shale oil wells. Well properties initial production (IP) rate and production decline rate were documented, and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) was calculated using two empirical production decline curve models, the hyperbolic and the stretched exponential function. Individual well productivity, which can be described by IP level, production decline curvature and well lifetime, varies significantly. The average monthly IP was found to be around 500 bbl/day, which yields an EUR in the range of 150-290 kbbl depending on used curve, assumed well lifetime or production cutoff level. More detailed analyses on EUR can be made once longer time series are available. For more realistic modeling of multiple wells a probabilistic approach might be favorable to account for variety in well productivity. For less detailed modeling, for example conceptual regional bottom-up production modeling, the hyperbolic function with deterministic parameters might be preferred because of ease of use, for example with the average parameter values IP = 500 bbl/day, D = 0.3 and b = 1 resulting in an EUR of 250 kbbl with a 30-year well lifetime, however, with the recognition that this extrapolation is uncertain.

  • 8.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Sandström, Per
    Svensson, Johan
    Shades of grey challenge practical application of the Cultural Ecosystem Services concept2017In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 23, 55-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Agrawal, Ganesh K.
    Gutiérrez, José M.
    Hassanali, Ahmed
    Huq, Saleemul
    Koller, Silvia H.
    Marjit, Sugata
    Mshinda, Hassan M.
    Masjuki, Hj Hassan
    Solomons, Noel W.
    Van Staden, Johannes
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Steps to overcome the North-South divide in research relevant to climate-change policy and practice2017In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, 21-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global North-South divide in research, and its negative consequences, has been highlighted in various scientific disciplines. Northern domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by Southern researchers in Southern countries, may hinder further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. Despite efforts to address the North-South divide, progress has been slow. In this Perspective, we illustrate the extent of the divide, review underlying issues and analyse their consequences for climate change policy development and implementation. We propose a set of practical steps in both Northern and Southern countries that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to span the North-South divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.

  • 10.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för Tema.
    The human rights turn: ENGOs’ changing tactics in the quest for a more transparent, participatory and accountable CDM2017In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 26, no 4, 648-668 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors are increasingly participating in international climate diplomacy. The tactics employed by diverse civil society agents to influence climate policymaking are radicalizing through the adoption of more confrontational language. Activist groups have been seeking opportunities to influence policymakers regarding the rules related to transparency, public participation and accountability in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). By scrutinizing efforts of three environmental NGOs (ENGOs) — Climate Action Network, Center for International Environmental Law and Carbon Market Watch — the analysis concentrates on what tactical shifts have occurred in the framing positions and approaches of these activists during the 1997-2015 period. After several years of legal advocacy, expertise and/or critique in an effort to reform input legitimacy of CDM governance, the selected ENGOs have recently drifted away from narratives of green governmentality and ecological modernization and, instead, radicalized their rhetorical tactics by turning to a human rights perspective under the umbrella of climate justice.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-10-17 08:00
  • 11.
    Wang, Jianliang
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, 18 Fuxue Rd, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Lianyong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, 18 Fuxue Rd, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, 18 Fuxue Rd, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Bentley, Yongmei
    Univ Bedfordshire, Sch Business, Luton LU1 3JU, Beds, England..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    The implications of fossil fuel supply constraints on climate change projections: A supply-side analysis2017In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 86, 58-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate projections are based on emission scenarios. The emission scenarios used by the IPCC and by mainstream climate scientists are largely derived from the predicted demand for fossil fuels, and in our view take insufficient consideration of the constrained emissions that are likely due to the depletion of these fuels. This paper, by contrast, takes a supplyside view of CO2 emission, and generates two supply-driven emission scenarios based on a comprehensive investigation of likely long-term pathways of fossil fuel production drawn from peer-reviewed literature published since 2000. The potential rapid increases in the supply of the non-conventional fossil fuels are also investigated. Climate projections calculated in this paper indicate that the future atmospheric CO2 concentration will not exceed 610 ppm in this century; and that the increase in global surface temperature will be lower than 2.6 degrees C compared to pre-industrial level even if there is a significant increase in the production of non-conventional fossil fuels. Our results indicate therefore that the IPCC's climate projections overestimate the upper-bound of climate change. Furthermore, this paper shows that different production pathways of fossil fuels use, and different climate models, are the two main reasons for the significant differences in current literature on the topic.

  • 12.
    Obrochta, S. P.
    et al.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Fazekas, S. Z.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Engn Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Yokoyama, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Atmosphere & Ocean Res Inst, Chiba, Japan..
    Miyairi, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Atmosphere & Ocean Res Inst, Chiba, Japan..
    Kondo, R.
    Kogakuin Univ, Educ Dev Ctr, Tokyo, Mie, Japan..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland, Marine Geol, Espoo, Finland..
    Hyttinen, O.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fehr, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Geophys & Geothermal Energy, Aachen, Germany..
    The undatables: Quantifying uncertainty in a highly expanded Late Glacial-Holocene sediment sequence recovered from the deepest Baltic Sea basin-IODP Site M00632017In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 18, no 3, 858-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of > 1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper similar to 1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper similar to 1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk C-14 dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.

  • 13. Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Laurance, William F.
    Biodiversity Boundaries2016In: Science, Vol. 353, no 6304, 1108- p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Sowunmi, Akinleye
    et al.
    Masdar Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Ctr Energy iENERGY, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Mamone, Richard Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Masdar Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Ctr Energy iENERGY, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo
    Masdar Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Ctr Energy iENERGY, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye
    Masdar Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Ctr Energy iENERGY, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Biogas potential for electricity generation in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi2016In: BIOMASS CONVERSION AND BIOREFINERY, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 6, no 1, 39-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Government of Abu Dhabi made a commitment to generate 7 % of its total power output from renewable sources of energy by 2020. Biomethane is considered a viable option in accomplishing this goal. The objective of this work is to estimate the biogas to electricity potential from nine different biomasses found in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, i.e., sheep dung, goat dung, cattle dung, camel dung, print paper, newspaper, carton paper, food waste, and animal waste blood. These biomasses are considered waste, and they were selected for their organic content and relative abundance in the Emirate. The objective was accomplished through experimental work measuring the biomethane potential of the nine biomasses and the estimation of their availability in the Emirate. Food waste had the highest biomethane potential yield of 517.36 mL-CH4/g-VSadded at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP), while newspaper had the lowest yield of 76.6 mL-CH4/g-VSadded STP, despite its high cellulose content. Varying levels of inhibition were also observed across the biomasses. An estimation of the total biomethane potential showed that the nine biomasses are able to provide 6 % of domestic electricity use in Abu Dhabi Emirate and 1.9 % of renewable energy commitment, with food waste contributing the highest fraction (51 %) and paper waste having the highest specific electricity potential (0.94 kWh/t).

  • 15.
    Salas-Romero, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Combined land and river high-resolution reflection seismic imaging of an area prone to quick-clay landslides in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick-clay landslides are common in northern countries and the delineation of these materials is important when planning urban areas. High-resolution reflection seismic data were acquired on land along four profiles in an area prone to quick-clay landslides in southwest Sweden in 2013. These data complement previous investigations that show the influence of the underlying coarse-grained layers in the formation and thickness of the quick clays. The intercalation of the different glacial and postglacial sediments, and the structural information of the subsurface provide clues to the possible causes of a landslide. Apart from the land data, river seismic data, using one and six channels, were obtained. All the seismic sections show a clear undulating bedrock reflection, and signs of bedrock faults at shallower depth that maybe important in the generation of quick clays and landslides. The coarse-grained layer reflection is delineated on the land data, and several filled channels can be distinguished along the river. The presence of the coarse-grained layer indicates the possible large extension of the quick clays in the study area, which needs to be confirmed using geotechnical investigations.

  • 16.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Orlikowska, Ewa
    Jean-Michel, Roberge
    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata
    Contribution of social science to large scale biodiversity conservation: a review of research about the Natura 2000 network2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 199, 110-122 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful conservation needs to be informed by social science because it is closely linked to socio-economic processes and human behaviour. Limited knowledge about ecosystems' interactions with these processes currently undermines conservation efforts. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of social science concerning the world's largest multinationally-coordinated conservation infrastructure: the European Ecological Network - ‘Natura 2000’. Based on a review of 149 publications, we analyse and discuss the main findings and outline key social-science research gaps with regard to the Natura 2000 network. The review shows that human dimension of the Natura 2000 network is complex and varies among EU Member States. In general, low level and quality of public participation in implementation of the Natura 2000 network and its management, negative public perceptions of the network, lack of flexibility of responsible authorities and insufficient consideration of the local context pose the greatest challenges to the network's functioning. Important but hitherto little studied research topics include: evaluation of participation; effects of education on potential to raise public awareness; effects of potential financing mechanisms for compensating private land-owners; economic studies on cost-effectiveness; and benefits from conservation and ecosystem services. These knowledge gaps will need to be filled for the Natura 2000 network to reach its goals.

  • 17.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Center.; Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Box 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brown, Kelsey
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.; Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Beijer Inst, Box 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eco-Labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue) Green Consumption2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 9, 884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371). Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i) recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV); and (ii) concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  • 18.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Johansson, Frank
    Effects of management, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, 103-112- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, 103-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

  • 20.
    Orlikowska, Ewa
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Forest Resource Management, NILS, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. wedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Gaps in ecological research on the world's largest internationally coordinated network of protected areas: A review of Natura 20002016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 200, 216-227 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natura 2000 (N2k) is a multinational and" coordinated conservation network designated to support the long-term survival of Europe's most valuable species and habitats. It is the key conservation tool in the European Union. We reviewed 510 peer-reviewed publications (period 1998-2014) focusing on ecological aspects of N2k, with the aims of identifying key research gaps and proposing future research priorities for improved conservation success. We categorized the articles by spatial scale, biogeographical regions, taxonomic groups, habitat types, and the analytical methods used. The majority of studies were performed in single N2k sites or at the regional level within countries. The Mediterranean region had the greatest number of publications and the terrestrial Black Sea, Macaronesia, Pannonian and Steppic regions were overrepresented in relation to their total area and to the area of N2k sites that they comprised. Grasslands, freshwater and wetland habitats were overrepresented in comparison to their area within N2k. Plants were the most commonly studied taxonomic group and quantitative empirical studies dominated. Future N2k research should address knowledge gaps by directing more efforts towards: 1) the Boreal region, 2) alpine, agricultural, forest and marine habitats, and 3) under represented taxonomic groups such as reptiles, amphibians, lichens and fungi. For enhanced evaluation and realization of the conservation potential of N2k, more studies will need to encompass large spatial scales and utilize modelling approaches to effectively address future climate and land-use changes.

  • 21.
    Salas-Romero, Silvia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lougheed, Bryan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Identifying landslide preconditions in Swedish quick clays - insights from integration of surface geophysical, core sample- and downhole property measurements2016In: Landslides: Journal of the International Consortium on Landslides, ISSN 1612-510X, E-ISSN 1612-5118, Vol. 13, no 5, 905-923 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quick-clay landslides are a serious geohazard in Canada, Norway and Sweden. Identification and mapping of quick clays are essential endeavours because the damage caused by an individual landslide can be large and costly, with potentially fatal consequences. We collected geophysical borehole and soil core data from an area prone to quick-clay landslides in southwestern Sweden. Methodologies included in situ and laboratory measurements, providing information about natural gamma radiation, sonic velocities, electrical conductivity, pH, physical grain size, elemental and mineral composition, magnetic properties, cation exchange capacity and fossil content. A stratigraphic thickness of almost 60 m enables us to study quick clays and their host environment in Sweden at unusually high resolution. Results identify the origin and location of reflections in nearby seismic lines and assign physico-chemical properties to the geological units present in the area. We show that coarse-grained layers are sandwiched between marine clays (some of which are quick clays). These layers function as a conduit for relatively fresh water that infiltrates the marine clays and chemically destabilizes them by leaching out their salts. The salinity distribution in the boreholes indicate that the groundwater movement is downwards, through the coarse-grained layer and towards the Gota river. The presence of these materials is important for the development of quick clays, although not a prerequisite. With the help of surface geophysical methods, the location of the coarse-grained layers can be known faster and more economically, which could be relevant for studying the potential for quick-clay landslide occurrence over large areas.

  • 22.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Harwell OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Indirect impacts of climate change2016In: Science, Vol. 354, no 6318, 1386-1386 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    et al.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Harwell, Berks, England.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Maria Gutiérrez, José
    Univ Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Inequality: span the global divide2016In: Nature, Vol. 539, 31-31 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Kubler, Lutz
    Geol Survey Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 27635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alno carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alno cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

  • 25.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Natural resources and sustainable energy: Growth rates and resource flows for low-carbon systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies is important for counteracting anthropogenic climate change and achieving universal energy access. This thesis explores potential growth rates of technologies necessary to reach a more sustainable global energy system, the material and energy flows required to commission these technologies, and potential future availability of the required resources.

    These issues are investigated in five papers. Potential future growth rates of wind energy and solar photovoltaics, and the associated material requirements are explored, taking the expected service life of these technologies into account. Methodology for assessing net energy return and natural resource use for wind energy systems are analyzed. Potential future availability of lithium and phosphate rock are also investigated.

    Estimates of energy and materials required for technologies such as wind energy and photovoltaics vary, and depend on the assumptions made and methods used. Still, it is clear that commissioning of low-carbon technologies on the scale required to reach and sustain a low-carbon energy system in coming decades requires significant quantities of both bulk materials and scarcer resources. For some technologies, such as thin film solar cells and electric vehicles with lithium-ion batteries, availability of materials could become an issue for potential growth rates. Future phosphate rock production could become highly dependent on few countries, and potential political, social and environmental aspects of this should be investigated in more detail.

    Material and energy flows should be considered when analyzing growth rates of low-carbon technologies. Their estimated service life can indicate sustainable growth rates of technologies, as well as when materials are available for end-of-life recycling. Resource constrained growth curve models can be used to explore future production of natural resources. A higher disaggregation of these models can enable more detailed analysis of potential constraints. This thesis contributes to the discussion on how to create a more sustainable global energy system, but the methods to assess current and future energy and material flows, and availability of natural resources, should be further developed in the future.

    List of papers
    1. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy
    2014 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 73, 767-776 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns.

    Keyword
    Growth curves, Natural resources, Renewable energy, Wind energy, Sustainability, Energy systems
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in the Science of Global Energy Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-225554 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.003 (DOI)000341474100072 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-04 Last updated: 2016-08-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaics
    (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Keyword
    solar energy, photovoltaics, critical materials, energy metals, renewable energy, recycling
    National Category
    Energy Systems Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301946 (URN)
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