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  • 1.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    “A Thousand flowers are flowering just now” – towards integration of ecosystem services concept into decision making2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 30, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the integration of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in decision making.

    We use the three dimensions of learning to investigate the use of the ES concept.

    ES concept seems to meet several positive expectations put forward in science and policy.

    A main contribution from the concept may potentially be its function as a “boundary object”.

    Implementing ES into practice is a complex process and a multifaceted task.

  • 2.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Bialowieza Forest: Political stands2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6376, p. 646-646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Kremer, A.
    et al.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Stein, R.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Fahl, K.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Ji, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wiers, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Matthiessen, J.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Forwick, M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Lowemark, L.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chen, J.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 182, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 degrees C.

  • 4.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mapping Chinese Supply2018In: Nature Energy, ISSN 0028-212X, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 166-167Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Documenting the emissions and net energy of a crude supply could be essential to meeting national emission and energy security targets. Using data from hundreds of fields worldwide, a well-to-refinery study presents a high-granularity profile of China’s crude oil supply in terms of emissions and energy return on input.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-27 08:56
  • 5.
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Henke, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Oil projections in retrospect: Revisions, accuracy and current uncertainty2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 220, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios and projections are important for decision and policy making. Accuracy of past projections can be useful for both scenario users and developers, for insight on current projection uncertainty, and for guiding improvement efforts. This paper compiles projections of oil production, oil prices and upstream investments from the years 2000 to 2016 from the annual World Energy Outlook by the International Energy Agency, and investigates revisions and accuracy of past projections and implied uncertainty of current ones. Revisions of world oil production, price and investments have been motivated by a combination of demand and supply factors. Downward revisions are mainly allocated to OPEC, while recent upward revisions are due to unconventional oil, in particular US tight oil. Non-OPEC conventional projections have been stable. Price and investments have been revised mostly upwards. Projection accuracy follows the size and directions of these revisions, with high accuracy for Non-OPEC (mean absolute percentage error of 4.8% on a 5 year horizon) and low for OPEC (8.9%) and unconventional (37%). Counteracting error directions contribute to accurate total World oil supply projections (4%) while price projections have low accuracy (37%). Scenario users should be aware of implied uncertainty of current oil projections. In planning and decision making, uncertainty ranges such as those presented here can be used as benchmarks. Scenario developers should focus improvements efforts on three areas in particular: tight oil, OPEC and new technology.

  • 6.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Recreational fishing for sea trout – for whom and to what value?2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 204, p. 380-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Primavera, Jurgenne
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Folke, Carl
    Jonell, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Aquaculture2017In: Reference Module in Life Sciences, ISSN 978-0-12-809633-8Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.

  • 8.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Nature Conservancy, Delmont, NJ USA..
    King, Katie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lacombe, Guillaume
    Int Water Management Inst, Viangchan, Laos..
    Assessing hydrologic changes across the Lower Mekong Basin2017In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, ISSN 2214-5818, Vol. 12, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study region: In this study, 33 catchments across the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia are examined to detect historical changes in their hydrological response via a model-based methodology.

    Study focus: Intensive development over the past half century across Southeast Asia's Lower Mekong Basin has inevitably affected natural resources. Large areas have been converted from forests for subsistence and commercial agriculture, and urban development. We implement an innovative approach to screen hydrologic data for detecting impacts of such large-scale changes on hydrological response. In a first step, temporal changes in the rainfall-runoff relationship were assessed using the parsimonious, two-parameter GR2M hydrological model. In a second step, a distribution-free statistical test was applied to detect whether significant changes have occurred in the wet season (high flow) and dry season (low flow) conditions.

    New hydrological insights for the region: Our results indicate that the majority of catchments (64% of those considered) with sufficiently long data records exhibited no discernable trends in hydrological response. Those catchments that did exhibit significant trends in hydrological response were fairly evenly split between increasing trends (between 21% and 24%) and decreasing trends (between 15% and 12%) with time. There was a lack of evidence that these changes where brought about by shifts in precipitation or potential evapotranspiration; however, catchments exhibiting significant increasing trends in hydrological behavior were found to have different land cover compositions (lower percentage of forest coverage and subsequently higher paddy rice coverage) than those exhibiting significant decreasing trends. The approach presented here provides a potentially valuable screening method to highlight regions for further investigation of improved mechanistic understanding. Without this connection, we might be blind to future hydrological shifts that can have significant impact on development.

  • 9.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lenz, Conny
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Mellström, Anette
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reinholdsson, Maja
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Swedish Geol Survey, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bulk sediment C-14 dating in an estuarine environment: How accurate can it be?2017In: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a lack of marine macrofossils in many sediment cores from the estuarine Baltic Sea, researchers are often forced to carry out C-14 determinations on bulk sediment samples. However, ambiguity surrounding the carbon source pathways that contribute to bulk sediment formation introduces a large uncertainty into C-14 geochronologies based on such samples, and such uncertainty may not have been fully considered in previous Baltic Sea studies. We quantify this uncertainty by analyzing bulk sediment C-14 determinations carried out on densely spaced intervals in independently dated late-Holocene sediment sequences from two central Baltic Sea cores. Our results show a difference of similar to 600 C-14 yr in median bulk sediment reservoir age, or R(t)(bulk), between the two core locations (similar to 1200 C-14 yr for one core, similar to 620 C-14 yr for the other), indicating large spatial variation. Furthermore, we also find large downcore (i.e., temporal) R(t)(bulk) variation of at least similar to 200 C-14 yr for both cores. We also find a difference of 585 C-14 yr between two samples taken from the same core depth. We propose that studies using bulk sediment C-14 dating in large brackish water bodies should take such spatiotemporal variation in R(t)(bulk) into account when assessing uncertainties, thus leading to a larger, but more accurate, calibrated age range.

  • 10. Primmer, Eeva
    et al.
    Termansen, Mette
    Bredin, Yennie
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Garcia-Llorente, Marina
    Berry, Pam
    Jääskeläinen, Tiina
    Bela, Györgyi
    Fabok, Veronika
    Geamana, Nicoleta
    Harrison, Paula A.
    Haslett, John R.
    Cosor, Georgia Lavinia
    Andersen, Anne H.K.
    Caught between personal and collective values: biodiversity conservation in European decision-making2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 588-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual decision-makers at different governance levels operate in social contexts, which means that they sometimes need to compromise their personal values. Yet, this dissonance is rarely the direct target of empirical analyses of environmental decision-making. We undertake a Q-analysis of decision-makers' personal perspectives and the perspectives they perceive to dominate in their decision-making contexts. Our empirical analysis addresses biodiversity conservation, which has traditionally been justified with intrinsic value- and science-based arguments. The arguments have recently been broadened with the concept of ecosystem services, highlighting human benefits and values. This evolving context is interesting because of the new rise of anthropocentric values, which can lead to decision-makers experiencing dissonance. Our analysis of interviews with 43 biodiversity conservation decision-makers from nine European countries reveals four personally held perspectives that highlight different, yet partly overlapping, values – intrinsic, human benefit, conservation and connection – as well as three perspectives perceived to dominate in decision-making – utilitarian, insurance and knowledge values. The comparison of personally held and perceived dominant perspectives points to one major conflict: those decision-makers who personally associate with intrinsic values and perceive utilitarian values to dominate in decision-making experience dissonance. By contrast, personally held human benefit values are accommodated well in decision-making contexts and decision-makers who perceive insurance values to dominate experience the least conflict with personally held values. These findings demonstrate the potential of arguments stressing long-term benefits for easing tension and conflicts in conservation decision-making, and the usefulness of empirically testing of the coincidence of individual and social values. 

  • 11.
    Han, Shangfeng
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Sun, Xiaoyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Han, Song
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    China's Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  • 12.
    Lehoux, Alizée P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Sanchez-Hachair, Arnaud
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Lefebvre, Gaëtan
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Carlier, Guillaume
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Hébrard, Celine
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Lima, Ana T.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Hofmann, Annette
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Chromium (VI) Retrieval from Chromium Ore Processing Residues by Electrokinetic Treatment2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrokinetics (EK) was investigated as a possible technique for in-situ treatment of leachable chromium at a built site contaminated with chromium ore processing residues (COPR). A preliminary EK experiment was carried out at the laboratory scale on an undisturbed COPR core sample. Methods applied for material and pore water characterization before and after EK treatment addressed physical aspects by laser diffraction granulometry, pycnometry and pore water content, mineralogical aspects by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and chemical aspects by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy for elemental composition, spectrophotometry for Cr(VI) analysis, and potentiometry for pH determination. EK was run at 1 V/cm with no external constraints on current intensity. The EK experiment reached an extraction of 72% of the total leachable Cr(VI) after only 10 days of treatment and 84% after 20 days. Material texture, composition, and pH remained similar. These results indicate that EK presents a potential solution for extracting leachable Cr(VI) from COPR sites. The impounded COPR material appeared to be heterogeneous in composition at all scales, from field to lab sample, adding to the challenge of in-situ treatment.

  • 13.
    Chen, Yingchao
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Lianyong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Jianliang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Emergy-based energy return on investment method for evaluating energy exploitation2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 128, p. 540-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To consider the environmental impacts of energy resource exploitation and better estimate the energy return of investment (EROI), this paper establishes a new emergy-based method (EmEROI) that can capture the essence of energy resource exploitation. The EmEROI method treats environmental impacts and labor as particular forms of energy, and all forms of energy can be quantified by solar transformity, which is expressed in emjoules as a common unit. The Daqing oilfield is used as an example, and the corresponding EmEROI value is calculated via the proposed method. The results are then compared with standard EROI estimates. Our EmEROI result is much lower than the standard EROI result and presents a more pronounced declining trend. Our results also indicated that the EmEROI estimates conform well to actual conditions and are not as affected by industrial energy intensity levels as the standard EROI. Thus, EmEROI has the potential for use as an integral aspect of energy resource exploitation project evaluations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Jin, Yi
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Cuiyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Energy and water conservation synergy in China: 2007-20122017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 127, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and water issues are interrelated and have significant impacts on the economy. The amount and intensity of energy and water consumption must be controlled, which was clearly stated in the "11th Five-Year" Plan and "12th Five-Year" Plan. The energy-water nexus is a useful approach to integrate economic sectors. Energy production consumes large inputs of energy and water, while producing most of the energy required by other sectors. This synergy between energy conservation and water saving in energy sectors is intricate. This study assesses the synergistic effect between energy conservation and water saving that has been achieved by energy sectors in China during the 2007-2012 period. The research results suggest that energy sectors have completely achieved 12.40 x 10(8) m(3) water saving through energy conservation and 1.12 x 10(6) tce energy conservation through water saving. Coal, oil and gas production mainly consumed water in indirect ways, while electricity generation primarily consumed water in a direct way. The synergistic energy conservation of the electric power sector was significant and was much larger than that of the coal production sector as well as oil and gas production sector. Prominent water saving can be obtained through improved energy conservation in China's energy sectors.

  • 15.
    Tokimatsu, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Midori Ku, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2268503, Japan.;Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058564, Japan..
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    McLellan, Benjamin
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Energy Sci, Sakyo Ku, Yoshida Honmachi, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Murakami, Shinsuke
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Engn, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1138656, Japan..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Yasuoka, Rieko
    Syst Res Ctr Co Ltd, Minato Ku, KY Bldg,3-16-7 Toranomon, Tokyo 1050001, Japan..
    Nishio, Masahiro
    Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058564, Japan..
    Energy modeling approach to the global energy-mineral nexus: A first look at metal requirements and the 2 degrees C target2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, p. 494-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stringent GHG emission cuts are required for meeting the so-called Paris Agreement. Due to higher metal intensities of renewable energy, such a transition must also include required amounts of metal. This study estimates the metal requirement for various power generation technology mix scenarios by using a cost-minimizing energy model on the global energy-mineral nexus. Two energy and climate scenarios were developed to represent primarily economic efficiency and environmental performance, respectively, under climate policies with net zero emissions satisfying the 2 degrees C target, and without any constraints (i.e. Business As Usual). Based on the future additions of various power generation technologies, metal requirements and cumulative production were estimated in zero-order and conservative scenarios, to compare with production levels in 2015 and reserves. The results suggest that there may be cause for concern about metal requirement and/or availability in PV, nuclear, and (Plug-in Hybrid) Electric Vehicles in 2100. For PV in the Gas & Ren scenario, most of the metal usage exceeded their production levels and the reserves. It is concluded that mineral availability and production rates should be given greater attention for planning and modeling of sustainable energy systems.

  • 16.
    Tokimatsu, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Midori Ku, 4259 Nagatsuta, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2268503, Japan.;Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058564, Japan..
    Murakami, Shinsuke
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Engn, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1138656, Japan..
    McLellan, Benjamin
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Energy Sci, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Yasuoka, Rieko
    Syst Res Ctr Co Ltd, Minato Ku, KY Bldg,3-16-7 Toranomon, Tokyo 1050001, Japan..
    Nishio, Masahiro
    Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058564, Japan..
    Global energy-mineral nexus by systems analysis approaches2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3345-3348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake, Japanese energy policy strategies have been directed towards seeking more diversified energy options, especially fuel switching to gas, rapid introduction of renewable energy, and pushing towards a hydrogen economy. While a secure supply of energy, or energy security, is typically argued within the context of energy resources, little consideration for energy policy is given to mineral resources used in various energy technologies. Many studies have addressed the specific mineral elements in technologies by borrowing energy scenarios from authorities (e.g., The International Energy Agency (IEA) energy technology perspectives (ETP)). Some have applied empirical estimation models such as logistic functions for their future demand projections. In this study, we used our own resource balance models incorporating resources of energy, non-fuel minerals, biomass and food, to illustrate future consumption paths for non-fuel minerals (including scarce metals) as well as our own energy and climate policy scenarios. Our approach is complementary, not a substitute, offering more insights to existing studies on energy-mineral nexus approaches.

  • 17.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Kekalainen, P.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;WSP Finland Oy, Heikkilantie 7, FI-00210 Helsinki, Finland..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita Univ, Fac Int Resource Sci, 1-1 Tegatagakuen Machi, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, SE-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 273-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation-postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 18. Smith, A.C.
    et al.
    Harrison, P.A.
    Pérez Sobac, M.
    Archauxd, F.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Egoh, B.
    Erős, T.
    Fabrega Domenech, N.
    György, A.
    Haines-Young, R.
    Li, S.
    Lommelen, E.
    Meiresonne, L.
    Miguel Ayala, L.
    Mononen, L.
    Simpson, G.
    Stange, E.
    Turkelboomh, F.
    Uiterwijk, M.
    Veerkamp, C.J.
    Wyllie de Echeverria, V.
    How natural capital delivers ecosystem services: a typology derived from a systematic review2017In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 26, p. 111-126Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no unified evidence base to help decision-makers understand how the multiple components of natural capital interact to deliver ecosystem services. We systematically reviewed 780 papers, recording how natural capital attributes (29 biotic attributes and 11 abiotic factors) affect the delivery of 13 ecosystem services. We develop a simple typology based on the observation that five main attribute groups influence the capacity of natural capital to provide ecosystem services, related to: A) the physical amount of vegetation cover; B) presence of suitable habitat to support species or functional groups that provide a service; C) characteristics of particular species or functional groups; D) physical and biological diversity; and E) abiotic factors that interact with the biotic factors in groups A-D. ' Bundles' of services can be identified that are governed by different attribute groups. Management aimed at maximising only one service often has negative impacts on other services and on biological and physical diversity. Sustainable ecosystem management should aim to maintain healthy, diverse and resilient ecosystems that can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services in the long term. This can maximise the synergies and minimise the trade-offs between ecosystem services and is also compatible with the aim of conserving biodiversity.

  • 19.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

  • 20.
    Davidsson, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaics2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 108, p. 574-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates growth rates and material flows required to reach and sustain multi-terawatt installed capacity of photovoltaics (PV). The dynamics of material flows over time are captured, taking account for the life expectancy of PV technology. Requirements of solar grade silicon and silver for crystalline silicon (c-Si) technology, as well as indium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and cadmium for currently commercial thin film (TF) technology are explored, accounting for different technology choices and potential improvements in material intensities. Future availability of these materials from primary resources, as well as secondary resources from end-of-life recycling, is also analyzed. Rapid deployment of c-Si technologies would require a major expansion of solar grade silicon production, and significant quantities of silver. Availability of materials such as indium and tellurium could become problematic for major implementation of TF technology, unless production can be scaled up significantly, or material intensities radically decreased. Availability of secondary resources from end-of-life recycling have little impact on material availability during the growth phase, but could be important for sustaining a low-carbon energy system over longer time perspectives. Material availability could cause problems for rapid PV growth, but does not necessarily limit total PV deployment, especially if material intensities are decreased.

  • 21.
    Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Chulalongkorn University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Krittasudthacheewa, Chayanis
    Chulalongkorn University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bush, Angela L.
    Khon Kaen University, Faculty of Public Health; C&R Consulting, Townsville.
    Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Chulalongkorn University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Modelling impacts of development on water resources in the Huai Sai Bat sub-basin in north-eastern Thailand with a participatory approach2017In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1020-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is done to connect hydrological modelling with stakeholder participation. This study incorporates agricultural development and climatic changes within the Water Evaluation and Planning hydrological model. This is done with a participatory approach involving four scenario workshops, 400 household surveys and two focus group discussions in the period of 2010-2012 for the ungauged Huai Sai Bat sub-basin as a case study in the Mekong region. The modelling results indicate future increased streamflow during the wet (monsoon) season in response to shifts in the regional climate. Modelled land-use and management changes brought about large unmet water demands, primarily in the dry season.

  • 22.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Post-conventional energy futures: Rendering Europe's shale gas resources governable2017In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 31, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the shale gas boom in the United States, unconventional natural gas extracted from organic-rich shale rock formations has generated increasing attention in the European Union (EU). This considerable interest has been spurred by a range of optimistic volumetric appraisals of shale gas resource potential trapped beneath the European continent. The paper critically examines rationalities and practices through which states of resource availability and recoverability are made visible, measurable, intelligible, and thus rendered governable, namely open to new fields of possibilities to act upon. By implementing the concept of socio-technical imaginaries as governmentality approach, the analysis is guided by two objectives: first, to identify visions of shale gas potential contained in a range of resource estimates; second, to scrutinize rationalities of government, that is how shale gas resources are made knowable and purposeful, as well as technologies of government that operationalize these rationalities via practices of calculation, visualization, and inscription. The paper illustrates that, these highly speculative and uncertain assessments can forge powerful volumetric imaginaries of shale gas potential that yield specific governing effects concerned with securitization of unconventional hydrocarbons availability. Consequently, these imaginaries prescribe and legitimize techno-political hopes for certain post-conventional energy futures underpinning the fossil fuel abundance narrative.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-06-07 00:01
  • 23.
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lund, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Production Decline Curves of Tight Oil Wells in Eagle Ford Shale2017In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 365-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study derives typical production curves of tight oil wells based on monthly production data from multiple horizontal Eagle Ford shale oil wells. Well properties initial production (IP) rate and production decline rate were documented, and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) was calculated using two empirical production decline curve models, the hyperbolic and the stretched exponential function. Individual well productivity, which can be described by IP level, production decline curvature and well lifetime, varies significantly. The average monthly IP was found to be around 500 bbl/day, which yields an EUR in the range of 150-290 kbbl depending on used curve, assumed well lifetime or production cutoff level. More detailed analyses on EUR can be made once longer time series are available. For more realistic modeling of multiple wells a probabilistic approach might be favorable to account for variety in well productivity. For less detailed modeling, for example conceptual regional bottom-up production modeling, the hyperbolic function with deterministic parameters might be preferred because of ease of use, for example with the average parameter values IP = 500 bbl/day, D = 0.3 and b = 1 resulting in an EUR of 250 kbbl with a 30-year well lifetime, however, with the recognition that this extrapolation is uncertain.

  • 24.
    van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, Dept Earth Sci, Geochem, Princetonpl 9, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Krupinski, Nadine B. Quintana
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, 1-1 Tegata Gakuin Cho, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Andren, Thomas
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, SE-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, Dept Earth Sci, Geochem, Princetonpl 9, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Seasonal hypoxia was a natural feature of the coastal zone in the Little Belt, Denmark, during the past 8 ka2017In: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 387, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of the hypoxic area in the Baltic Sea has rapidly expanded over the past century. Two previous phases of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8-4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 2-0.8 ka BP), have been identified. Relatively little is known about bottom water redox conditions in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, however. Here we studied the geochemical composition of a sediment sequence from a currently seasonally hypoxic site in the Danish coastal zone, the Little Belt, retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 (Site M0059). The base of the studied sediment sequence consists of clays low in organic carbon (C-org), molybdenum (Mo) and iron sulfides (Fe-sulfides), and rich in iron oxides (Fe-oxides), indicative of a well-oxygenated, oligotrophic (glacial) meltwater lake. An erosional unconformity separates the glacial lake sediments from sediments that are rich in C-org. The absence of Mo, in combination with high C-org/S values, indicates that these sediments were deposited in a highly productive, well-oxygenated freshwater lake. The transition to modern brackish/marine conditions was very rapid, and subsequent continuous sequestration of Mo in the sediment and high ratios of reactive iron (Fe-HR) over total Fe (Fe-TOT) suggest (seasonal) hypoxia occurred over the last similar to 8 ka. Maxima in sediment Core, Mo and Fe-HR/Fe-TOT ratios during the HTM and MCA suggest that the hypoxia intensified. Our results demonstrate that the Little Belt is naturally susceptible to the development of seasonal hypoxia. While periods of climatic warming led to increased deoxygenation of bottom waters, high nutrient availability in combination with density stratification were likely the main drivers of hypoxia in this part of the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene.

  • 25.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.