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  • 1.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    “A Thousand flowers are flowering just now” – towards integration of ecosystem services concept into decision making2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 30, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the integration of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in decision making.

    We use the three dimensions of learning to investigate the use of the ES concept.

    ES concept seems to meet several positive expectations put forward in science and policy.

    A main contribution from the concept may potentially be its function as a “boundary object”.

    Implementing ES into practice is a complex process and a multifaceted task.

  • 2.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Bialowieza Forest: Political stands2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6376, p. 646-646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Kremer, A.
    et al.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Stein, R.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Fahl, K.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Ji, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wiers, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Matthiessen, J.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Forwick, M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Lowemark, L.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chen, J.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 182, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 degrees C.

  • 4.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Dispersal and environmental impact of contaminants in organic rich, fibrous sediments of industrial origin in the Baltic Sea2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of the Baltic Sea is negatively affected by hazardous substances such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which include legacy pollutants that were banned decades ago, but still circulate in the ecosystem. Elevated levels of legacy pollutants, identified by HELCOM as key hazardous substances, have been found in accumulations of fibrous sediments, so-called fiberbanks and fiber-rich sediments, which derive from old pulp mills along the Swedish north coast. The fiberbanks are deposited in shallow water and bathymetrical models show evidence of their erosion, potentially caused by propeller wash, submarine landslides and gas ebullition. This thesis addresses the potential dispersal of key substances from three fiberbank sites located in a non-tidal Swedish estuary, in which metals and POPs are present in concentrations that may pose a risk for benthic organisms. Metals and POPs are partitioned to organic material and, as expected, show the highest partitioning coefficients (KD) in fiberbanks that have higher TOC levels compared to adjacent areas with fiber-rich sediments (natural clay sediments mixed up with fibers) or relatively unaffected postglacial clays. However, many analytes were found to be present in quantifiable concentrations in pore water, which indicates diffusion of substances from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. To assess the dispersive influence of an abrupt erosional event on dispersion, metals were measured in undisturbed bottom water and in bottom water disturbed by artificial re-suspension of fibrous sediments. The bioavailable, dissolved fraction of metals decreased in bottom water after re-suspension, probably due to the particle concentration effect. In contrast, the total concentrations of metals and number of quantifiable metals increased with particle concentration caused by re-suspension. At one station, the total concentration of chromium (Cr) was elevated to a level where it may lower the ecological status of the water body during periods of substantial erosion (e.g. spring floods or submarine landslides). Analyses of disturbed bottom water revealed, however, that minerogenic particles were preferentially re-suspended compared to organic. This suggests that physical erosion and re-suspension of fiberbank sediments might have a larger effect on dispersal of metals than on POPs.

    List of papers
    1. Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Keywords
    Fiberbank, fiber-rich sediments, metals, bottom water, pore water, dispersal, sorption
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349805 (URN)
    Projects
    TREASURE
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 362-1493/2013The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 411-1578/2013
    Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-05-02
    2. Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Show others...
    (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Keywords
    Chlorinated pollutants, organic carbon, fibrous sediment, pore water, pulp and paper emissions.
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349824 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63
    Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-05-02
  • 5.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Global Energy Systems.
    Bridge, Gavin
    Durham University, United Kingdom.
    Down the black hole: Sustaining national socio-technical imaginaries of coal in Poland2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 41, p. 136-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the socio-technical imaginaries surrounding infrastructures of coal mining and coal combustion in Poland. Contemporary policy makers in Poland mobilise a national imaginary inherited from communist times – encapsulated in the slogan ‘Poland stands on coal’ – that fuses infrastructures of coal extraction and combustion with the fate of the nation. This socio-technical imaginary provides support for coal futures, even in the face of contradictory evidence for domestic resource depletion, poor regional air quality, and global climate change. To examine this process, the paper brings research on socio-technical imaginaries into conversation with work on resource materialities. It highlights how certain materialities of coal (abundance, accessibility, energy density, location) were integral to the emergence of a national socio-technical imaginary of modernisation via coal; and how other materialities (declining resource quality, effects of emissions on respiratory health, coal as CO2-in-waiting) now collide with the political strategies of a government determined to reassert ‘black gold’ as a bedrock of national development for years to come. The paper considers how contemporary political efforts to rehabilitate coal and secure its future in Poland draw selectively upon a socio-technical imaginary of coal-fuelled national modernisation.

  • 6.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mapping Chinese Supply2018In: Nature Energy, ISSN 0028-212X, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 166-167Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Documenting the emissions and net energy of a crude supply could be essential to meeting national emission and energy security targets. Using data from hundreds of fields worldwide, a well-to-refinery study presents a high-granularity profile of China’s crude oil supply in terms of emissions and energy return on input.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-27 08:56
  • 7.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Uppsala UniUniv Paris Saclay, IPSL, LSCE, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Univ Paris Saclay, IPSL, LSCE, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Fac Sci, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ninnemann, Ulysses S.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Earth Sci, Allegaten 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.
    Wacker, Lukas
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Lab Ion Beam Phys, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Moving beyond the age-depth model paradigm in deep-sea palaeoclimate archives: dual radiocarbon and stable isotope analysis on single foraminifera2018In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 515-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late-glacial palaeoclimate reconstructions from deep-sea sediment archives provide valuable insight into past rapid changes in ocean chemistry. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of the ocean floor with sufficiently high sediment accumulation rate (SAR) is suitable for such reconstructions using the long-standing age-depth model approach. We employ ultra-small radiocarbon (C-14) dating on single microscopic foraminifera to demonstrate that the long-standing age-depth model method conceals large age uncertainties caused by post-depositional sediment mixing, meaning that existing studies may underestimate total geochronological error. We find that the age-depth distribution of our C-14-dated single foraminifera is in good agreement with existing bioturbation models only after one takes the possibility of Zoophycos burrowing into account. To overcome the problems associated with the age-depth paradigm, we use the first ever dual C-14 and stable isotope (delta O-18 and delta C-13) analysis on single microscopic foraminifera to produce a palaeoclimate time series independent of the age-depth paradigm. This new state of the art essentially decouples single foraminifera from the age-depth paradigm to provide multiple floating, temporal snapshots of ocean chemistry, thus allowing for the successful extraction of temporally accurate palaeoclimate data from low-SAR deep-sea archives. This new method can address large geographical gaps in late-glacial benthic palaeoceanographic reconstructions by opening up vast areas of previously disregarded, low-SAR deep-sea archives to research, which will lead to an improved understanding of the global interaction between oceans and climate.

  • 8.
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Henke, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Oil projections in retrospect: Revisions, accuracy and current uncertainty2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 220, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios and projections are important for decision and policy making. Accuracy of past projections can be useful for both scenario users and developers, for insight on current projection uncertainty, and for guiding improvement efforts. This paper compiles projections of oil production, oil prices and upstream investments from the years 2000 to 2016 from the annual World Energy Outlook by the International Energy Agency, and investigates revisions and accuracy of past projections and implied uncertainty of current ones. Revisions of world oil production, price and investments have been motivated by a combination of demand and supply factors. Downward revisions are mainly allocated to OPEC, while recent upward revisions are due to unconventional oil, in particular US tight oil. Non-OPEC conventional projections have been stable. Price and investments have been revised mostly upwards. Projection accuracy follows the size and directions of these revisions, with high accuracy for Non-OPEC (mean absolute percentage error of 4.8% on a 5 year horizon) and low for OPEC (8.9%) and unconventional (37%). Counteracting error directions contribute to accurate total World oil supply projections (4%) while price projections have low accuracy (37%). Scenario users should be aware of implied uncertainty of current oil projections. In planning and decision making, uncertainty ranges such as those presented here can be used as benchmarks. Scenario developers should focus improvements efforts on three areas in particular: tight oil, OPEC and new technology.

  • 9.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Recreational fishing for sea trout – for whom and to what value?2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 204, p. 380-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management?: The case of "pike factories' and wetland restoration in Sweden2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 5-6, p. 950-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging civil society in conservation activities is an important complementary strategy to counteract ongoing biodiversity decline and loss of ecosystem services. Since 2011, the Swedish Anglers Association (SAA) has cooperated with landowners to restore wetlands nationwide. We investigated factors that enabled or hindered civil society-led wetland restoration in Sweden through interviews and surveys with the SAA's project leaders and landowners. Principal internal and external factors contributing to the project's implementation included: flexibility and adaptive management of its leadership; support from authorities and policies; the good reputation of the SAA team; and landowners' willingness to cooperate. The latter was linked to their feelings of environmental responsibility, the low investment required by them, and expectations of some benefits. We discuss the need to enable adaptive management in environmental management projects, adjust existing policies to their needs, and re-think funding strategies to consider the long-term nature of such projects.

  • 11.
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    World oil supply and unconventional resources: Bottom-up perspectives on tight oil production2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil is the world’s largest primary energy source. It dominates the transportation sector which underpins the world economy. Yet, oil is a nonrenewable resource, destined not to last forever. In the mid-2000s global conventional oil production stagnated, leading to rising oil prices and fears of permanent oil scarcity. These fears, together with the high prices, receded with the unforeseen emergence of a new supply source: tight oil.

    This licentiate thesis investigates unconventional tight oil production and its impacts on world oil supply in terms of resource availability and oil market dynamics, and in turn briefly discusses some possible wider economic, political and environmental implications of these impacts. The thesis is based on three papers. The first investigates the usefulness of bottom-up modelling by a retrospective study of past oil projections. The second looks at how unconventional tight oil production can be modelled on the well level using decline curve analysis. The third derives typical production parameters for conventional offshore oil fields, a growing segment of conventional production and a useful comparison to tight oil.

    The results show that tight oil production has increased resource availability significantly, as well as introduced a fast responding marginal supply source operating on market principles rather than political ones. The emergence of tight oil production has altered OPEC’s strategic options and led to a period of lower and less volatile oil prices. However, this condition of world oil supply can only last as long as the unconventional resource base allows, and, at the same time, total fossil fuel consumption will have to fall to limit climate change. It is concluded that this breathing space with lower oil prices could be used as an opportunity to develop and implement policy for an efficient managed decline of global oil use in order to achieve the dual goals of increased human economic welfare and limited climate change, and in the process preempt any future oil supply shortage. Unconventional tight oil production can both help and hinder in this endeavor. Accurate models and analyses of oil production dynamics and impacts are therefore crucial when maneuvering towards this preferred future.

    List of papers
    1. Oil projections in retrospect: Revisions, accuracy and current uncertainty
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oil projections in retrospect: Revisions, accuracy and current uncertainty
    2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 220, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Scenarios and projections are important for decision and policy making. Accuracy of past projections can be useful for both scenario users and developers, for insight on current projection uncertainty, and for guiding improvement efforts. This paper compiles projections of oil production, oil prices and upstream investments from the years 2000 to 2016 from the annual World Energy Outlook by the International Energy Agency, and investigates revisions and accuracy of past projections and implied uncertainty of current ones. Revisions of world oil production, price and investments have been motivated by a combination of demand and supply factors. Downward revisions are mainly allocated to OPEC, while recent upward revisions are due to unconventional oil, in particular US tight oil. Non-OPEC conventional projections have been stable. Price and investments have been revised mostly upwards. Projection accuracy follows the size and directions of these revisions, with high accuracy for Non-OPEC (mean absolute percentage error of 4.8% on a 5 year horizon) and low for OPEC (8.9%) and unconventional (37%). Counteracting error directions contribute to accurate total World oil supply projections (4%) while price projections have low accuracy (37%). Scenario users should be aware of implied uncertainty of current oil projections. In planning and decision making, uncertainty ranges such as those presented here can be used as benchmarks. Scenario developers should focus improvements efforts on three areas in particular: tight oil, OPEC and new technology.

    Keywords
    Oil projections, Scenarios, Revisions, Accuracy, Uncertainty, IEA
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347573 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.013 (DOI)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2014-5246
    Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Production Decline Curves of Tight Oil Wells in Eagle Ford Shale
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production Decline Curves of Tight Oil Wells in Eagle Ford Shale
    2017 (English)In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 365-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study derives typical production curves of tight oil wells based on monthly production data from multiple horizontal Eagle Ford shale oil wells. Well properties initial production (IP) rate and production decline rate were documented, and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) was calculated using two empirical production decline curve models, the hyperbolic and the stretched exponential function. Individual well productivity, which can be described by IP level, production decline curvature and well lifetime, varies significantly. The average monthly IP was found to be around 500 bbl/day, which yields an EUR in the range of 150-290 kbbl depending on used curve, assumed well lifetime or production cutoff level. More detailed analyses on EUR can be made once longer time series are available. For more realistic modeling of multiple wells a probabilistic approach might be favorable to account for variety in well productivity. For less detailed modeling, for example conceptual regional bottom-up production modeling, the hyperbolic function with deterministic parameters might be preferred because of ease of use, for example with the average parameter values IP = 500 bbl/day, D = 0.3 and b = 1 resulting in an EUR of 250 kbbl with a 30-year well lifetime, however, with the recognition that this extrapolation is uncertain.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPRINGER, 2017
    Keywords
    Tight oil, Shale oil, Well production, Decline rate, EUR, Eagle Ford
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323016 (URN)10.1007/s11053-016-9323-2 (DOI)000400644300007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2014-5246
    Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-06-14 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Offshore oil: Investigating production parameters of fields of varying size, location and water depth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offshore oil: Investigating production parameters of fields of varying size, location and water depth
    2015 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 139, p. 430-440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper derives empirical estimates of field depletion level, depletion rate, decline rate and characteristic time intervals in offshore oil production based on a global field-by-field database containing 603 offshore oil fields. Statistical distributions as well as arithmetic and weighted averages of production parameters are derived for different categories of fields specified by size, location and water depth. A significant tendency of small fields having higher depletion and decline rates is found. Similarly, OECD countries generally have higher rates compared to non-OECD countries. Trends related to water depth are not clearly distinguishable and require additional investigation of time related aspects. Resulting spreads in derived parameter estimates are found to be well described by positively skewed probability distributions. Also, in line with theory, a strong correlation between depletion and decline rate is found. According to the study, the net share of global offshore production from smaller and deeper fields is increasing. A continuation of these trends would likely have implications for future aggregate offshore production behaviour, most notably, increasing global aggregate decline rates.

    Keywords
    Offshore, Oil production, Depletion level, Depletion rate, Decline rate
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240057 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2014.09.012 (DOI)000345434700053 ()
    Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-05 Last updated: 2018-05-16
  • 12. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Primavera, Jurgenne
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Folke, Carl
    Jonell, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Aquaculture2017In: Reference Module in Life Sciences, ISSN 978-0-12-809633-8Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.

  • 13.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Nature Conservancy, Delmont, NJ USA..
    King, Katie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lacombe, Guillaume
    Int Water Management Inst, Viangchan, Laos..
    Assessing hydrologic changes across the Lower Mekong Basin2017In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, ISSN 2214-5818, Vol. 12, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study region: In this study, 33 catchments across the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia are examined to detect historical changes in their hydrological response via a model-based methodology.

    Study focus: Intensive development over the past half century across Southeast Asia's Lower Mekong Basin has inevitably affected natural resources. Large areas have been converted from forests for subsistence and commercial agriculture, and urban development. We implement an innovative approach to screen hydrologic data for detecting impacts of such large-scale changes on hydrological response. In a first step, temporal changes in the rainfall-runoff relationship were assessed using the parsimonious, two-parameter GR2M hydrological model. In a second step, a distribution-free statistical test was applied to detect whether significant changes have occurred in the wet season (high flow) and dry season (low flow) conditions.

    New hydrological insights for the region: Our results indicate that the majority of catchments (64% of those considered) with sufficiently long data records exhibited no discernable trends in hydrological response. Those catchments that did exhibit significant trends in hydrological response were fairly evenly split between increasing trends (between 21% and 24%) and decreasing trends (between 15% and 12%) with time. There was a lack of evidence that these changes where brought about by shifts in precipitation or potential evapotranspiration; however, catchments exhibiting significant increasing trends in hydrological behavior were found to have different land cover compositions (lower percentage of forest coverage and subsequently higher paddy rice coverage) than those exhibiting significant decreasing trends. The approach presented here provides a potentially valuable screening method to highlight regions for further investigation of improved mechanistic understanding. Without this connection, we might be blind to future hydrological shifts that can have significant impact on development.

  • 14.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lenz, Conny
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Mellström, Anette
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reinholdsson, Maja
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Swedish Geol Survey, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bulk sediment C-14 dating in an estuarine environment: How accurate can it be?2017In: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a lack of marine macrofossils in many sediment cores from the estuarine Baltic Sea, researchers are often forced to carry out C-14 determinations on bulk sediment samples. However, ambiguity surrounding the carbon source pathways that contribute to bulk sediment formation introduces a large uncertainty into C-14 geochronologies based on such samples, and such uncertainty may not have been fully considered in previous Baltic Sea studies. We quantify this uncertainty by analyzing bulk sediment C-14 determinations carried out on densely spaced intervals in independently dated late-Holocene sediment sequences from two central Baltic Sea cores. Our results show a difference of similar to 600 C-14 yr in median bulk sediment reservoir age, or R(t)(bulk), between the two core locations (similar to 1200 C-14 yr for one core, similar to 620 C-14 yr for the other), indicating large spatial variation. Furthermore, we also find large downcore (i.e., temporal) R(t)(bulk) variation of at least similar to 200 C-14 yr for both cores. We also find a difference of 585 C-14 yr between two samples taken from the same core depth. We propose that studies using bulk sediment C-14 dating in large brackish water bodies should take such spatiotemporal variation in R(t)(bulk) into account when assessing uncertainties, thus leading to a larger, but more accurate, calibrated age range.

  • 15. Primmer, Eeva
    et al.
    Termansen, Mette
    Bredin, Yennie
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Garcia-Llorente, Marina
    Berry, Pam
    Jääskeläinen, Tiina
    Bela, Györgyi
    Fabok, Veronika
    Geamana, Nicoleta
    Harrison, Paula A.
    Haslett, John R.
    Cosor, Georgia Lavinia
    Andersen, Anne H.K.
    Caught between personal and collective values: biodiversity conservation in European decision-making2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 588-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual decision-makers at different governance levels operate in social contexts, which means that they sometimes need to compromise their personal values. Yet, this dissonance is rarely the direct target of empirical analyses of environmental decision-making. We undertake a Q-analysis of decision-makers' personal perspectives and the perspectives they perceive to dominate in their decision-making contexts. Our empirical analysis addresses biodiversity conservation, which has traditionally been justified with intrinsic value- and science-based arguments. The arguments have recently been broadened with the concept of ecosystem services, highlighting human benefits and values. This evolving context is interesting because of the new rise of anthropocentric values, which can lead to decision-makers experiencing dissonance. Our analysis of interviews with 43 biodiversity conservation decision-makers from nine European countries reveals four personally held perspectives that highlight different, yet partly overlapping, values – intrinsic, human benefit, conservation and connection – as well as three perspectives perceived to dominate in decision-making – utilitarian, insurance and knowledge values. The comparison of personally held and perceived dominant perspectives points to one major conflict: those decision-makers who personally associate with intrinsic values and perceive utilitarian values to dominate in decision-making experience dissonance. By contrast, personally held human benefit values are accommodated well in decision-making contexts and decision-makers who perceive insurance values to dominate experience the least conflict with personally held values. These findings demonstrate the potential of arguments stressing long-term benefits for easing tension and conflicts in conservation decision-making, and the usefulness of empirically testing of the coincidence of individual and social values. 

  • 16.
    Han, Shangfeng
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Sun, Xiaoyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Han, Song
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    China's Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  • 17.
    Lehoux, Alizée P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Sanchez-Hachair, Arnaud
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Lefebvre, Gaëtan
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Carlier, Guillaume
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Hébrard, Celine
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Lima, Ana T.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Hofmann, Annette
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Chromium (VI) Retrieval from Chromium Ore Processing Residues by Electrokinetic Treatment2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrokinetics (EK) was investigated as a possible technique for in-situ treatment of leachable chromium at a built site contaminated with chromium ore processing residues (COPR). A preliminary EK experiment was carried out at the laboratory scale on an undisturbed COPR core sample. Methods applied for material and pore water characterization before and after EK treatment addressed physical aspects by laser diffraction granulometry, pycnometry and pore water content, mineralogical aspects by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and chemical aspects by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy for elemental composition, spectrophotometry for Cr(VI) analysis, and potentiometry for pH determination. EK was run at 1 V/cm with no external constraints on current intensity. The EK experiment reached an extraction of 72% of the total leachable Cr(VI) after only 10 days of treatment and 84% after 20 days. Material texture, composition, and pH remained similar. These results indicate that EK presents a potential solution for extracting leachable Cr(VI) from COPR sites. The impounded COPR material appeared to be heterogeneous in composition at all scales, from field to lab sample, adding to the challenge of in-situ treatment.

  • 18.
    Chen, Yingchao
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Lianyong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Jianliang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Emergy-based energy return on investment method for evaluating energy exploitation2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 128, p. 540-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To consider the environmental impacts of energy resource exploitation and better estimate the energy return of investment (EROI), this paper establishes a new emergy-based method (EmEROI) that can capture the essence of energy resource exploitation. The EmEROI method treats environmental impacts and labor as particular forms of energy, and all forms of energy can be quantified by solar transformity, which is expressed in emjoules as a common unit. The Daqing oilfield is used as an example, and the corresponding EmEROI value is calculated via the proposed method. The results are then compared with standard EROI estimates. Our EmEROI result is much lower than the standard EROI result and presents a more pronounced declining trend. Our results also indicated that the EmEROI estimates conform well to actual conditions and are not as affected by industrial energy intensity levels as the standard EROI. Thus, EmEROI has the potential for use as an integral aspect of energy resource exploitation project evaluations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Jin, Yi
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Cuiyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Energy and water conservation synergy in China: 2007-20122017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 127, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)