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  • 1.
    Anderson, Avery
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Interrogating the Cityscape and Exclusion:Insights on Urban Humanitarianism from a Resilience Perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Arenas Cano, Ana Catalina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    BETWEEN THE NARROW LIMITS OF STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE AND ARMED CONFLICT VIOLENCE: Case Study of Indigenous Peoples in Arauca, Colombia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous communities living in Arauca department, a region located on the Eastern Plains of Colombia, are at an imminent risk of physical and cultural extermination -according to the orders 004 and 382 from the Constitutional Court of Colombia- due to a double vulnerability which stems from a historic structural violence dating from the creation of the nation-state and direct violence as a consequence of armed conflict. The physical extermination refers to the high mortality rates that this population suffers either by violence or natural death, while the cultural extermination is a result of both an accelerated process of acculturation and a progressive loss of culture, territory and respect from traditional authorities. This study, by analyzing the local context and the actions that have done harm, addresses the best practices for humanitarian interventions over the role of territory, culture, governance and autonomy as key factors for empowering community members to overcome, face or diminish the consequences of these vulnerabilities.

  • 3.
    Arensen, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Conflict Drivers between the Lou Nuer and Murle of South Sudan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the major conflict drivers behind an inter-ethnic conflict in South Sudan between the Murle and Lou Nuer people groups in 2011 and 2012. It will begin with the historical context of the current conflict. Myriad theories exist as to the causes of conflict, but there is no defined method to analyze each and every context. The second step of this paper will be to examine three different theoretical frameworks- political, economic and social. Conflicts are driven by multiple causes, and in this case various types of causes as well. Different perspectives on the reasons behind conflict must be analyzed, and in particular how they interact and influence each other. The final task will be to consider the significance of various political, economic and social conflict drivers in the particular context of the Lou Nuer and Murle of Jonglei State, South Sudan.

    The research was carried out over a period of eight months in South Sudan and during the time period both sides continued to carry out major attacks. It is recognized that studying an ongoing conflict is ambitious as conflicts are not static and continually change. However, multiple approaches are being attempted to end the fighting between the Murle and Lou Nuer while not fully understanding all the causes behind the conflict. This paper intends to expand humanitarian comprehension on the topic and encourage parties involved in the peace process to implement programs that counteract the conflict drivers.

  • 4.
    Atterby, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Talking the talk, what about walking the walk?: Investigation of barriers to the implementation of gender equality policies in humanitarian action2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possible barriers to why the implementation of gender equality policies in the everyday activities on the ground of humanitarian action is not evident in practice. To investigate this arena, in-depth interviews were conducted with gender advisors of humanitarian organisations. The data was analysed using thematic analysis through the lens of the theoretical framework of systems theory and the concept of `knowledge into practice’.

    The findings indicate that there are three types of barriers on three dimensions for the implementation of gender equality policies on the ground of humanitarian action. The first barrier is the lack of external and internal pressure on the humanitarian community in form of accountability mechanisms. The second barrier is the internal structure of the humanitarian community with internal difficulties to integrate the gender community as well as fragmentation within it. The third barrier is the lack of a suitable semantic as well as operational understanding of the concept of gender within humanitarian action.This thesis highlights the importance of a common language and receptive attitudes between humanitarian actors for the practical implementation of gender equality policies.

    Key words: gender equality, gender equality policies, gender equality programming, knowledge transmission, knowledge implementation, barriers, humanitarian action.

  • 5.
    Banuelos-Kuang Petersson, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Early Recovery Discourse in the Humanitarian Field2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Bergenholtz, Julle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Fostering guarantees of non-recurrence: How humanitarian action can strengthen the Colombian post-conflict process2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After more than 50 years of internal armed conflict, Colombia has entered into a stage of postconflict after a peace agreement was signed in 2016. This process will be challenging for the country, as the conflict has created increased poverty and segregation as well as a lack of opportunities for those that have been affected by the conflict. This thesis collects perceptions of international humanitarian actors working in the Colombian context, and their perception on how humanitarian action can be used to strengthen the Colombian post-conflict process. Through a theoretical standpoint of Institutionalization Before Liberalization (IBL) theory by Roland Paris (2004), the findings were collected. Key findings include the need to recognize the humanitarian needs in Colombia despite the conflict ending, the importance of building knowledge in society about the peace agreement and make room for transition of experience and knowledge from the humanitarian field to the government and development actors.

    Analysing the findings, it shows that Colombia’s current peace transition would be furthered by strengthening the nation’s institutions and making long-term strategies on how to create electoral and societal systems that would unite and reconcile the population. It also shows that while the IBL theory is applicable to the Colombian post-conflict process, it fails to capture educational components that are deemed essential by the interviewed organizations. The thesis concludes that humanitarian organizations should be viewed as pivotal actors for the implementation of the Colombian peace agreement and that the Colombian government and international donors needs to put aside long-term resources and time to create a post-conflict society that will foster guarantees of the armed conflict not returning to Colombia.

  • 7.
    Bitar, Sali
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Sexual violence as a weapon of war: the case of ISIS in Syria and Iraq2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis set out to research why ISIS combatants use sexual violence when they target the Yazidi community in particular. The aims have been to provide an understanding of why ISIS target Yazidi women and girls with sexual violence and develop a better understanding of both groups and thus hopefully provide assistance that is contextually adapted to the needs of Yazidi women and girls who have been targeted by ISIS. This has been done through a case study, where ISIS has been the case and the Yazidi population has been the subunit of analysis. Materials that have been released by ISIS, as well as witness statements that have been made available as secondary sources have been analysed, by applying the three theories/conceptual frameworks evolution theory, feminist theory, and the strategic rape concept to this data. The results are that the three frameworks separately cannot provide an explanation for the phenomena. Evolution theory did not provide any explanations for ISIS’ behaviour at all, not even when combined with the other frameworks. However, feminist theory in combination with the strategic rape concept explains the behaviour of ISIS, to a certain extent. There is however, a gap today in wartime sexual violence conceptualizations that need to be filled with an overarching theory that includes elements of both feminist theory and the strategic rape concept. The reasons for ISIS’ use of sexual violence are multi-layered. Sexual violence is used as strategy of war for political and religious reasons, as well as, to an extent, because of misogyny. ISIS are aiming to assimilate the area of the caliphate, while at the same time violently targeting the Yazidi population, by using their interpretation of religion as a justification, and until they reach this target of homogeneity for the caliphate, they will continue using sexual violence as a strategy of war and for the appropriation of territory and justify it with religion.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Susann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    What could a 4 temperament-based personality type system reveal about aid workers in the humanitarian field?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The humanitarian sector is in need to prioritize its human resources. Inadequate recruitment processes, aid workers that enter the field unprepared, failed interrelationships and team dissatisfaction leads to poorer work quality, poorer health, and a high employee turnover that are costly for the field, and negative on the side of accountability to the beneficiaries of aid. In order to address these problems the study is investigating the use of a personality type system tool developed by the researcher, the 4mpt-system (4 major personality types-system),that tentatively is constructed as a tool to be applied within human resources in the humanitarian sector to access individual preferences and character traits that would facilitate in addressing the issues mentioned above. The data is gathered via in-depth semi-structured interviews of 7 informants working in the international humanitarian sector. The first objective is to study the reliability and validity of the 4mpt-system. The second objective is to study what information that could be accessed via the 4mpt-system tool from the 7 informants participating in the study. The result of the study would demonstrate that all of the informants could be assigned to a specific temperament type via a qualitative data analyze method designed from the 4mpt-system and that the temperaments affected the informants to a large extent (from motivations and skills to organisational preferences and personal belief systems). Further, the answers of the informants matched the theoretical definitions of the traits assigned to the temperament types by Keirsey (1998) and Fisher (2009), which was a positive indication for a good validity of the 4mpt-system. By verifying the similarity between the answers of informants assigned to the same temperament type, validity was further confirmed. The results of the study supported the reliability and validity of the 4mpt -system. The type of information that could be accessed via the 4mpt-system in the study was among other the motivation for beginning in the humanitarian field, work task preferences, professional skills, problem-solving approaches, decision making processes, likes and dislikes with work and work tasks, organisational structure preference, preference for working directly in the field or working from the office, and general outlooks and personal belief systems.

  • 9.
    Cano Diaz, Silvia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Road to Resilience: Challenges, vulnerabilities and risks in the protection and empowerment of Palestinian refugee children2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study what are the current protection challenges faced by Palestinian

    refugee children and their families in the context of the protracted crisis in the occupied

    territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Furthermore, this study will also look at

    how different factors influence on children's well-being, enabling or impeding to build

    their resilience under the ongoing adversarial circumstances. In addition, it will also

    analyse what mechanisms and strategies ensure the inclusive participation of Palestinian

    refugee children in their communities.

    Therefore, this thesis will use a mixed method approach, combining the outcomes of

    interviews that have been conducted with UNRWA personnel and the review of

    secondary sources. Two main theories will be used for the analysis of the research

    findings: Transactional-Ecological model and Social Ecology of Protection. The aim is

    to gain a better insight into how supportive environments and factors can be

    strengthened. As a consequence, it encourages Palestinian refugee children's ability to

    build resilience towards their social integration, which allows them to become actors of

    their own protection and be empowered.

  • 10.
    Casini, Gabriele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The impact of conflict transformation on the work of grassroots peacebuilding organizations in Colombia and Israel/Palestine2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the theory of conflict transformation and on its influence on the work of grassroots peacebuilding organizations in Colombia and in Israel/Palestine. Since there is no uniform and universally accepted definition of what conflict transformation is, the first step in this analysis will involve the construction of a clear framework for this approach. Once completed this task, it will be possible to use the resulting theoretical framework as a tool to analyze the work of six grassroots organizations operating in two of the most protracted, rooted and complicated conflicts of our times. The practical implementation of conflict transformation has still not been investigated in depth and the need for a clarification of this concept started to arise only recently. This research represents an effort in both these directions and hopefully will constitute a suitable starting point for future studies on the subject. 

  • 11.
    Casini, Maria Giulia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Menstrual Hygiene Management in Moria Refugee Camp: An investigation of menstrual hygiene practices, women's wellbeing and wash services in and around Moria camp in Lesvos, Greece2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Chatwin, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    What are the specific causes and strategies in relation to stunting in Lesotho?: A study of the perceptions of UNICEF staff members regarding stunting in Lesotho2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stunting is an issue that affects millions of children all over the world including Lesotho. Whilst Lesotho does not have the highest rates of stunting in the Southern African region, the rates are alarmingly high never the less. This paper serves as an insight into the stunting situation in Lesotho from the perspective of UNICEF. Broadly speaking, this paper looks at stunting from two aspects: firstly, looking at causal factors and next at the strategies to address those causes. The skeleton of this thesis is formed around the 1991 UNICEF malnutrition framework which acts as a guide for the theoretical and empirical chapters of this paper. The theoretical chapter outlines the complex interconnectedness of different causal levels those being structural, underlying and immediate causes. One will notice the causal chain as it soon becomes very obvious. The strategic component is the next major element of the theoretical chapter. Similarly, given the interconnectedness of the causal framework, it becomes clear that a holistic approach is necessary to address stunting at all levels. Addressing only the health consequences is not nearly enough. The empirics strongly support certain elements of the theoretical framework from both a causal and strategic perspective. Poverty, education, water, sanitation and rurality are seen as the leading thematic causal factors, while social protection, water and sanitation, education and health programmes are considered to be the most suitable strategies to address stunting. One will notice that although this does not nearly cover all the various components of the theoretical framework, it does make sense given the mandate of UNICEF. And since the nature of the research is broad, there is certainly plenty of room for more narrow-scoped research to be carried out in terms of the effectiveness of individual nutrition and health programmes applied throughout the region, if not the developing world at large. 

  • 13.
    Chaurio Martínez, Ana María
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    THE CONTRIBUTION OF HUMANITARIAN DIPLOMACY BY INTERNATIONAL RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS TO OBTAIN ACCESS TO CIVILIAN VICTIMS OF CONFINEMENT IN SAMANIEGO, COLOMBIA2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlights the role of humanitarian diplomacy to obtain humanitarian access to civilian victims of forced confinement in the municipality of Samaniego, Colombia. Humanitarian diplomacy is made of humanitarian negotiations, coordination and advocacy to provide suffering-alleviation to victims of armed conflicts, and these components will be discussed thoroughly. To inquire in the use of humanitarian diplomacy by international relief organizations, interviews with thirteen humanitarian workers, two public officers and a human rights worker were conducted. The findings, which are complemented with humanitarian and human rights reports and framed in the theoretical discussion, will be the base to discuss whether humanitarian diplomacy contributed to gain humanitarian access in villages of Samaniego facing restrictions in the mobility of civilians and limitations in the supply of basic means of livelihood and humanitarian assistance.

  • 14.
    Claire, Travers
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    NO ONE CARES WE’RE BLEEDING: THE PLACE OF MENSTRUAL MANAGEMENT IN HUMANITARAIN RESPONSE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menstrual management is a pervasive issue for women globally, and it becomes critical in times of crisis. During these times of crisis and disaster, humanitarian response seeks to provide relief of suffering by meeting essential needs, in a comprehensive and predictable manner. Yet the provision of menstrual management remains largely ad hoc. Through a comprehensive literature review of documents pertaining to menstrual management in emergencies, this paper offers a qualitative analysis of modern humanitarian strategic approaches, to explore the place of menstrual management in emergencies. The core findings are that menstrual management is not fodder for strategy in humanitarian aid, and therefore lacks a ‘home’ in any of the humanitarian approaches to response. It is not fully integrated into either technical strategic implementation, typified by the cluster approach, nor through cultural implementation approaches, typified by gender mainstreaming. This paper also offers some explanations of why such an omnipresent need has, as yet, remained un-championed. This discussion is based on a theoretical framework offered by feminist theory. Supplemented by an understanding of organisations as gendered structures (Acker, 1990), this thesis posits that these cavities in modern humanitarian response are due to the inherent inability and reluctance of the humanitarian system to concern itself with a bodily, female issue such as menstrual management.

  • 15.
    Cook, Sian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Return of Remains: How Can Dignity Be Better Safeguarded?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis argues that the return of remains deserves greater attention in humanitarian action. When remains are returned in an undignified manner, or not at all, this can harm the deceased person’s family and provoke the surrounding community. The inability to return remains has a significant impact on the deceased’s family. A conceptual framework – using concepts of posthumous dignity, boundary objects and moral injury – is outlined in this thesis. An extensive literature review was conducted to landmark events and publications regarding human remains and the impact of returning remains to families. After examining a variety of sectors and professions for return-of-remains practices, it has been observed that the way in which remains are returned to families, including what they are interred within and surrounded by, is critical to preventing moral injury and other distress to the families. The thesis also contends that efforts to return remains to families are widely and well received by affected communities; however these efforts require a well-coordinated approach of standardised procedures. Examples of prevailing practices from several professions are used to propose a humanitarian approach for the return of remains to families, with a goal of safeguarding the dignity of the dead and helping families cope with their loss. An analysis of such case material makes possible the formulation of recommendations on how to improve practices in the humanitarian sector. Protecting the dead is a responsibility of the living, and guidance is needed on how to return remains in an appropriate and sensitive manner.

  • 16. Dekens, Nienke Martine
    Sold for Sex because of War: Trafficking of women and girls for the purpose of Sexual Exploitation during conflict and in post-conflict context in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sierra Leone2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The trade in human beings, or Trafficking in Persons (TiP) is global and affecting every country. In the last years, increasing attention has been paid to TiP for the purpose of sexual exploitation. This led to a growing need to tackle this phenomenon. Only recently, the relationship between TiP and armed conflict has been acknowledged but remains under-studied. Cameron and Newman (2008) have outlined a framework in which structural factors linked to proximate factors could have explanatory value on the relationship between armed conflict and TiP. This thesis analyzes two cases of armed conflict, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sierra Leone, attempting to explain the increase in TiP of women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation by applying this theoretical framework. In this qualitative research a comparative method is used in applying the framework to two case studies, aiming to identify the explanatory value of Cameron and Newman’s (2008) framework. It is found that the general explanatory value of the framework is high and the proximate factors can be classified as: a fully explanatory proximate factor, case dependent proximate factors, and conflict-phase proximate factors. In addition, this thesis is identifying some elements that could influence TiP of women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation during conflict and post-conflict that could be of added value to this framework, namely: the implementation of government strategies, corruption of non-government officials, economic deterioration as a consequence of migration, and involvement of peacekeepers and members of the international community in TiP of women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

  • 17.
    Dekker, Jolien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    An analysis of factors for success of community-based disaster risk reduction in Java, Indonesia2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia has a very high exposure and high vulnerability to natural disasters. Community-based disaster risk reduction can be life-saving, cost effective and reduce the gap between development and humanitarian aid. Community-based activities enable people to express their real needs and priorities, allowing problems and measures to be defined and implemented effectively. In Indonesia, CBDRR initiatives often come from NGOs, university-based researchers, or (local) governments. This study aims to identify how community-based disaster risk reduction programs implemented by institutions can be successful. The hypothesis is that the key for successful community-based disaster risk reduction is to include and empower the communities at stake. Key concepts in this research for community-based disaster risk reduction are culture and vulnerability. The Pressure and Release model of Wisner et al (2004) addresses the structural vulnerability which underlies disasters and shows that they are a product of social, political and economic environments.  The process framework integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge of Mercer et al (2010) enables the integration of scientific and local knowledge. Together, these models are used as the framework of analysis. Two case studies have been selected: volcanic eruptions of Mount Merapi and landslides in Banjarnegara. Findings have shown that there are programs focused on early warning systems and evacuations, relocation, and education in both areas. Application of the framework reveals that the models are effective tools to assess the success of community-based disaster risk reduction initiatives, as well as reasons for failure. Deriving from these findings, the factors that determine successful community-based disaster risk reduction are: community engagement through collaborating with community and stakeholders, identification of community goals and establishing trust; the identification of intrinsic and extrinsic vulnerability by addressing root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions; identifying local knowledge and disaster mitigation strategies; and integrating these with scientific knowledge. The findings have also demonstrated that the hypothesis of this research - that the key for successful community-based disaster risk reduction programs implemented by institutions is to include and empower the communities at stake - is confirmed.

  • 18.
    Dranichnikova, Nadine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Communication with disaster-affected communities as a crucial component of humanitarian response. The comparative analysis of communication between humanitarain organizations and people affected by a disaster during the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Experiences and lessons learned.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the  thesis is to highlight the importance of communication between humanitarian organizations and disaster-affected communities in relief operations. The thesis strives to prove that communication should be regarded as a crucial component of humanitarian response in disasters. In order to prove that  statement  the thesis  explores  the concept of “communication with disaster  affected  communities”  through a  comparative  case-study of  the Indian Ocean Tsunami in Aceh, 2004 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 and its role in the overall success of the humanitarian response. The thesis contributes to the humanitarian  field with the proved and  tested theoretical hypothesis on successful communication  with  disaster-affected communities under a framework of Crisis  and  Emergency Risk Communication based on the evidence of the case-study results presented in the thesis. 

  • 19.
    Ekblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Bridging the Humanitarian-Development Divide: Indonesian-Swedish Stakeholder Case Studies on LRRD2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the concept of Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD), a topic discussed since the late 1980’s that has failed to be practically implemented, partly because of widely divergent perspectives on the concept. The discourse on LRRD has so far largely been conducted in a top-down fashion with donors constituting the dominant interlocutor, while the perspectives of aid organisations and local communities involved in humanitarian and developmental programmes have been widely overlooked. This thesis thus means to bring clarity to how LRRD is conceptualised by different stakeholders through proposing a comprehensive conceptual framework based from literature, which is used to analyse empirical case studies at the local, national, and international levels. The case studies were conducted in Indonesia and Sweden through interviews with 16 participants and a survey with 20 beneficiaries as respondents. The participants included: beneficiaries at a tsunami post-disaster site, local community leaders, a local level NGO, two national level Indonesia NGOs (MDMC and YEU), and an INGO (Plan International).The research reveal that none of the cases experienced as rigid divide between humanitarian and development action as is often suggested in the literature discourse and through donor policies. All interviewed NGOs expressed that they operated in a way that does create strong humanitarian-developmental linkages and that the major obstacle to achieve this is external pressures, particularly from donor agencies, to operate under exclusively humanitarian or developmental imperatives.

  • 20.
    Ericson, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Child protection systems in Sweden: gaps and challenges in services to asylum-seeking and returning children in families2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the second half of 2015, Sweden experienced the largest inflow of asylum-seekers in its history. Almost 163,000 people sought asylum in 2015, whereof approximately 70,000 children. The influx challenged the reception system and severe child protection concerns such as disappearances and sexual exploitation of unaccompanied minors were identified. Half of the children that arrived in 2015 came with families but this group have received less attention so far. The aim of this study was to explore the child protection systems around asylum-seeking and returning children in families by identifying child protection concerns and existing gaps in the services provided to this target group.

    Fourteen semi-structured interviews with twenty individuals belonging to various stakeholder groups such as staff at asylum accommodations, social workers, parents and, volunteer and staff from civil society organisations were conducted in two municipalities in Skåne, Sweden. The data was analysed using thematic analysis and the results are discussed in regards to the Protective Environment Framework. The results suggest that children in migration, with families, face multiple protection concerns in Sweden. Significant gaps exist in the services provided to these children and there are large disparities between accommodation centres. Many accommodations fail to provide a child-friendly environment and gender separated sanitation facilities. Furthermore, the results point out the importance of increasing competence of child protection among actors, and to increase preventive measure directed towards the parents in order to ensure a protective and safe environment for children. 

  • 21. Eriksson, Lina Elisabeth
    A Rising Female Empire?: Exploring the potential barriers women face in achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to explore how women and men view and perceive potential barriers to women achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector. Female leadership is so far an under-researched area within the humanitarian sector, so it is unknown whether females encounter any barriers in accessing and attaining leadership positions. Three categories were identified; identity, perception and challenges through which the views and barriers are explored. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two organisations; Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and the European Commission for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO) to further understand the perceptions. The empirical findings are analysed through thematic analysis, against the theoretical foundation of the explanation of the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions and how gender impacts organisations. Findings indicate that both men and women perceive that there are a number of barriers that women face under each of the three identified categories. The majority of findings are visible under the perception category which explores the influence of the boy’s network and the cemented organizational cultures. Findings also indicate that gender and the potential barriers that women face are not openly talked about, nor perceived as important, as is the need for diversity in humanitarian settings. This thesis highlights the contradictions and ambiguity of how barriers are perceived amongst humanitarian practitioners and organisations.

  • 22.
    Esswein, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The role of community radio in the response and recovery phase of the Gorkha earthquake: A case study research on humanitarian communication in Kathmandu Valley2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Gorkha earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, radio proved to be one of

    the major sources of information. Especially community radio could provide essential

    and life-saving information, reflecting the needs of the affected, local communities.

    Those stations claimed to speak “not about but for the people”. While community radio

    practitioners have repeatedly highlighted the benefits of the participatory approach, the

    linkage between the concept and its implementation when disaster strikes remains

    unexplored.

    Thus, the following thesis is aimed to illuminate the manifold role community radio had

    during the earthquake in 2015. The theoretical framework is based on key concepts such

    as community radio, crisis and humanitarian communication, resilience and Disaster

    Risk Management. The thesis strives to discuss various disciplines as well as

    practitioners and researchers perspectives. For that purpose, normative theory is

    contrasted by a survey with 30 community members, which had been affected by the

    earthquake, five interviews with community radio practitioners, one focus group

    discussion and several key-informant interviews, that I conducted in Nepal in February

    and March 2016. Having identified common challenges and lesson learned, one central

    outcome of this thesis are recommendations that are aimed to foster resilience towards

    future crisis in the earthquake prone country.

  • 23.
    Fager, Jannike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The right to be heard: A review of child participation and a human rights-based approach in Afghanistan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children as a group are often the most vulnerable in society, and the rights of the child have been, and still is a controversial issue around the world. The right to participate puts this on its head. During crisis, children’s vulnerability is heightened and their further development and opportunities for a healthy and dignified life is at risk. The obligation of humanitarian actors to protect the rights of the child, and to increase the accountability for affected populations is therefore undeniable. This study focuses on the child’s right to be heard in humanitarian action by analysing the efforts of Save the Children in Afghanistan. The aim is to assess if there is room for a human rights-based approach (HRBA) in humanitarian responses and by what means children are engaged in Save the Children’s work. Harry Shier’s model ‘Pathways to Participation’ is applied in order to demonstrate its applicability to humanitarian action. The study is conducted through the lens of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, childhood and participation studies as well as the human rights-based approach. Through the review of internal documents from Save the Children as well as interviews with staff at the organisation, this study shows that while there is a need to uphold the child’s right to participate during an emergency, the application of HRBA is difficult. The study also found that the higher levels of participation in Shier’s model are harder to achieve in certain stages of the project cycle and an emergency.

  • 24.
    Fernández Seijo, Paula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Democracy and Neoliberalism in Colombia: A sour blend for Peace?: An analysis of the neoliberal economic and political model for the post-conflict in Colombia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By 1990, the process of peacebuilding, which requires addressing the root causes of conflict, was guided by a generally unstated but widely endorsed theory of conflict management: the notion that "liberalization" in post-conflict settings would help to originate the conditions for a stable and lasting peace. Central America was one of the first laboratories of international policies promoting the threefold transformation of ‘democratization, marketization and pacification’ conceived as the "liberal peacebuilding paradigm". The peacebuilding missions were considered a success as they effectively prevented a relapse into war in the region but, serious deficits in the transformation processes - persistent socio-economic inequalities, an explosive crime wave, increasing authoritarianism and political polarization - have continue to threaten Central America as a likely scenario of renewed social conflict. Despite de illusion of "peace and democracy" the peacebuilding efforts have reproduced the very primary conditions that contributed to the outbreak of fighting in the first place, which is clearly contrary to the mission of peacebuilding: “a stable and lasting peace”.  Similarly, the economic and political liberalization projects were urged by international pressure in Colombia in an attempt to achieve a political solution to the armed struggle. However, efforts on implementing the liberal agenda have had questionable results; a 'formal and presidentialist democracy', an exclusive economic model which has further ignited the structural causes of conflict as well as an increased state militarization and emerging patterns of violence reproduction. Both cases analyzed in this research offer a good example of the 'hybrid outcomes' of the model in creating a façade of formal democracies or renew traditional patterns of 'mal-development' and violence.

     

    Liberalism in Colombia does not offer a good example of the supposedly 'pacifying' effects of democratic and economic opening so far, but rather, of a negative form of 'hybrid peace'. The prospects of achieving a 'lasting and stable' peace are being endangered by a new wave of aggressive neoliberal policies and its destabilizing effects as well as their cross-purposes with the prevailing constitutional order. Rather than a peace relying over social consent, it resembles an elite 'pact-making' to preserve the neoliberal state and economic order. If these unstable conditions are not reversed or ameliorated in the event of a final peace agreement, Colombia will probably continue at war but 'by other means'.

     

    Liberal peacebuilding is a double-edged tool. It has the potential to create the political and economic conditions for a lasting and stable peace, yet implementation can reproduce the sources of conflict and prompt a relapse into war. This study will explore through secondary data the triple transformative processes of the liberal model - democratization, marketization and pacification - in the post-war Central American countries, in an endeavor to provide lessons learnt to the current peace process in Colombia. Following the same logic and variables, the study will examine through a review of primary and secondary data the results of liberalization so far and its future prospects for bringing a lasting and stable peace in Colombia. Peace at last?

  • 25.
    Fransson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology. Network on Humanitarian Action.
    Can social organisations facilitate refugee integration in Sweden?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Gors, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    From Pakistan to Haiti, an examination of gender inclusion in WASH2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to understand the current and past challenges to including gender concerns within water and sanitation (WASH) programming. The case studies of the Pakistan and Haiti earthquakes in 2005 and 2010, respectively, are examined in order to understand how gender is included in water and sanitation programming. In order to examine this issue, interviews were conducted with personnel from humanitarian organizations focused on relief aid as well as research and policy. A literature study was conducted as well. Reports and analysis from organizations responding to the humanitarian crisis in Pakistan and Haiti, and more general examinations of WASH were studied.

     The findings conclude that the challenges to gender-sensitive approaches to WASH are linked to the difficulty of implementing gender-sensitive policies, as well as how organizations interact with and utilize guidelines versus gender focal points. The cases of Pakistan and Haiti point to the changing nature of the WASH sector in terms of its regard for gender concerns.

  • 27.
    Griffiths, Kristel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Humanitarian Coordination and the Cluster Approach2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Große, Tobias Max
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Challenges for Survivors of Anti-Personnel Mines in Post-Conflict Vista Hermosa, Colombia: Resilience, a Way for Improvement?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research approach is an embedded-single case study, focusing on survivors of APM in Vista Hermosa, Colombia. The first unit of analysis discloses the current challenges of survivors in light of the historical and legal background.

    The civilian population of Vista Hermosa was caught between the frontlines of the various fighting parties during the Colombian conflict. The demilitarized zone (DMZ) - active from 1999 to 2002 - left civilians in the municipality abandoned by the government; its termination let to a further increase of violence and significant anti-personnel mine (APM) contamination. After the Final Peace Agreement in 2016, illegal armed groups are still conducting violent attacks. The legal background presents a plurality of legislative instruments to regulate the necessary assistance to survivors of APM in Colombia. The most relevant international document in this regard is the Ottawa Convention which became effective in Colombia in 2001, enforced from 2011 by ‘The Victims’ Law’, its national counterpart.

    Despite the comprehensive legal rights to rehabilitation and compensation, the empirical section of this study detects a variety of challenges for survivors of APM. Despite the fact that most APM accidents date back more than 10 years, many survivors still suffer from physical and psychological impairments. The poor local health infrastructure, the insurance companies and the lacking knowledge about rights often impeded survivors to access adequate recovery means. Additionally, compensation mechanisms do not function effectively. The violence during the conflict and the fear of reprisal acts often prevented survivors from claiming their compensation rights in the required timeframe. The bureaucratic and opaque procedures of the Unidad para las Victimas constitute a barrier which the survivors can often only overcome with judicial support. The inefficient assistance of the municipality in this regard often causes survivors to abandon their claims. 

    The second unit of analysis of the research elaborates the humanitarian activities of Humanity and Inclusion and Pastoral Social on their ability to increase the resilience of the vulnerable group. The comprehensive assistance of the NGOs seeks to improve conditions for survivors of APM by empowering them in a sustainable manner. The approach offers adaptive capacities such as physical rehabilitation to solve immediate needs. However, most of the projects offer transformational capacities to tackle fundamental issues. Although much progress is still needed before it will be feasible to evaluate potential enduring improvement, intermediate results demonstrate enhanced resilience conditions of the benefiting survivors of APM. This approach is not functionally limited to Vista Hermosa or the beneficiary group of survivors of APM. The positive effects of the assistance can serve as an example for the wider humanitarian field. 

    The research findings are mainly based on open-ended interviews which were conducted in 2017 during a four-month internship with Humanity and Inclusion in Vista Hermosa. More interviews were undertaken afterwards via Skype. In addition, the research is based on a literature review including academic findings, reports, and legal documents.

  • 29. Guevara, Louise
    Transitional Justice in the Colombian Peace-Building Process:the Case of the Justice and Peace Law2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Gunnarsson Ruthman, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Internal membership democracy and motions for change: The case of the Medécins Sans Frontières Association2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is changing and humanitarian organisations need to be equipped to change with it. This case study has examined the internal democracy within the association of Medécins Sans Frontières (MSF), the creation of social capital and how it can be used to create bottom-up medical organisational change though motions. The selection of 6 motions was made to investigate if they have created the change they intended to create.

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that members have the power to create organisational change and that such changes depend on a high degree of internal membership democracy. Internal democracy is in turn a precondition for the formation of social capital. In total were 12 in depth interviews conducted with members, former and current board members as well as the executive. In addition to this has an analysis of video recoded motion debates and feedback session been analysed along with other relevant internal documentation. The study has found that the association of MSF is founded on democratic principles as a mean to guide and hold the executive responsible and fulfils formal criterion for a democracy. The internal democracy has a series of weaknesses in it, like lack of participation from members and unequal weight of influences of different members and national associations. It is also facing threats of executive manipulation due to weak boards. Despite this the association has created a strong social capital that unfortunately is unevenly distributed among the members and its social capital is at risk of declining. Regarding motions there is a lot of potential in this formal tool of influence, but often it is not the motion itself but what the motion writers and audience do with the information as well as if the executive agrees with the motions that create the intended change. It can be interpreted as if down-top approaches to operational medical organisational change only will be achieved if the “top” agrees to the change.

    In conclusion, the assumption of this thesis has thus been proven to a certain extent. Members have the power to create organisational change through motions but their ability to do that depends on a high degree of internal democracy but also on informal contacts. Social capital is built in the process in the social networks that each association form individually as well as together with all MSF associations. However it is not necessarily a precondition to organisational change even though it is a product of the existing internal democracy. MSF has the opportunity to strengthen the democratic process and to be better equipped to create organisational change in the future.