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  • 1. Gram, Magdalena
    et al.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Plattform för bilddatabaser: rapport2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Johannesson, Lena
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Konst- och bildvetenskap, .
    Skarin Frykman, Birgitta
    Göteborgs universitet, Etnologi.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Arbetarrörelse och arbetarkultur: bild och självbild2007Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    A Whiter Shade of Pale: Visuality and race in the work of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology2013In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 180-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1922 the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology (SIRB) was founded in Uppsala, with the purpose being to survey and classify the Swedish people according to their race. To make this categorization, both measurements and visual analysis of bodies and faces were used and documented in charts and photographs. The data collected was then intended to make a foundation for a rational population policy aiming at improving the Nordic (Swedish) race. The charts registering body characteristics, the photographic collection brought together by the institute, and the images illustrating the published results all testify to the importance of visuality in this eugenic project: how people looked was crucial when classifying them into different race types. In this study the works of the institute are analysed to see in what way race was constructed through this visuality. The results show how the institute followed a scientific and pictorial rhetoric founded centuries earlier, in which the human species was organized in different subgroups according to their visual appearance. The results also show how race, with time, became more and more differentiated and that white, in the work of the SIRB, came in many shades.

  • 4.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Arbetaren i bild: den socialistiska dagspressens bildbruk och framställning av den arbetande människan1993Report (Other scientific)
  • 5.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Bilden som bevis: Om bruket av fotografier i det vetenskapliga arbetet vid statens institut för rasbiologi2015Other (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Digitalisering som standardisering: Verktyg i konciperingen av kulturarv2009In: Digital formidling af kulturarv: Fra samling til sampling / [ed] Niels D. Lund, Köpenhamn: Multivers, 2009, p. 219-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM. Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap.
    Från hövding till landsfader: bilden av arbetarrörelsens ledare i svensk veckopress 1910-19462007In: Arbetarrörelse och arbetarkultur: bild och självbild, Stockholm: Carlsson , 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Från kungaporträtt till läsketikett: en domänanalytisk studie över Kungl. bibliotekets bildsamling med särskild inriktning mot katalogiserings- och indexeringsfrågor2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A prerequisite for pictures to be studied and used as sources of knowledge is that they are collected, organised, and made accessible. The aim of this thesis has been to analyse these processes within a specific cultural heritage institution – the National Library of Sweden’s picture collection.

    Pictures play a central role as bearers of communication and information in the information space of our society. They have increasingly drawn attention to themselves both as historical artefacts and as culturally important and “identity creating” objects. In addition, recent technological advances make it possible to disseminate pictures in a hitherto unprecedented manner, leading to new challenges in how to improve access to such material. Much attention has been geared toward finding and implementing a standard solution applicable for various tasks and situations, irrespective of domains.

    In contrast to such homogenising ambitions, I instead argue for the elaboration of solutions more sensitive to domain specific demands, where the comprehen-sion of pictures must be sought in shared communities of meaning. Influenced by socio-cultural and discursive perspectives this study sees knowledge and meaning as historically constructed and socially situated.

    The study is divided into two main parts. Part One includes the introduction and the discussion of theory and method. Part Two consists of the empirical investigation and a conclusion. The former consists of four chapters centering on the historical background, a presentation of the picture material, the institutional practices and the knowledge organisation tools deployed by the National Library’s Picture Collection. In the conclusion I argue that our visual cultural heritage is constructed with the aid of the tools, discourses, and practices used in our institutional settings; in this particular case the Picture Collection of The National Library of Sweden.

  • 9.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Fysionomi och fotografi – den rasbiologiska konstruktionen av den nordiska rasen som vit2017In: Ras och vithet: Svenska rasrelationer i går och i dag / [ed] Tobias Hübinette, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur, 2017, in print, p. 47-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    How to picture race?: The use of photography in the scientific practice of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology2014In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 580-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the Swedish State Institute for Race Biology, SIRB, was to survey the Swedish people according to its race criteria. In this research process photographs were used to document and portray the different races living in Sweden. This article examines how the photographs were used in this process: What pictorial rhetoric did they use and what did the photographs bring to the research process? The result shows that SIRB did not succeeded in developing consistent methods of portraying race. The style and formula of the portraits varied; sometimes environmental aspects came in to focus, sometimes bodily aspects. These methodological shortcomings must be attributed not only to the fact that the institution was working with a new and immature scientific medium – photography – but also that it operated inside an

    immature scientific discipline. The race scientific community had no joint theories and methods to work with, and did not know how to affiliate with other disciplines – such as anthropology, focusing on environmental factors, or medicine, focusing on bodily aspects. But the lack of methodological consistency was not just a shortcoming; it could also be used to bias the material in a way that served the ideas of eugenics.

  • 11.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Images as scientific documents in Swedish race biology: two practices2017In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 1655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. During the early period of Swedish ‘race biology’, photography was extensively used in the practice of this pseudoscience. Later on, photographs were discarded and other pictorial techniques applied. This change in pictorial technique coincided with changes in the disciplinary practice of ‘race biology’. Method. Comparative image analysis. Analysis. Two pictures, exemplifying the two periods, are compared and analysed with reference to functional theories of scientific images as instrumental in institutional practices. Results. Swedish ‘race biology’ was a project ostensibly aimed at recording physiognomic traits of Swedish ‘racial types’. But the photographs of the early period depict much more. Redundant information was used to bias data to reflect ideological assumptions: irrelevant aspects like lighting, surroundings, props and clothes were used to portray Nordic ‘racial types’ as superior. When ‘race biology’ changed direction and the existence of racial differences began to be denied, pictorial rhetoric and techniques also changed and photographs depicting human ‘racial types’ were no longer in demand. Conclusion. Shifting theories and objectives of scientific practice affect tools and methods. When images are part of scientific practice, imaging techniques and rhetoric change as disciplines develop.

  • 12.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Konsten att finna en bild: om lagring och återvinning av bildmaterial på svenska forskningsbibliotek1998Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM. Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap.
    Konsten att representera en bild: om hur LIS-forskningens teorier kring kunskapsorganisation och ämnesbestämning påverkat bildindexeringsforskningen2003In: Svensk biblioteksforskning, ISSN 1653-5235, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Kungl. bibliotekets bilddatabas1999In: ARLIS Norden Info., ISSN 0284-7027, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Om forskningen kring bildindexering inom det biblioteks- och informationsvetenskapliga området, belyst genom Kungl. bibliotekets bildsamlande verksamhet2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Semiotik och bildförståelse1992In: Talspråk, skriftspråk, bildspråk: en antologi / [ed] Jan-Erik Lundström, Berit Sahlström, Linköping: Tema Kommunikation, Univ. , 1992Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Visual knowledge organization: towards an international standard or local institutional practice2008In: Proceedings of the International Society for Knowledge Organization 12: Advances in knowledge organization, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Dahlström, Mats
    Hansson, Joacim
    "As We May Digitize’ — Institutions and Documents Reconfigured"2012In: Liber quarterly: the journal of European research libraries, ISSN 1435-5205, E-ISSN 2213-056X, Vol. 21, no 3/4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Eld, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    The Construction of Whiteness in the Work of The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1922 a eugenic research centre, The Swedish State Institute for Race Biology, was founded in Uppsala, with the purpose being to survey and classify the Swedish people according to race. The data collected was intended to make a foundation for a rational population policy aiming at improving the Nordic (Swedish) race. This race was deemed superior in comparison with the other races living in Sweden– primarily the East Baltic (Finnish) and the Lappish (Sami) race. But due to miscegenation and a depraved urban lifestyle this Nordic race was under threat and needed to be rescued.

    In the scientific practice of this eugenic institute it was the external aspects of the humans, or the phenotype that decided what race a person belonged to. A vast amount of bodily data was therefore collected―bodies were measured and hair and eye colours determined to decide what race a person belonged to. Beside these records photographical portraits of the persons examined were also taken.

    The use of photography in the scientific practice of the institute is not surprising―with the focus on how people looked it was a convenient and efficient tool. The camera could not only rapidly produce a vast amount of photographical records but was also, in this period, deemed objective and reliable―just capturing the world as it was. But in the same time it is obvious when examine the photographs that they were most biased. The portraits exemplifying the Nordic race show young, healthy good-looking persons in prosperous environments while for instance the Finnish type often was elderly, shabby men in worn out clothes, in front of poor homes and surroundings. The photographs were used to promote the idea of the Nordic race as superior―they were far from objective but permeated by ideological beliefs.

  • 20.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Hansson, Joakim
    Växjö universitet.
    Dahlström, Mats
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Documents reconstructed: digitization and institutional practice as mediation2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Kjellman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    The tattoo as a document2018In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 18-35, article id https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-03-2017-0043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how tattoos can be considered documents of an individual’s identity, experiences, status and actions in a given context, relating to ideas stating that archival records/documents can be of many types and have different functions. The paper also wants to discuss how tattoos serve as a bank of memories and evidence on a living body; in this respect, the tattooed body can be viewed as an archive, which immortalises and symbolises the events and relationships an individual has experienced in his or her life, and this in relation to a specific social and cultural context.

    Design/methodology/approach

    To discuss these issues, the authors take the point of departure in the tattoo practice of Russian/Soviet prisoners. The tattoo material referred to is from the “Russian Criminal Tattoo Archive”. The archive is created by FUEL Design and Publishing that holds the meanings of the tattoos as explained in Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia Volume I-III. The authors exemplify this practice with two photographs of Soviet/Russian prisoners and their tattoos. By using a semiotic analysis that contextualises these images primarily through literature studies, the authors try to say something about what meaning these tattoos might carry.

    Findings

    The paper argues that it is possible to view the tattoo as a document, bound to an individual, reflecting his/her life and a given social and cultural context. As documents, they provide the individual with the essential evidence of his or her endeavours in a criminal environment. They also function as an individual’s memory of events and relationships (hardships and comradeships). Subsequently, the tattoos help create and sustain an identity. Finally, the tattoo presents itself as a document that may represent a critique of a dominant society or simply the voice of the alienated.

    Originality/value

    By showing how tattoos can be seen as documents and memory records, this paper brings a new kind of item into information and archival studies. It also uses theories and concepts from information and archival studies to put new light on the functions of tattoos.

1 - 21 of 21
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