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  • 1.
    Fält, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    A cross-service approach to identify mental health problems in 3–5-year-old children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Child Healthcare Services (CHS) in Sweden offer regular health check-ups and reach almost all 0–5-year-old children. Although one of the objectives of the CHS is to detect mental health problems, evidence-based methods are not used for this purpose at the Child Health Clinics (CHCs). Therefore, an evidence-based instrument to assess children’s emotional and behavioural problems through parent and teacher reports, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was introduced, as part of the Children and Parents in Focus trial, run between 2013 and 2017 in Uppsala, Sweden. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the introduction of the procedure, including the facilitation strategies provided to support implementation, and to provide inter-rater correlations and norms for the SDQ in this population.

    Data were collected through individual interviews with nurses, parents and preschool teachers; group interviews with nurses; and a survey performed at the end of the trial to evaluate nurses’ experiences of the SDQ-procedure and the implementation process. In addition, delivery, response rate and population coverage of the questionnaires were calculated. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), and qualitative data using Grounded Theory and content analysis.

    Results showed that nurses found it useful for their assessment to have access to preschool teachers’ SDQ-ratings. Parents were also positive to the procedure but had concerns regarding confidentiality of the responses. Preschool teachers were least positive, fearing labelling of children and negative parental reactions. Significant, albeit poor, agreement (ICC) was found between parent and teacher ratings and good agreement between parents’ ratings. Teachers were found to report lower levels of problems compared to parents. Cut-off values differed for age and were somewhat higher for boys (lower for prosocial), suggesting that boys display more behaviour problems. Nurses perceived facilitation strategies used by the research team useful to support implementation and delivered the procedure, essentially, as intended. However, response rate remained lower than expected, around 50%.

    The findings suggest that implementing the SDQ to aid CHC-nurses’ assessment of 3-5-year-olds’ mental health is feasible, but requires further effort in regular services to reach all children.

    List of papers
    1. Exploring Nurses', Preschool Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting - A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Nurses', Preschool Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting - A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory
    2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0168388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses', preschool teachers' and parents' perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure-the 'causal conditions' in a grounded theory model included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children's behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address barriers: the tension between normative thinking versus helping children with developmental problems for preschool teachers and dealing with privacy issues and inequity in participation for parents.

    National Category
    Nursing Pediatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316035 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0168388 (DOI)000391857100010 ()28076401 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 259-2012-68Swedish Research Council, 259-2012-68VINNOVA, 259-2012-68
    Available from: 2017-02-24 Created: 2017-02-24 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Agreement between mothers', fathers', and teachers' ratings of behavioural and emotional problems in 3-5-year-old children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agreement between mothers', fathers', and teachers' ratings of behavioural and emotional problems in 3-5-year-old children
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    2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a valid and reliable instrument for measuring children's mental health, is available in parent- and teacher versions, making it an ideal tool for assessing behavioural and emotional problems in young children. However, few studies have evaluated inter-parent agreement on the SDQ, and in most studies on SDQ agreement, parent scores are either provided by only one parent or have been combined into one parent score. Furthermore, studies on SDQ inter-rater agreement usually only reflect degree of correlation, leaving the agreement between measurements unknown. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine both degree of correlation and agreement between parent and teacher SDQ reports, in a community sample of preschool-aged children in Sweden.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the Children and Parents in Focus trial. The sample comprised 4,46 children 3-5-years-old. Mothers, fathers and preschool teachers completed the SDQ as part of the routine health check-ups at Child Health Centres. Inter-rater agreement was measured using Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation (ICC).

    Results: Results revealed poor/fair agreement between parent and teacher ratings (ICC 0.25-0.54) and good/excellent agreement between mother and father ratings (ICC 0.66-0.76). The highest level of agreement between parents and teachers was found for the hyperactivity and peer problem subscales, whereas the strongest agreement between parents was found for the hyperactivity and conduct subscales.

    Conclusions: Low inter-rater agreement between parent and teacher ratings suggests that information from both teachers and parents is important when using the SDQ as a method to identify mental health problems in preschool children. Although mothers and fathers each provide unique information about their child's behaviour, good inter-parent agreement indicates that a single parent informant may be sufficient and simplify data collection.

    National Category
    Psychiatry Pediatrics Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369597 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0206752 (DOI)000449027600094 ()30383861 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 259-2012-68Swedish Research Council, 259-2012-68Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 259-2012-68VINNOVA, 259-2012-68
    Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Swedish norms for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children 3-5 years rated by parents and preschool teachers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish norms for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children 3-5 years rated by parents and preschool teachers
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    (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384320 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-06-04 Created: 2019-06-04 Last updated: 2019-06-04
    4. Facilitating implementation of an evidence-based method to assess the mental health of 3–5-year-old children at Child Health Clinics: a mixed-methods process evaluation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating implementation of an evidence-based method to assess the mental health of 3–5-year-old children at Child Health Clinics: a mixed-methods process evaluation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-384323 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-06-04 Created: 2019-06-04 Last updated: 2019-06-04
  • 2.
    Tang, Marc
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    A typology of classifiers and gender: From description to computation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Categorization is one the most relevant tasks realized by humans during their life, as we consistently need to categorize the things and experience that we encounter. Such need is reflected in language via various mechanisms, the most prominent being nominal classification systems (e.g., grammatical gender such as the masculine/feminine distinction in French). Typological methods are used to investigate the underlying functions and structures of such systems, using a wide variety of cross-linguistic data to examine universality and variability. This analysis is itself a classification task, as languages are categorized and clustered according to their grammatical features. This thesis provides a cross-linguistic typological analysis of nominal classification systems and in parallel compares a number of quantitative methods that can be applied at different scales.

    First, this thesis provides an analysis of nominal classification systems (i.e., gender and classifiers) via the description of three languages with respectively gender, classifiers, and both. While the analysis of the first two languages are more of a descriptive nature and aligns with findings in the existing literature, the third language provides novel insights to the typology of nominal classification systems by demonstrating how classifiers and gender may co-occur in one language in terms of distribution of functions. Second, the underlying logic of nominal classification systems is commonly considered difficult to investigate, e.g., is there a consistent logic behind gender assignment in language? is it possible to explain the distribution of classifier languages of the world while taking into account geographical and genealogical effects? This thesis addresses the lack of arbitrariness of nominal classification systems at three different scales: The distribution of classifiers at the worldwide level, the presence of gender within a language family, and gender assignment at the language-internal level. The methods of random forests, phylogenetics, and word embeddings with neural networks are selected since they are respectively applicable at three different scales of research questions (worldwide, family-internal, language-internal).

    List of papers
    1. The lexical and discourse functions of grammatical gender in Marathi
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The lexical and discourse functions of grammatical gender in Marathi
    2018 (English)In: Journal of South Asian languages and linguistics, ISSN 2196-0771, E-ISSN 2196-078X, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Research subject
    Indology with Classical Sanscrit
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366417 (URN)10.1515/jsall-2018-0012 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-12-13
    2. Nominal classification in Assamese: An analysis of function
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nominal classification in Assamese: An analysis of function
    2019 (English)In: Nominal Classification in Asia: Functional and diachronic perspectives / [ed] Marc Tang; Marcin Kilarski, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366419 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-03-27
    3. Functions of gender and numeral classifiers in Nepali
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functions of gender and numeral classifiers in Nepali
    (English)In: Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, ISSN 1732-0747, E-ISSN 1897-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366473 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-21
    4. Numeral base, numeral classifier, and noun: Word order harmonization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numeral base, numeral classifier, and noun: Word order harmonization
    (English)In: Language and linguistics/Yuyan Ji Yuyangxue, ISSN 1606-822X, E-ISSN 2309-5067, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366474 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-29
    5. Insights on the Greenberg-Sanches-Slobin Generalization: Quantitative typological data on classifiers and plural markers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights on the Greenberg-Sanches-Slobin Generalization: Quantitative typological data on classifiers and plural markers
    (English)In: Folia linguistica, ISSN 0165-4004, E-ISSN 1614-7308Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366476 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-21
    6. Word order of numeral classifiers and numeral bases: Harmonization by multiplication
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Word order of numeral classifiers and numeral bases: Harmonization by multiplication
    (English)In: Language Typology and Universals, ISSN 1867-8319, E-ISSN 2196-7148Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366477 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-21
    7. A Statistical Explanation of the Distribution of Sortal Classifiers in Languages of the World via Computational Classifiers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Statistical Explanation of the Distribution of Sortal Classifiers in Languages of the World via Computational Classifiers
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, ISSN 0929-6174, E-ISSN 1744-5035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies demonstrate that morphosyntactic plural markers and the structure of numeral systems have individually strong predictive power with regard to the usage of sortal classifiers in languages. We use these two factors as explanatory variables to train the computational classifier of random forests and evaluate the accuracy of their predictive power when selecting the existence/absence of sortal classifiers as response variable. Our results show that these two factors result in an excellent discrimination performance of random forests, even when taking into account sortal classifiers as an areal feature. However, the correlation between morphosyntactic plural markers and multiplicative bases is weaker than the correlation between sortal classifiers and plural markers plus multiplicative bases. We are thus able to provide novel insights with regard to probabilistic universals on sortal classifiers, and suggest an innovative cross-disciplinary approach to test the effect of implicational universals with computational methods.

    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
    Research subject
    Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362252 (URN)10.1080/09296174.2018.1523777 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    8. Measuring the phylogenetic signal of grammatical gender in Indo-Aryan languages
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the phylogenetic signal of grammatical gender in Indo-Aryan languages
    (English)In: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366596 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-23
    9. Linguistic information in word embeddings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linguistic information in word embeddings
    2019 (English)In: Lecture notes in artificial intelligence / [ed] Randy Goebel, Yuzuru Tanaka, and Wolfgang Wahlster, Dordrecht: Springer, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Dordrecht: Springer, 2019
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366478 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-03-27
    10. Lexical and Morpho-syntactic Features in Word Embeddings: A Case Study of Nouns in Swedish
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lexical and Morpho-syntactic Features in Word Embeddings: A Case Study of Nouns in Swedish
    2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence: Volume 2, Setubal: SciTePress, 2018, p. 663-674Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Setubal: SciTePress, 2018
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351926 (URN)978-989-758-275-2 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Pavliuk, Mariia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Accumulative Charge Separation in Photocatalysis: From Molecules to Nanoparticles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photochemical energy conversion into solar fuel involves steps of light absorption, charge separation and catalysis. Nature has taught us that the effective accumulation of redox equivalents and charge separation are the key steps in sunlight conversion. The focus of this thesis is to unveil photophysical and photochemical processes that lead to accumulative charge separation. The optimization of electron transfer process will be held by minimization of losses via recombination, and extension of the lifetime of the charge separated state by usage of the electron relay.

    The goal is to couple light induced electron transfer process with the multi-electron catalytic process of hydrogen evolution. In this regard, light harvesters (molecules, metal nanostructures) that generate at least two electrons per absorbed photon will be studied. Additionally, semiconductors that generate long-lived charge separated states are utilized to accumulate several redox equivalents necessary for hydrogen evolution.

    The hybrid systems produced by the combination of the advantageous properties of molecules, semiconductors, and metal nanoparticles are under the scope of investigation. Metal nanoparticles are advantageous because of their high absorption cross-section. The molecular linkers provide control and flexibility in tuning the connection between the light absorber and the electron relay. Semiconductor nanoparticles offer the desired charge separation properties via prolonging the lifetime sufficiently to perform photocatalysis.

    The detailed understanding, investigation and development of the hybrid systems is at the heart of the progress of photochemical solar fuel production.

    List of papers
    1. Ultra long-lived electron-hole separation within water-soluble colloidal ZnO nanocrystals: Prospective Applications For Solar Energy Production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra long-lived electron-hole separation within water-soluble colloidal ZnO nanocrystals: Prospective Applications For Solar Energy Production
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    2016 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 30, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide was one of the first semiconductors used in dye-sensitized solar cells but its instability in aqueous media precludes its use for large-scale applications. Herein, we report on a novel ZnO nanocrystal material derived by an organometallic approach that is simultaneously stable and soluble in water due to its carboxylate oligoethylene glycol shell strongly anchored to the inorganic core by the head groups. The resulting unique inorganic core-organic shell interface also stabilizes the photo-generated hole, leading to a dramatic slowing down of charge recombination, which otherwise is a major hurdle in using nanostructured ZnO.

    Keywords
    Water-soluble colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, Ultra long-lived electron-hole separation, Advanced laser based spectroscopy, Solar energy production prospectus
    National Category
    Nano Technology Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314050 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.09.045 (DOI)000390636100023 ()
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationEU, European Research Council, 687008Swedish Research Council, 2015-03764
    Available from: 2017-02-06 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Hydrogen evolution with nanoengineered ZnO interfaces decorated using a beetroot extract and a hydrogenase mimic
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen evolution with nanoengineered ZnO interfaces decorated using a beetroot extract and a hydrogenase mimic
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    2017 (English)In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 1, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report a nano-hybrid photo-system based on abundant elements for H2 production with visible light. The photo-system's proficiency relates to the novel ZnO nanocrystals employed. The ZnO carboxylate oligoethylene glycol shell enhances charge separation and accumulates reactive electrons for the photocatalytic process. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
    Keywords
    H2 evolution
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Chemistry with specialization in Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335979 (URN)10.1039/c6se00066e (DOI)000422769100006 ()
    Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Magnetic Manipulation of Spontaneous Emission from Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskites Nanocrystals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic Manipulation of Spontaneous Emission from Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskites Nanocrystals
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    2016 (English)In: ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS, ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 2004-2008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Metal halide perovskites have shown great potential for both light-absorbing and light-emitting devices. It is demonstrated that the presence of a low-magnetic field decreases dramatically the photoluminescence of CsPbBr3. This is found to be due to a decrease in charge separated state lifetime. The effect is fully reversible, and can be exploited for simple and remote modulation of the output of light-emitting devices.

    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315916 (URN)10.1002/adom.201600611 (DOI)000392405100014 ()
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2015-03764EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 306733
    Available from: 2017-02-23 Created: 2017-02-23 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Hydrogen evolution with CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals under visible light in solution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen evolution with CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals under visible light in solution