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  • 1.
    Abouei, Mina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Enhancing emotional communication between autistic and non-autistic individuals through assistive Information Technology2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recognising people’s emotions is a promising research area in human-computer interaction as emotional communication plays a crucial role in humans’ lives. One of the main reasons for ineffective emotional communication is a deficit in understanding emotional signals such as facial expressions and body posture. There is a bidirectional challenge between autistic and non-autistic individuals since they display their emotional signals differently. This thesis discovers differences in emotional signals, in particular facial expressions, body posture, and physiological signals. Based on the interviews and questionnaires conducted in this thesis, the need to design an aid tool to assist autistic and non-autistic participants during their emotional communication is identified. Therefore, Emognition, a smartwatch, and its mobile application is designed to blur these differences and enhance the emotional communication between them. Furthermore, Emognition’s user evaluation indicates that the smartwatch could successfully detect nonautistic participants’ sadness and happiness. Also, they found the mobile application useful and aesthetically motivating to interact with. Even though we could not evaluate how well the Emognition recognises autistic participants’ sadness and happiness, it is promising to measure their emotions successfully by accurate sensors and, more importantly, by finding their autonomic response patterns to different emotions and enhance emotional communication between autistic and nonautistic people by Emognition.

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  • 2.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Langegård, Ulrica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Designing for Human Well-Being: A Case Study with Informal Caregivers of Individuals with Cancer2022In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 294, p. 214-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informal Caregivers such as a spouse, other close relatives or friends of cancer patients can play an essential role in home-based treatment and care. However, the informal caregivers might not be prepared for this responsibility, and they might have several unmet requirements for taking care of patients in the home environment. The informal caregivers’ physical, social and psychological health is also profoundly affected due to the health conditions of their relatives. We propose a User-centred Positive Design as a hybrid framework by merging the traditional User-cantered design and positive design frameworks to enhance the informal caregivers’ subjective well-being. Our ongoing project (Carer-eSupport) will be used as a case study, and its main objective is to co-create and evaluate a web-based support system for informal caregivers of people with cancer. The proposed framework can be used for the design and development of health information systems with a special focus on users’ wellbeing and positive emotions.

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  • 3.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Premanandan, Shweta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Langegård, Ulrica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer precision medicine.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer precision medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Healthcare Sciences and e-Health.
    Carlsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness.
    Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Positive Design Framework for Carer-eSupport: A Qualitative Study to Support Informal Caregivers of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer in Sweden2023In: JMIR Cancer, E-ISSN 2369-1999, Vol. 9, article id e45748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Informal caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), such as the patient’s spouse, other close relatives, or friends, can play an important role in home-based treatment and health care. Research shows that informal caregivers are usually unprepared for this responsibility and need support with taking care of patients and other daily life activities. These circumstances place them in a vulnerable position, and their well-being may be compromised. This study is part of our ongoing project Carer eSupport, which aims to develop a web-based intervention to facilitate informal caregivers in the home environment.

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the situation and context of informal caregivers of patients with HNC and their needs for designing and developing a web-based intervention (Carer eSupport). In addition, we proposed a novel framework for the development of a web-based intervention aimed at promoting the well-being of informal caregivers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with 15 informal caregivers and 13 healthcare professionals. Both informal caregivers and healthcare professionals were recruited from 3 university hospitals in Sweden. We adopted a thematic data analysis process to analyze the data.

    Results: We investigated informal caregivers’ needs, critical factors for adoption, and desired functionalities of Carer eSupport.A total of 4 major themes, including information, web-based forum, virtual meeting place, and chatbot, emerged and were discussed by informal caregivers and health care professionals for Carer eSupport. However, most study participants did not like the idea of a chatbot for asking questions and retrieving information and expressed their concerns such as a lack of trust in robotic technologies and missing human contact while communicating with chatbots. The results from the focus groups were discussed through the lens of positive design research approaches.

    Conclusions: This study provided an in-depth understanding of informal caregivers’ contexts and their preferred functions for a web-based intervention (Carer eSupport). Using the theoretical foundation of designing for well-being and positive design in the informal caregiving context, we proposed a positive design framework to support informal caregivers’ well-being. Our proposed framework might be helpful for human-computer interaction and user experience researchers to design meaningful health interventions with a clear focus on users’ well-being and positive emotions, especially for informal caregivers of patients with HNC.

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  • 4.
    Ahmad, Muneeb Imtiaz
    et al.
    Swansea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Kingswood, NSW, Australia.;Western Sydney Univ, MARCS Inst, Kingswood, NSW, Australia..
    Gao, Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Alnajjar, Fady
    UAE Univ, Coll Informat Technol, Al Ain, U Arab Emirates..
    Shahid, Suleman
    Lahore Univ Management Sci, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Mubin, Omar
    Western Sydney Univ, Sch Comp, Kingswood, NSW, Australia..
    Emotion and memory model for social robots: a reinforcement learning based behaviour selection2022In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 41, no 15, p. 3210-3236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning (RL) mechanism for social robots to select an action based on users' learning performance and social engagement. We applied this behavior selection mechanism to extend the emotion and memory model, which allows a robot to create a memory account of the user's emotional events and adapt its behavior based on the developed memory. We evaluated the model in a vocabulary-learning task at a school during a children's game involving robot interaction to see if the model results in maintaining engagement and improving vocabulary learning across the four different interaction sessions. Generally, we observed positive findings based on child vocabulary learning and sustaining social engagement during all sessions. Compared to the trends of a previous study, we observed a higher level of social engagement across sessions in terms of the duration of the user gaze toward the robot. For vocabulary retention, we saw similar trends in general but also showing high vocabulary retention across some sessions. The findings indicate the benefits of applying RL techniques that have a reward system based on multi-modal user signals or cues.

  • 5.
    Akkuzu, Anastasia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Castellano, Ginevra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Calvo-Barajas, Natalia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Behavioural Observations as Objective Measures of Trust in Child-Robot Interaction: Mutual Gaze2023In: HAI '23: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 452-454Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developing a computational model of trust, this paper summarises the findings in a previous study exploring mutual gaze as a behavioural parameter of social trust and liking [1]. Drawing on the data collected in a related paper [6], which provides us with video clips of children interacting with a robot during a collaborative storytelling game, we look at the interactions between metrics assessing social trust and liking, and the development of mutual gaze as an objective measure of social trust and liking. We achieve this through several statistical analyses between the percent of mutual gaze in each interaction, scores from social trust and liking metrics, age of the participant, and duration. The findings of our study support the use of mutual gaze as an objective measure for liking, but there is still not sufficient evidence to support the use of mutual gaze as an objective measure to identify and capture social trust as a whole. Furthermore, interaction context impacts the amount of mutual gaze in an interaction, and the age of the participant has an impact on the amount of mutual gaze that occurs.

  • 6.
    Akkuzu, Beliz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Behavioural Observations as Objective Measures of Trust in Child-Robot Interaction: Mutual Gaze2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given the subjective nature of trust as a phenomenon and its unified multifaceted contributions for every individual context,the development of a computational model of trust proves to be a difficult endeavour. In this study, we investigate mutual gaze as a behavioural measure of social trust and liking in child-robot interaction. Developing on a prior user study involving 52 children interacting with a robot with variable human-likeness and lexical alignment in two interaction contexts (task-based and dialogue-based), we investigate the effects of human-likeness and lexical alignment on mutual gaze, associations and correlations between metrics assessing social trust and liking, and the development of mutual gaze as an objective measure of social trust and liking. We achieve this through several statistical analyses between the percent of mutual gaze in each interaction, human-likeness, lexical alignment, scores from social trust and liking metrics, self-disclosure content, age, and time. The main findings of our study support the use of mutual gaze as an objective measure for liking, but there is still not sufficient evidence to supportthe use of mutual gaze as an objective measure to identify and capture social trust as a whole. Furthermore, we found that human-likeness and lexical alignment do not significantly affect mutual gaze in an interaction, but the interaction context does. Moreover, it seems that age plays a role in the amount of mutual gaze in an interaction, where older participants engage in less mutual gaze compared to the younger participants. Alongside this, the amount of mutual gaze the participant engages in is stable across periods when they are not interacting with the robot, changing more towards the first half of the first interaction and the second half of the second interaction. Based on the study, our findings suggest using different objective behavioural measures for social trust compared to its related concepts such as liking. Also, our results have found that there may be other constructs intertwined with liking, such as attention and interest, which may need to be addressed with separate metrics.

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    Akkuzu_Behavioural_Measures_2023
  • 7.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Analysing Action and Intention Recognition in Human-Robot Interaction with ANEMONE2021In: Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Techniques and Novel Applications: Thematic Area, HCI 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Cham: Springer , 2021, p. 181-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANEMONE is a methodological approach for user experience (UX) evaluation of action and intention recognition in human-robot interaction that has activity theory as its theoretical lens in combination with the seven stages of action model and UX evaluation methodology. ANEMONE has been applied in a case where a prototype has been evaluated. The prototype was a workstation in assembly in manufacturing consisting of a collaborative robot, a pallet, a tablet, and a workbench, where one operator is working in the same physical space as one robot. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance on how to use ANEMONE, with a particular focus on the data analysis part, through describing a real example together with lessons learned and recommendations.

  • 8. Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ziemke, Tom
    User experience in social human–robot interaction2017In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 9.
    Alenljung, Zacharias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    User Experience in Augmented Reality: A Holistic Evaluation of a Prototype for Assembly Instructions2021In: Design, User Experience, and Usability: Design for Contemporary Technological Environments: 10th International Conference, DUXU 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Marcelo M. Soares; Elizabeth Rosenzweig; Aaron Marcus, Cham: Springer , 2021, p. 139-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industries are under development with new upcoming tools that will further streamline the work of operators, not least in assembly. Assembly instructions are usually visualized by traditional paper or databases. A new way of showing instruction is provided by augmented reality (AR). The focus of this paper is the user experience (UX) of AR-based instructions for assembly. In order to study the UX in AR, an evaluation matrix and an AR prototype has been developed and evaluated in a UX test, where data regarding both hedonic and pragmatic qualities was collected. The UX test yielded a result of three out of nine sub-goals completed while six did not. There was a general low degree of cognitive load while assembling but not low enough. However, there are promising results for AR-based instructions, though the technology still needs improvement and more testing is also necessary. The assembly scenario for this study was somewhat simple and could be one reason why this study generated ambiguous results.

  • 10.
    ALI, SHUJAT
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    DESIGN AN INTERFACE PROTOTYPE FOR ELSKIFT.DK: DESIGN A WEBSITE USING ITERATIVE DESIGN PROCESS2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Now a day the revolution in computer technology has changed the trend of human life. Congenital methods are a being replaced by new technique. The purpose of this study was to make an interface design prototype of Elskift company website. Another aim was to find out  the  prototype  should  concentrate  on  usability  and  user  interface design  heuristic.  Main  goals  were  that  the  prototype  was  easy  to learn,  efficient  of  use  and  subjective  satisfaction.  Both Quantitative and Qualitative approaches were used in this study.  Interviews were performed with the management and developer of Elskift. Survey was conducted to collect data from the participant.  Iterative  design  was used  in  this  design  process  its  include  evaluation,  design  and prototype. Usability testing was performed in the final design option. The Elskift design prototype is not an abundant and the complete web-based prototype but it contain maximum attribute

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    Autumn 2011 Master two years Shujat Ali Elskift design prototype_12032012
  • 11.
    Alnebo, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Svensson, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Beyond the hype: A study of non-user perspectives2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's rapid technological development in relation with social networks create efficient information flows in everyday life. It creates conditions for so-called "hypes" that are described as an exponentially growing trend of testing a new product. What factors lies behind a hype and how does it affect people that choose to refrain from new technology?

     

    The purpose of this paper is to study the so called non-users, with a case study that concerns the Pokémon GO game and its hype in the summer of 2016. This case study has the intention to highlight the positive and negative aspects of non-users and other thoughts about hype. The study also intends to investigate what the non-users can contribute in technological development and if it's possible to distinguish between users and non-users in today's society.

     

    The case study has been carried out on the basis of two group interviews; a group that abstained from playing and a group that played Pokémon GO during the hype. A number of issues are discussed and linked against a theoretical framework which also has been used in the analysis in this paper. Based on the results of the case study it appears that nostalgia was a major factor in the hype, many had prior knowledge of the concept and was triggered by it. Nostalgia was also a factor that lead people to refrain from the hype. The game did not meet up to everyone’s expectations regarding the functionality which existed earlier in Pokémon but not now.  It also emerged that the social environment affects both users and non-users in several ways. The investigation of the case study showed that non-users often had to wait for players due to different reasons. This could be while on walks with the player or that users could completely block roads. To be able completely separating non-users and users is complex as the real world is used as the platform of the game. Both previous studies and this paper demonstrates how important it can be to understand non-users. They have the opportunity to present an overall perspective of a product that users might condone. In summary, the future will become more complex in the area, especially with new technologies that make the real world a game field.

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  • 12.
    Altarriba Bertran, Ferran
    et al.
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Duval, Jared
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Universidad Carlos III Madrid, Spain.
    Turmo Vidal, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Chisik, Yoram
    Juanet Casulleras, Marina
    Garcia Pañella, Oscar
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
    Isbister, Katherine
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Wilde, Danielle
    University of Southern Denmark, Kolding, Denmark.
    Chasing Play Potentials in Food Culture: Learning from Traditions to Inspire Future Human-Food Interaction Design2020In: DIS '20: Proceedings of the 2020 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this pictorial, we turn to culture and traditions to present an annotated portfolio of play-food potentials, i.e. interesting design qualities and/or interaction mechanisms that could help promote playful and social engagement in food practices. Our portfolio emerged from a one-day workshop where we played with and analyzed a collection of 27 food traditions from diverse cultural backgrounds and historical periods. We highlight play forms and experiential textures that are underexplored in Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research. Our contribution is intended to inspire designers to broaden the palette of play experiences and emotions embraced in HFI.

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  • 13. Altarriba Bertran, Ferran
    et al.
    Kim, Soomin
    Chang, Minsuk
    Dagan, Ella
    Duval, Jared
    Isbister, Katherine
    Turmo Turmo Vidal, Laia
    Social Media as a Design and Research Site in HCI: Mapping Out Opportunities and Envisioning Future Uses2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Altarriba Bertran, Ferran
    et al.
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Turmo Vidal, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Dagan, Ella
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Duval, Jared
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Márquez Segura, Elena
    Universidad Carlos III Madrid, Spain.
    Isbister, Katherine
    University of California Santa Cruz, USA.
    Chasing Play with Instagram: How Can We Capture Mundane Play Potentials to Inspire Interaction Design?2020In: CHI EA '20: Extended Abstracts of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Hawai'i, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, article id LBW203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Play and playfulness permeate our daily lives and are often the target of interaction designers. Yet, designing for play while embracing the idiosyncrasies of users and their contexts is challenging. Here we address recent calls for new situated and emergent play design methods by turning to social media, which is currently a source of inspiration for arts, crafts, fashion, and more. We present @chasing.play: an exploration of how Instagram may help designers capture and share instances of mundane playful engagement to inspire play design. We report on the findings of a pilot study where we experimented with the tool, and raise a challenges and open questions we plan to address in the future. Our work can trigger discussions among researchers about the potential of social media as a design tool and inspire action towards collectively defining strategies to leverage that potential.

  • 15. Alves Oliveira, P.
    et al.
    Sequeira, P.
    Melo, F.
    Castellano, G.
    Paiva, A.
    Empathic Robot for Group Learning: A Field Study2019In: ACM Transactions in Human-Robot InteractionArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores a group learning scenario with an autonomous empathic robot. We address two research questions: (1) Can an autonomous robot designed with empathic competencies foster collaborative learning in a group context? (2) Can an empathic robot sustain positive educational outcomes in long-term collaborative learning interactions with groups of students? To answer these questions, we developed an autonomous robot with empathic competencies that is able to interact with a group of students in a learning activity about sustainable development. Two studies were conducted. The first study compares learning outcomes in children across three conditions: learning with an empathic robot; learning with a robot without empathic capabilities; and learning without a robot. The results show that the autonomous robot with empathy fosters meaningful discussions about sustainability, which is a learning outcome in sustainability education. The second study features groups of students who interact with the robot in a school classroom for 2 months. The long-term educational interaction did not seem to provide significant learning gains, although there was a change in game-actions to achieve more sustainability during game-play. This result reflects the need to perform more long-term research in the field of educational robots for group learning.

  • 16. Alves-Oliveira, Patricia
    et al.
    Sequeira, Pedro
    Melo, Francisco S.
    Castellano, Ginevra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Paiva, Ana
    Empathic robot for group learning: A field study2019In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Anderfelt, Victor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    From Mob Programming to Mob Development: User-Centred Design in Collaborative Software Development2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mob programming is a collaborative software development method that has gained increasing attention in both industry and research. While the focus of mob programming is on the benefits of teams programming together, there are also potential benefits for other aspects of the software development process. However, there is a lack of research on the use of the method outside the domain of programming. This study explores user-centred design (UCD) in mob programming through a case study of three software development teams at Sveriges Television, a Swedish public broadcasting company. Results show that the teams use the method for a variety of tasks in their daily work, calling for a rebranding of the method to mob development to encompass the broader scope. The integration of UCD is analysed through the principles of user-centred agile software development. The results indicate that a revision of these principles is needed to include the cross-functional and social factors that mob development adds to the software development process.

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Arne W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Tschirner, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Recognizing complexity: Visualization for skilled professionals in complex work situations2013In: Building Bridges: HCI, Visualization, and Cognitive Ergonomics, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Game Design.
    Event scenes in role-playing games: A study about focus during event scenes versus gameplay2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the level of focus a player is displaying while playing a role-playing game. The thesis tries to answer the questions if the level of focus is different while a player is watching an event scene versus during gameplay and if there is a difference in the level of focus displayed by new players versus experience ones. To answer this question a playtest was performed in the role-playing game Final Fantasy XIII and the player’s reaction was recorded and documented. The result suggests that the level of focus a player is displaying is lower during event scenes than during gameplay.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Robin
    et al.
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Jonas
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Coşkun, Aykut
    KUAR, Media and Visual Arts Department, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Fjeld, Morten
    Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Obaid, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Defining gestural interactions for large vertical touch displays2017In: Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2017, Springer, 2017, p. 36-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As new technologies emerge, so do new ways of interacting with the digital domain. In this paper, the touch interaction paradigm is challenged for use on large touch displays of 65 in. in size. We present a gesture elicitation study with 26 participants carried out on twelve actions commonly used on touch displays. The results and analysis of 312 touch gestures revealed agreement rates for each action. We report several findings including the results of a set of ten unique (and a few secondary) gestures, a taxonomy classifying the defined gestures, a pilot study on the defined gestures, and explicit design implications. We discuss the results and include several important factors for future considerations. We aim at helping future designers and engineers to design interactions for large touch displays

  • 21.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    Department of Applied ITUniversity of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Affective touch in human–robot interaction: Conveying emotion to the Nao robot2018In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, p. 473-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective touch has a fundamental role in human development, social bonding, and for providing emotional support in interpersonal relationships. We present, what is to our knowledge, the first HRI study of tactile conveyance of both positive and negative emotions (affective touch) on the Nao robot, and based on an experimental set-up from a study of human–human tactile communication. In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to a small humanoid robot via touch. We found that female participants conveyed emotions for a longer time, using more varied interaction and touching more regions on the robot’s body, compared to male participants. Several differences between emotions were found such that emotions could be classified by the valence of the emotion conveyed, by combining touch amount and duration. Overall, these results show high agreement with those reported for human–human affective tactile communication and could also have impact on the design and placement of tactile sensors on humanoid robots.

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  • 22.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Towards a distributed cognition perspective of the Swedish train traffic system2017In: Proceedings of the 13th SweCog Conference, Högskolan i Skövde , 2017, p. 37-39Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 23.
    Angerbjörn, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Medvetenhet kring lösenordssäkerhet- och hantering: Är ålder en avgörande faktor?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Medvetenhet kring lösenordssäkerhet- och hantering: Är ålder en avgörande faktor?
  • 24.
    Antti, Albin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Introducing Software Sustainability Demands into Large Organisational Procurement Processes2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the ICT sector saw exponential growth over the last few decades, so too did the greenhouse gas emissions caused by it, to the point where the ICT sector is at least as big, if not bigger, than the airline industry. Previous research in this field has circled around methodologies for performing life cycle assessment of ICT software products, but has not put it in an organisational context which has lead to no agreed upon way of calculating and comparing sustainable software. This study analyses existing research in the field and through a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews and a case study of Scania CV AB in Södertälje, Sweden puts it into a procurement context, focusing on key metrics and comparability over exhaustiveness. This study found that by assessing ICT software products through four different phases, or scopes, a level of accuracy suitable for large organisations are achieved. Key metrics for organisational procurement processes to take into account are those of the hosting phase, such as geographical location, source of electricity and data centre effectiveness. By putting software life cycle assessments into a business context, this study helps make ICT sustainability research more readily available to people working with ICT product procurement and makes a contribution to the interdisciplinary research in the fields of technology, business and sustainability.

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  • 25.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing "Open Education": How does the ICT-based system function as a new medium of participation for sustainability?2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 33-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has developed and deployed rapidly since 1980’s. Until now ICT has been considered as one of the most important infrastructures in living in the present globalized society. Along with diffusion of personal computers and highly leveraging information on the web, the way of learning has been changing gradually. Hundreds universities, institutes and companies constructs and releases the “open education” platform based on ICT, for example iTunes U, TakingITGlobal and so on. These open education platforms are basically open for everyone who wants to learn by using contents on the website for free in so far as they can access the Internet. And the movement toward the construction and use of ICT-based education platform is supported by international organizations, such as the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) in OECD and UNESCO’s project “the Virtual University and e-learning”.

  • 26.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Globalization and the change of employment system2011In: Management systems / [ed] Japanese Association of Management Systems, Tokyo: Nippon Hyoronsha , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    New form of social ties through communicating in social media (Sosharu media ga tukuru atarashii kizuna no katachi)2012In: Information and Management  64th Conferenceedings Spring / [ed] Japan Society for Information and Management, 2012, p. 141-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Research in Computer/Information Ethics: A Gender Gap Analysis and Consequences2013In: Ambiguous Technologies: Philosophical Issues, Practical Solutions, Human Nature, Lisbon: Universidade Autonoma de Lisboa , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology democratization enforces a never-ending process of risk/responsibility harmonization through with ethical assumptions. However, it is crucial to debate the gender gap within our community (reasons) and explore the potential “outcome” of female contribution. This panel does not promote a direct hit with the sessions, although the intention is to be controversial and influencer concerning a latent problem inside our community. 

  • 29.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Rethinking ICT's contribution to sustainability and education2012In: New technologies, education for sustainable development and critical pedagogy / [ed] Vassilios Makrakis and Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis, Rethymnon, Greece: ICTeESD, University of Crete , 2012, p. 232-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open education system based on Information and communication technology (ICT) can provide great opportunities for people to learn regardless of resident area, language, gender, age and so on. Currently people use it actively and build up new social networks as learning communities or study groups on the Internet. Shared knowledge and the process of sharing knowledge established through online communication are considered as key elements in the context of strengthen the individual and the country. In other words, creating the open education platform and content plays a role of designing a culture and society. However, it is not easy to realize the ideal concept of “open education” because people have many differences in language, culture, political system, ideology, thought, deployment of ICT et cetera. In order to create the open education system, which has a high degree of usability and effectiveness, we need to closely examine social roles and difficulties of the ICT-based education system in designing sustainable societies. And also the ICT-based educational system is established through the continuous human-computer interaction. Therefore, all participants get involved with developing the open education and each of them assumes a responsibility for making the open educational contents more abundant.

  • 30.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social Influence on Cooperation and Coordination2013In: ICT-ethics: Sweden and Japan, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2013, p. 24-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) creates novel products and services and promotes innovation in the whole of global society, and the amount of data, which we can gather and use, or even just see, is increasing dramatically. Searching and checking information on the Internet is our ordinary way of doing, people enjoy online shopping commonly and sometime look for their partners through the Internet. Internet, mobile networks and social media have flourished greatly in our daily lives, ICT has developed and deployed very dynamic and diverse as well. Particulary our communication patterns are greatly affected by permeation of social media into our daily life.

  • 31.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social media as a tool for change2011In: The social impact of social computing / [ed] A. Bisset et al., Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University , 2011, p. 44-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social Media as Informal Public Spheres2012In: Creating and applying socially, ethically and professionally acceptable ICT systems: Current challenges and what is next? / [ed] Diane Whitehouse, 2012, p. 3-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do social media generate social capital beyond borders between the real and virtual spaces? If so, how do social media function in forming and maintaining social capital? From the beginning of 2011, a huge number of people have seen political turmoil stimulated by use of social media and felt the inner stirrings of people’s cooperative networks via social media. Thus, some people strongly stressed that social media has a great power to change authoritarian regimes from the global political issues perspective. On the other hand, we recognized how social media worked effectively from the local issues perspective, for example in the case of the massive disaster in Japan. Existing media such as TV and newspapers didn’t work well, the Japanese got and exchanged information through social media and in fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Both cases, political changes and massive disasters, show information transaction process has been supported by thin trust, generalized reciprocity and loosely tied people’s network, regardless of geographical borders or real/virtual spaces. And some users opened their opinions about governments’ policies or their discontent with the government through social media and discuss with others online. Through this discussing process, it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives through social media. It also examines how social media affects social capital processes, by giving a few examples of using social media under critical social situations.

  • 33.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social Media Supporting Democratic Dialogue2013In: Ambiguous Technologies: Philosophical Issues, Practical Solutions, Human Nature, Lisbon: Autónoma University , 2013, p. 36-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term of “social media” appears in newspapers and magazines everyday and the huge number of people use social media actively in daily life. Nowadays, in the highly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developed country Japan, Japanese people enroll in social media and evolve a new way of communicating with others based on the “virtual” social distance between them. Among social media, Twitter has been focusing on its strong power as the tool for political change recent years. While Twitter has of-expressed problems as well as the “traditional” social media, it is characterized by the limited number of characters, strong propagation and optional reciprocity. Those characteristics stimulate people’s communication online and bring about opportunities for social interaction and democratic dialogue. On the other hand, in the deluge of information, we need to nurture skills to utilize critical and rational way of thinking through dialogue not only between others also between themselves internally. This study explores characteristics of social media and differences between “traditional” social media and Twitter, and how the difference affects people’s information behavior in Japan.

  • 34.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Technology as Mask2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    情報倫理研究におけるジェンダーの射程 (The range of gender perspective in computer ethics research)2014In: 経営情報学会誌 (The Japan Society of Management Information (JASMIN) Journal), ISSN 0918-7324, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 158-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    情報通信技術(Information and CommunicationTechnology: ICT)は現代社会において必要不可欠なものであり,ICT なくしては私達の日常生活は成り立たない.一方で,ICT を利用するがゆえにかつては予想されなかった新たな社会的問題ないし社会的リスクが引き起こされている.顕著な例としては,監視社会,ソーシャル・エンジニアリングあるいはサイバーセキュリティなどが挙げられよう.これらの問題は互いに複雑に入り組み合い,より大きな社会的問題へと発展してきた.またICT が普及し人々のライフスタイルが変化するなかでは,セックスやジェンダーといった性にまつわる事象もICT からの影響を免れることは難しく,性別に基づくデジタル・デバイドや,サイバーストーキング,ポルノグラフィ,出会い系サイトなどICT と性との関係性における倫理的問題が議論されるに至る.本稿では,ICT が性に与える影響と,その影響をジェンダーの視角からどのように考察することが可能かについて検討する.

  • 36.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    男女共同参画社会って何だろう? (What is "gender equal society"?): 日本とスウェーデンの現状から 考える私たちの「ライフスタイル」 (Think about our life-style together)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [ja]

    世界有数の福祉国家として知られ、また、ワーク・ライフ・バランスの実現度が高い国としても知られているスウェーデン。セミナー講師が住むスウェーデンでは、育児休業中の所得保障を受けるため、両親がともに育児休業を取らなければならないといった制度が整っています。福祉を実現するため高い税金が課税されていることは有名な話ですが、その税金によって全ての福祉施策 を充実させているわけではないことなど、さまざまな日本との違いを学びます。

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  • 37.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Do social media generate social capital?2012In: ICT, society and human beings / [ed] Gunilla Bradley, Diane Whitehouse and Angela Lin, Lisbon: IADIS Press , 2012, p. 133-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do social media generate social capital beyond borders between the real and virtual spaces? If so, how do social media function in forming and maintaining social capital? This study is triggered by those simple questions. From the beginning of 2011, a huge number of people have seen political turmoil stimulated by use of social media and felt the inner stirrings of people’s cooperative network via social media. Thus, some people strongly stressed that social media has a great power to change authoritarian regimes from the global political issues perspective. On the other hand, we recognized how social media worked effectively from the local issues perspective, for example in the case of the massive disaster in Japan. Under the critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, TV, radio and newspapers didn’t work, the Japanese got and exchanged information through social media and in fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Both cases, political changes and massive disasters, show information transaction process has been supported by thin trust, generalized reciprocity and loosely tied people’s network, regardless of geographical borders or real/virtual spaces. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to social capital. This paper reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives through social media. It also examines how social media influences social capital by giving a few examples of social media and social issues, more specifically, the political turmoil in Tunisia and big earthquake disasters in Japan.

  • 38.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical Competence and Social Responsibility in Scientific Research using ICT Tools2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 345-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how to improve and support researchers'ethical competence in scientic research and how to conduct research ethically, especially in research activities using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Refining research ethics relating to ICT is unavoidable in the highly technological society of today, for example big data is used in different scientic research activities, and systems which support our daily lives are constructed based on the existing systems. In other words, technology reproduces technology itself. And almost all research activities need to use ICT through the whole research process. Moreover, researchers are required to be able to participate and react sensibly in ethical dialogues with society and citizens. Seen in that light, this study could be applicable not only to computer science and technology but also to a broad spectrum of research areas as the constructive notions of ethics, liberty and responsibility in research activity.

  • 39.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT supported crisis communication and dialog2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 37-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how people use social media under serious social conditions, and how social media affects people’s behavior after a disaster based on the case of the March 2011 disaster in Japan. In this critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, television, radio and newspapers did not work well, the Japanese exchanged and received information through social media. In fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Corresponding to people’s need, social media provided various services to support people immediately after the disaster. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to horizontal communication, critical thinking, dialog; supporting social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives and supporting democratic communication as well as the difficulties in people bonding together through social media.

  • 40.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Regulation of potentially harmful contents on minors2012In: Equity, integrity and beauty in information law and ethics / [ed] Maria Botti, Kerkyra, Greece: Ionian Academy , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies, freedom of expression is the indispensable right and duty of citizens. Although there are a few exceptions, it is generally considered that governments should not intervene and regulate this right. Both in digital and analog environments, sexual and violent descriptions are usually regulated by self-censorship of participants. However, trying to protect minors from potentially harmful contents by controlling and regulating them is very difficult. The definition of what is “potentially harmful contents on minors” varies depending on the values and on the culture of each social group. Moreover, along with the rapid spread of mobile phones and smartphones, it becomes more difficult for parents and teachers to control children’s access to harmful contents; something that might have been easier regarding the use of personal computers. Access to the Internet provides huge opportunities not only of visiting websites but also of participating in online communication such as Social Networking Service (SNS). An incredible surge of SNS evokes some issues in considering juvenile access to SNS, categorized roughly into three types. One is the very old and new problem in accessing the Internet, which is how to shield minors from harmful contents. Second is how to block inappropriate contact with a pedophile. Third is cyber bullying. SNS is a very new medium and its market and technology are evolving drastically and are constantly changing. Thus the agent of taking the lead in making and enforcing rules or self-regulation is still absent. Additionally, SNS services utilize the function of social graph actively, and third parties can provide contents and applications using open API. In response to these situations, European Commission implemented Safer Social Networking Principle for the EU, and United States released the guideline for SNS users and worked on SNS companies and users to promote voluntary efforts for using SNS properly. In Japan, mobile contents companies built the Content Evaluation and Monitoring Association (EMA) as a voluntary reviewing entity. However those measures don’t include any severe legal penalty. Those remain self-regulation relying on voluntary activities of private sectors. On the other hand, self-regulation itself is regulated by laws, social norms, market conditions and technological architectures. In this paper we discuss the conditions of regulation and self-regulation, and we explore some ideas about what would be the best way to regulate SNS.

  • 41.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots as companions in feelings and discussions2017In: Retfærdighed – Justice, Robophilosophy / [ed] Martin Mose Bentzen, Copenhagen, 2017, p. 42-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are used in emotional relationships. On the other hand, it is not very common to think that robots can be used as partners in a philosophical dialog. It would be challenging to find the conditions under which a robot can be one of the parts in an emotional relationship or in a Socratic dialog. Robots usable as emotional or philosophical companions need probably to function well at both dimensions, providing continuous and interchanging support for feelings and reasoning. Our aim here is not to investigate the technical possibilities for such a machine but the theoretical requirements and ethical conditions for its creation and use.

  • 42.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social movement and social media2012In: Critique, democracy and philosophy in 21st century information society: Towards critical theories of social media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, p. 76-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do social media affect the process of building a democratic society? Information and communication technology (ICT) made it possible for people to communicate beyond national borders and other obstacles. Social media in particular play an important role in creating a place where people communicate with each other, for example Facebook, MySpace, YouTube and so on. In other words, under these circumstances, social media function as the third place in addition to home and workplaces, which contributes not only to unite people in commu- nities but also to the resolution of various problems and crises. Therefore, the third place nurtures relationships and mutual trust under internet access conditions, and it is open for free discussions, and becomes a ground for democracy.

    In face-to-face communication, participants’ behavior is affected by social context cues, and users let their behavior adjust to particular communication manners. However, in online communicati- on, it is more difficult for participants to understand static and dynamic cues surrounding other participants compared to face-to-face communication. Because, in many cases, whereas social media makes it possible for users to communicate with others easily regardless of physical dis- tance, national boundaries and time difference, it limits the number of characters and the amount of data that they can post and use. However, participation in online communication, especially in social media, is seen as the key element in the recent trend toward democratization. In fact, millions of users send and receive a huge amount of information via social media in order to cultivate a relationship with others and strengthen mutual exchange beyond borders. Generally it is recognized that social media advance participation through exchanging information with minimal social context cues.

    However, communication through social media has some problems. Firstly, exchanged informa- tion via social media minimizes social context cues under severe restricted or censored internet access conditions; because simplified messages can be more understandable and impressive for other users in communicating. Therefore information tends to be extreme, and it could evoke a risk of group polarization. Secondly, in social media, information receivers gather fragmented information in borderless cyberspace, for any purpose. Following this they try to transform infor- mation into something they can understand, something closer to their own experience, or they try to perceive the feelings and experience of the senders of information. Through this process, users develop a sense of solidarity and share expectations and norms, which bring them together as one community. Therefore, social norms have a considerable influence on users in particular communities and advance self-stereotyping among them as solidarity and social identity are en- hanced. This situation carries the social risk of exclusion of others. Some people call Middle-east political change “Facebook revolution” or “twitter revolution” on the internet. Is this naming really pertinent? Indeed, social media has played an important role as “hub for information” and as the third place in political change. Still, social media has to contribute to the development of skills for dialog in order to achieve a really democratic society. 

  • 43.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    The paradoxical nature of privacy2012In: Privacy in the social networked world / [ed] Andrew A. Adams, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy appears to be a very important issue today when ICT permeates more and more aspects of our life. Mainly this is understood as a risk of breaking the privacy of persons, and possibly the privacy of groups, organizations, corporations and states. It is therefore interesting to investigate the main definitions of privacy, try to grasp its nature and to discern its features, and to discuss the possible ways of suitable and needed activities.

     

    There are essentially two types if definitions. One is focused on the protection of information and on the rules that govern openness and protection. Moor (1997), defines privacy like “the expression of a core value, viz., the value of security” or “sometimes used to designate a situation in which people are protected from intrusion or observation by natural or physical circumstances.... In addition to natural privacy there is normative privacy. A normatively private situation is a situation protected by ethical, legal, or conventional norms.” A similar definition is given by Edmund Byrne (1998): Privacy as a “zone of inaccessibility”.

     

    A different approach to the definition of privacy is focused on the control of information, and the main example of this kind of definition is given by Charles Fried (1968): “Privacy is not simply an absence of information about us in the minds of others, rather it is the control we have over information about ourselves”. In the same wavelength we find the definition given by Quinn (2011): “Privacy is a social arrangement that allows individuals to have some level of control over who is able to gain access to their physical selves and their personal information”.

     

    Which of the two lines of definitions is more accurate and fruitful, regarding its power to guide our activities toward the achievement of desired goals? If we make an effort to describe the nature of privacy we can easily and rather fast come to the conclusion that privacy is not only something that has to be protected. Although this is important, underlined by both lines of definitions, it seems that privacy sometimes has to be diminished or invaded in order to satisfy important interests and values. One is to create a bond to another person, group or organization. To achieve this one has to give access to private information, or even to give up part or all limitations toward this special person or organization. It is a matter of trust between each other. The other situation, which is the most common one, is that a person, group or organization, which we may call a separate entity, has always another important interest added to the interest of protecting its own privacy: To break, diminish or invade the privacy of any other entity that is a prospective or actual partner in any sense. It is very important for any entity to acquire access to the information about any other entity that is of some interest.

     

    If we now go back to the definitions of privacy, and look upon them through the glasses of our observations of its nature we may have good arguments to maintain that a definition focused on the control of information is more plausible. Given the controversial nature of privacy (protect it and break it at the same time) and the clashes arising constantly between all entities in a social interaction, the focus cannot be on normative solutions which if they work are always limited to a certain situation, but on the ways skills, methods and tools we use to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, rules and principles to manage the issues of privacy.

     

    References

    Byrne, E. F. (1998). “Privacy”. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, 3, 649-659.

    Fried, C. (1968). “Privacy: A moral analysis”. Yale Law Journal, 77, 475-493.

    Moor, J. (1997). “Towards a theory of privacy in the information age”. Computer and Society, 27, 27-32.

    Quinn, M. J. (2011). Ethics for the Information Age. Boston: Pearson.

  • 44.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Virtue as ethical competence2011In: EBEN Annual Conference 2011 / [ed] Luc Van Liedekerke, Antwerp: Universiteit Antwerpen , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations active in an environment of increasing internal and external diversity and change need the guidance of suitable moral values. This implies many challenges. However, focus on processes is unavoidable and necessary. Particularly, regarding ethical aspects this is the only possible way for the construction and applicationof right values. In achieving that, skills and processes are very helpful because they provide a good base for the promotion of personal and organizational ethical competence, a competence referring to the ability using the right ways to handle ethical issues and which is not constrained by normative aspects. Since it is not possible to create moral values once and for all, in the diverse and changing conditions of today, continuous moral value creation and interpretation is the only way. Consequently, the focus must be on the process itself, and on the skills and structures behind this process, i.e. on personal and organizational ethical competence. Ethical competence is therefore a virtue.

  • 45.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Murata, Kiyoshi
    The holding function of robots in highly technological society2015In: Proceedings of Japan Society for Infomation and Management 70th Annual Conference, 2015, Vol. 70, p. 65-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3. Ruhr Universität Bohum, Germany.
    Nakada, Makoto
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Care Robots and Humanity: How Can We Cope with The Indeterminacy and Ambiguity of Robot-Human Relationships?2023In: Tethics 2023: Proceedings of the Conference on Technology Ethics 2023 / [ed] Minna M. Rantanen, Salla Westerstrand, Otto Sahlgren and Jani Koskinen, CEUR-WS.org , 2023, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing society, labour shortages in the care sector and increasing social security costs havebecome serious social problems in many countries. Sweden and Japan are, of course, noexception in this respect. In order to alleviate this situation, both countries have implementedvarious policies in different social areas, as well as promoting digitalisation and introducingcare robots in the healthcare sector. While older people are generally considered to be reluctantto adapt to new technologies, in both Japan and Sweden, the digital integration of older peopleis higher than in other countries. In the near future, care robots or robotic care would becomemore common in the care sector in both countries. This study examines how people in bothcountries perceive robots and autonomous artefacts and how they construct relationships withthese artefacts, based on the results of two surveys, one conducted in Japan 2020, and anotherin Sweden 2019, and elucidates the relationship between humans and robots from an ethicalperspective. The research findings show that people’s orientation toward the search for theexistential meaning and their complex emotions related to ephemerality and transience canaffect the relationship between humans and robots. Furthermore, this study is a new attempt toincorporate a 'care' perspective into technology ethics.

  • 47.
    Augustsson, Linus
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Design with Virtual Reality in Mind2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper features an analysis of how some games are better designed for virtual reality than others and what we can learn from the games that work better to improve those that do not work as well. The thesis will briefly go through some of the problems in working with virtual reality. Data was collected by letting ten participants play four different games with the Oculus Rift and then answer questions related to their experience with these said games. Did the game cause the feeling of discomfort or create a sense of presence and did the game somehow break that presence? Based on the collected data and the analysis, the results indicate that some types of games work better than others for virtual reality, but that some design decisions can carry over to other games, granted with some effort, but that it is better if a game is created with virtual reality in mind from the start of the development.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Design with Virtual Reality in Mind
  • 48.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Context: The abstract term for the concrete2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the term 'context' and the aim has been to reason about the term in order to see whether it is possible to reach a satisfactory understanding of the concept. But the thesis is also a journey into human reasoning and conveys a certain view of human cognition. It aims to synthesise results of studies within psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, and human-computer interaction. My understanding is that context is not something we are a part of, but rather something we create mentally in relation a specific goal. Determination of something ambiguous thus comes from top-down processes related to a goal. I believe context has been wrongly interpreted in HCI as that which a user is situated in and which a product is being used in. I suggest instead a separation between the user environment and the user context.

    List of papers
    1. Scaffolding executive function capabilities via play-&-learn software for preschoolers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaffolding executive function capabilities via play-&-learn software for preschoolers
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 108, no 7, p. 969-981Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Educational software in the form of games or so called "computer assisted intervention" for young children has become increasingly common receiving a growing interest and support. Currently there are, for instance, more than 1,000 iPad apps tagged for preschool. Thus, it has become increasingly important to empirically investigate whether these kinds of software actually provide educational benefits for such young children. The study presented in the present article investigated whether preschoolers have the cognitive capabilities necessary to benefit from a teachable-agent-based game of which pedagogical benefits have been shown for older children. The role of executive functions in children's attention was explored by letting 36 preschoolers (3;9-6;3 years) play a teachable-agent-based educational game and measure their capabilities to maintain focus on pedagogically relevant screen events in the presence of competing visual stimuli. Even though the participants did not succeed very well in an inhibition pretest, results showed that they nonetheless managed to inhibit distractions during game-play. It is suggested that the game context acts as a motivator that scaffolds more mature cognitive capabilities in young children than they exhibit during a noncontextual standardized test. The results further indicate gender differences in the development of these capabilities.

    Keywords
    inhibition; attention; teachable agents; eye tracking; learning by teaching
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275524 (URN)10.1037/edu0000099 (DOI)000385436300005 ()
    Projects
    Cognition, Communication, and Learning (CCL)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 437-2014-6735
    Available from: 2016-01-18 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
    2015 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 474-494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249009 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1027322 (DOI)000212945700002 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-09 Last updated: 2021-06-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
    2018 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

    Keywords
    Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805 (DOI)000428728900006 ()
    Projects
    MODAS
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 2012-03678
    Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic ControlIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

  • 50.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

    List of papers
    1. Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
    2018 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

    Keywords
    Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805 (DOI)000428728900006 ()
    Projects
    MODAS
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 2012-03678
    Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
    2015 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 474-494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249009 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1027322 (DOI)000212945700002 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-07 Created: 2015-04-09 Last updated: 2021-06-08Bibliographically approved
    3. On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352734 (URN)10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.12.004 (DOI)000429489400010 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Transport Administration
    Available from: 2018-03-03 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
    4. Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

    Keywords
    visual expertise, eye tracking, experience, train traffic control, rail human factors
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372696 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Transport Administration
    Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-09
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
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