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  • 1.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kubart, Tomás
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Low-temperature synthesis of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films using reactive magnetron sputtering2015In: Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Montero, Jose
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Low-temperature synthesis of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering2016In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 149, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermochromic (TC) vanadium dioxide thin films provide means for controlling solar energy throughput and can be used for energy-saving applications such as smart windows. One of the factors limiting the deployment of VO2 films in TC devices is the growth temperature tau(s). At present, temperatures in excess of 450 degrees C are required, which clearly can be an impediment especially for temperature-sensitive substrates. Here we address the issue of high tau(s) by synthesizing VO2 thin films from highly ionized fluxes of depositing species generated in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. The use of ions facilitates low-temperature film growth because the energy of the depositing species can be readily manipulated by substrate bias. For comparison, films were also synthesized by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering. Structural and optical characterization of VO2 thin films on ITO-coated glass substrates confirms previous results that HiPIMS allows tau(s) to be reduced from 500 to 300 degrees C. Importantly, we demonstrated that HiPIMS permits the composition and TC response of the films to be tuned by altering the energy of the deposition flux via substrate bias. An optimum ion energy of 100 eV was identified, which points at a potential for further reduction of tau(s) thereby opening new possibilities for industrially-relevant applications of VO2-based TC thin films. Weak TC activity was observed even at tau(s) approximate to 200 degrees C in HiPIMS-produced films.

  • 3. Andersen, A.C.
    et al.
    Sotelo, J.A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fast tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Pustovit, V.N.
    Extinction Properties of Some Complex Dust Grains, Invited paper in Astrophysics of Dust2004In: Astrophysics of Dust: ASP Conference Series 309, 2004, p. 709-729Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Arvizu, Miguel. A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromism in Sputter Deposited W1-yMoyO3 Thin Films2016In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, no 012005, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Rejuvenation of degraded electrochromic MoO3 thin films made by DC magnetron sputtering: Preliminary results2016In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016, Vol. 764, article id 012009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum oxide thin films were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering and were subjected to voltammetric cycling in an electrolyte comprised of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate. The films were heavily degraded during 20 voltammetric cycles in an extended voltage range. The films were subsequently rejuvenated by use of potentiostatic treatments under different voltages during 20 hours. Optical changes were recorded during the electrochemical degradation and ensuing rejuvenation.

  • 6.
    Arvizu, Miguel A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic dc sputtered W1-x-y Moy Tix O3 thin films:: Optical properties and durability.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key component in an electrochromic (EC) device is its primary EC thin film. The outstanding intrinsic ECproperties of tungsten oxide (WO3) make this material the best option available for the cathodic layer in an ECdevice. Nevertheless much research remains in order to optimize WO3 with regard to optical properties, durability,etc. It is well known that addition of titanium (Ti) into the matrix of WO3 increases significantly the resistance of the film to electrochemical cycling both under norma loperation and during accelerated aging in extended voltage ranges [1]. On the other hand, using molybdenum (Mo) as an additive in small concentrations helps to improve the color rendering by shifting th eposition of the maximum of the coloration band to higher energies [2]. The present work reports our recent investigations on thin films of mixed oxides with a focus on ways to optimize tungsten oxide thin films regarding both their durability and color by the addition of Ti and Mo. The films were deposited by reactive DC cosputtering from Mo and W-Ti alloy targets. Cyclic voltammetry, in a three-electrode system consisting of the film and lithium foils, was performed in a solution 1 MLiClO4 in propylene carbonate (Li–PC) as electrolyte. Insitu and ex-situ optical characterization was done for the EC films, and the transmittance switching and coloration efficiency were determined. Durability was studied by analyzing how the charge density evolved and how rapidly the transmittance modulation deteriorated during cycling for the different concentrations of Mo and Ti .

    References

    [1] M.A. Arvizu, C.A. Triana, B.I. Stefanov, C.G.Granqvist , G.A. Niklasson, “Electrochromism in SputterdepositedW-Ti Oxide Films: Durability Enhancement dueto Ti”, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 125 (2014)184-189 (and references therein).

    [2] M.A. Arvizu, C.G. Granqvist and G.A. Niklasson,“Electrochromism in sputter deposited W1–yMoyO3 thinfilms”, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 682 (2016)012005 (and references therein).

  • 7.
    Arvizu, Miguel A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromism in DC sputtered W1-yMoyO3 thin films2015In: INERA Conference 2015: Light in Nanoscience and Nanotechnolog, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2015, article id 012005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) properties of tungsten–molybdenum oxide (W1–yMoyO3) thin films were investigated. The films were deposited on indium tin oxide covered glass by reactive DC sputtering from tungsten and molybdenum targets. Elemental compositions of the W1–yMoyO3 films were determined by Rutherford back scattering. Voltammetric cycling was performed in an electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate. The increase in molybdenum content in the EC films caused both a shift towards higher energies and a quenching of the value of the maximum of the coloration band, as compared with WO3 EC films. Durability was also diminished for W1–yMoyO3 EC films.

  • 8.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic W(1-x-y)Ti(x)lo(y)O(3) Thin Films Made by Sputter Deposition: Large Optical Modulation, Good Cycling Durability, and Approximate Color Neutrality2017In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 2246-2253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten oxide thin films are used in electrochromic devices such as variable-transmittance "smart windows" for energy efficient buildings with good indoor comfort. Two long-standing issues for WO3 thin films are their limited durability under electrochemical cycling and their blue color in transmission. Here, we show that both of these problems can be significantly alleviated by additions of titanium and molybdenum. We found that similar to 300 nm-thick films of sputter deposited W1-x-yTixMoyO3 are able to combine a midluminous transmittance modulation of 0.4 similar to 70% with good color neutrality and durability under extended electrochemical cycling. The Ti content should be similar to 10 at. % in order to achieve durability without impairing transmittance modulation significantly, and the Mo content preferably should be no larger than 6 at. % in order to maintain durability. Hence, our results give clear guidelines for making three-component mixed-oxide thin films that are suitable for electrochromic "smart windows".

  • 9.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Harbin Inst Technol, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, MIIT Key Lab Crit Mat Technol New Energy Convers, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China.
    Cindemir, Umut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qiu, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Rojas González, Edgar Alonso
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic WO3 thin films attain unprecedented durability by potentiostatic pretreatment2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 2908-2918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic windows and glass facades are able to impart energy efficiency jointly with indoor comfort and convenience. Long-term durability is essential for practical implementation of this technology and has recently attracted broad interest. Here we show that a simple potentiostatic pretreatment of sputterdeposited thin films of amorphous WO3-the most widely studied electrochromic material-can yield unprecedented durability for charge exchange and optical modulation under harsh electrochemical cycling in a Li-ion-conducting electrolyte and effectively evades harmful trapping of Li. The pretreatment consisted of applying a voltage of 6.0 V vs. Li/Li+ for several hours to a film backed by a transparent conducting In2O3: Sn layer. Associated compositional and structural modifications were probed by several techniques, and improved durability was associated with elemental intermixing at the WO3/ITO and ITO/glass boundaries as well as with carbonaceous solid-electrolyte interfacial layers on the WO3 films. Our work provides important new insights into long-term durability of ion-exchange-based devices.

  • 10.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Univ Politecn Chiapas, Campus Suchiapa,Carretera Tuxtla Gutierrez, Suchiapa 29150, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochemical pretreatment of electrochromic WO3 films gives greatly improved cycling durability2018In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 653, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic WO3 thin films have important applications in devices such as smart windows for energy-efficient buildings. Long-term electrochemical cycling durability of these films is essential and challenging. Here we investigate reactively sputter-deposited WO3 films, backed by indium-tin oxide layers and immersed in electrolytes of LiClO4 in propylene carbonate, and demonstrate unprecedented electrochemical cycling durability after straight-forward electrochemical pretreatments by the application of a voltage of 6 V vs. Li/Li+ for several hours.

  • 11.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Triana, Carlos A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Stefanov, Bozhidar I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromism in sputter-deposited W-Ti oxide films: Durability enhancement due to Ti2014In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 125, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of W-Ti oxide were prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering and were characterized by Rutherford bathcattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The electrochromic properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry in an electrolyte of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate and by optical transmittance measurements. The addition of Ti significantly promoted the amorphous nature of the films and stabilized their electrochemical cycling performance and dynamic range for electrochromism. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Arvizu, Miguel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta Ewa
    Martinu, Ludvik
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Galvanostatic ion de-trapping rejuvenates oxide thin films2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 48, p. 26387-26390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion trapping under charge insertion-extraction is well-known to degrade the electrochemical performance of oxides. Galvano-static treatment was recently shown capable to rejuvenate the oxide, but the detailed mechanism remained uncertain. Here we report on amorphous electrochromic (EC) WO3 thin films prepared by sputtering and electrochemically cycled in a lithium-containing electrolyte under conditions leading to severe loss of charge exchange capacity and optical modulation span. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) documented pronounced Li+ trapping associated with the degradation of the EC properties and, importantly, that Li+ detrapping, caused by a weak constant current drawn through the film for some time, could recover the original EC performance. Thus, ToF-ERDA provided direct and unambiguous evidence for Li+ detrapping.

  • 13.
    Atak, Gamze
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Nitrogen doped W oxide films for electrochromic applications.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) materials are able to change their optical properties such as transmission, absorption and reflection reversibly by application of an external voltage. EC metal oxides are divided into two groups: cathodic (coloring under ion insertion) and anodic (coloring under ion extraction). W oxide is a well-known cathodic EC material and its color changes from transparent to dark blue when ions are inserted.

    A desirable electrochromic material must have and maintain a high optical modulation, high coloration efficiency, fast coloration/bleaching switching kinetics and a stable charge/ discharge reversibility.  In this study, W oxide films with different nitrogen levels were deposited by using reactive DC sputtering onto glass and ITO coated glass in Ar+O2+N2 atmosphere. For all films, the total gas pressure was set to 4.0 Pa, the Ar flow rate was kept at 50 ml/min, and the O2+N2 flow rate was kept at 7.5 ml/min. The optical, structural and electrochromic properties of undoped and N-doped W oxide films were investigated. The optical studies revealed that the average optical transmittance and band gap decreased (from 3.43 to 3.08 eV) due to N doping.  It is shown that a small amount of nitrogen has promising effects on the EC performance (i.e. charge/discharge reversibility, optical modulation, coloration efficiency) of the WO3 films. It is observed that CE values increased by increasing N2 flow rate and its maximum value was 33.8 cm2/C. The maximum ΔT at 537 nm was 73.6% for an optimized N doped W oxide film.

  • 14.
    Atak, Gamze
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic performance of WO3 films with different ITO layers.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) materials are able to change their optical properties such as transmission, absorption and reflection reversibly by application of an external voltage. EC metal oxides are divided into two groups: cathodic (coloring under ion insertion) and anodic (coloring under ion extraction). Tungsten oxide (WO3) is a well-known cathodic EC material and has been intensively studied in the last 30 years. EC materials and devices have been developed as an alternative to passive coating materials for light and heat management. Conventionally, an EC device is a construction with five-layers: transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/cathodic EC/ion conducting layer (liquid, gel or solid)/anodic EC/TCO, either all on one substrate or positioned between two substrates in a laminated configuration. Indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated substrates are used as a TCO electrode in EC applications due to their high conductivity and transparency.

    In this study, we deposited WO3 films onto ITO coated glass substrates with different sheet resistances (15, 30, 60 and 1000 Ω/□) by using DC magnetron sputtering technique. Optical and structural properties of ITO films were investigated. For durability studies, cyclic voltammetry data was recorded for up to 500 cycles between 2.0 and 4.0 V versus Li/Li+ at a scan rate of 20 mV s−1. Chronoamperometry measurements of the WO3 films were also performed. We measured the inserted and extracted charges as well as bleaching and coloring times of WO3 films with different ITO layer properties. Generally, ITO with low resistivity is preferred for the electrochemical measurements while absorption is low in the near-infrared region for ITO with higher resistivity. In this study, it is observed that the ITO with 60 Ω/□ sheet resistance is very suitable for optical and electrochromic measurements.

  • 15. Avendano, E
    et al.
    Azens, A
    Berggren, L
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Electro-chromic Films and Devices:: Tungsten Oxide, Nickel Oxide, and Devices Based on These2005In: Society of Vacuum Coaters, 48th Annual Technical Conference, 2005, p. 681-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16. Avendano, E
    et al.
    Azens, A
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Proton Diffusion and Electrochromism in Hydrated NiOy and Ni1-xVxOy Thin Films2005In: J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 152, p. F203-F212Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Avendano, E.
    et al.
    Azens, A
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Electrochromic Nickel-Oxide-Based Films with Minimized Bleached-State Absorptance2003In: 203rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Abstract Volume, No. 1331 (2003), 2003, p. 1-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Avendano, E
    et al.
    Azens, A
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Sputter Deposited Electrochromic Films and Devices Based on These: Progress on Nickel-Oxide-Based Films2005In: Eight Int. Symp. On Sputtering and Plasma Processes, 2005, p. 13-18Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Avendano, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Azens, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Backholm, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gustavsson, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fast tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Eletrochromic Devices: Improving the Performance and Color Properties2004In: EuroSun 2004 Vol. 2, 2004, p. 799-808Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Avendano, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Kuzmin, A
    Purans, J
    Azens, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Changes in the Local Structure of Nanocrystalline Films of Hydrated Nickel Vanadium Oxide upon Ozone-Induced Coloration2005In: Phys. Scripta, Vol. T115, p. 464-466Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Avendano, Estaban
    et al.
    Berggren, Lars
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillstånders fysik.
    Electrochromic Materials and Devices:: Brief Survey and New Data on Optical Absorption in Tungsten Oxide and Nickel Oxide Films2006In: Thin Solid Films, no 496, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Avendano, Esteban
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Azens, A.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Sputter Deposited Electrochromic Films and Devices Based on These: Progress on nickel-oxide-based films2007In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 112-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces electrochromic (EC) devices, capable of changing their optical absorption under charge insertion/extraction, and some of the required materials. Special attention is given to EC nickel-oxide-based films, for which we discuss sputter deposition and ensuing optical and structural properties. The paper is concluded with some recent results for practical foil-based devices.

  • 23.
    Avendano, Esteban
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Azens, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gusavsson, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Karmhag, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Electrochromic Nickel-Oxide-Based Films: Basic Properties and Applications to Flexible Devices2004In: EuroSun 2004, Vol. 2,, 2004, p. 799-808Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24. Avendano, Esteban
    et al.
    Azens, Andris
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    putter Deposited Electrochromic Films and Devices Based on These: Progress on Nickel-oxide-based Films2006In: Mater. Sci. Engr., no BArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Avendano, Esteban
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Azens, A
    Sandell, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Azevedo, G. de M.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Coloration Mechanism in Proton-Intercalated Electrochromic Hydrated NiOy and Ni1-xVxOy Thin Films2009In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 156, no 8, p. p132-p138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) films of nickel oxide, with and without vanadium,   were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. They were   characterized by electrochemical and optical measurements and studied   by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) using synchrotron radiation.  The films were analyzed under as-deposited conditions and after   bleaching/coloration by insertion/extraction of protons from a basic   solution and ensuing charge stabilization. Optical measurements were consistent with a coloration process due to charge-transfer transitions   from Ni2+ to Ni3+ states. The PES measurements showed a higher   concentration of Ni3+ in the colored films. Moreover, two peaks were   present in the O 1s spectra of the bleached film and pointed to contributions of Ni(OH)(2) and NiO. The changes in the O 1s spectra   upon coloration treatment indicate the presence of Ni2O3 in the colored   film and necessitated an extension of the conventional model for the   mechanism of EC coloration. The model involves not only proton   extraction from nickel hydroxide to form nickel oxyhydroxide but also participation of NiO in the coloration process to form Ni2O3.

  • 26. Azens, A
    et al.
    Avendano, A
    Backholm, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Berggren, L
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Flexible Electrochromic Foils:: Science, Technology and Application2005In: Proc. SPIE 5946, 2005, p. 359-374Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Azens, A
    et al.
    Avendano, E
    Backholm, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Berggren, L
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fast tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndet fysik.
    Flexible Foils with Electrochromic Coatings: Science, Technology and Applications2005In: Mater. Sci Engr., Vol. B119, p. 214-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Azens, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Avendano, Esteban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Backholm, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Berggren, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gustavsson, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Karmhag, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fast tillståndets fysik.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Flexible Foils with Electrochromic Coatings: Science, Technology and Applications2004In: Society of Vacuum Coaters, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Backholm, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Hydrogen Intercalation Dynamics in Iridium Based Oxides2005In: MRS Fall Meeting, 2005, p. Paper E4.1.-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Backholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Avendano, E
    Azens, Andris
    Azevedo, G de M
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Iridium Based Oxides: Recent Advances in Coloration Mechanism, Structural and Morphological Characterization.2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Backholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Avendaño, Esteban
    Azens, Andris
    de M. Azevedo, Gustavo
    Coronel, Ernesto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Iridium-based oxides: Recent advances in coloration mechanism, structural and morphological characterization2008In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of iridium-tantalum oxide and iridium oxide have been prepared by sputtering and studied regarding their structure and electrochemical properties. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed an average grain size of 3-4 nm for both films. Point energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed an inhomogeneous distribution of iridium and tantalum indicating that the iridium-tantalum oxide may be a mixture of small IrO2 and Ta2O5 grains, which is consistent with the determined composition IrTa1.4O5.6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave valuable information on the stabilization process of the as-deposited films involving an uptake of oxygen, and on a coloration mechanism only including protons.

  • 32.
    Backholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Azens, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Electrochemical and optical properties of sputter deposited IrTaOx and IrOx thin films2004In: IME-6. International Meeting on Electrochromism -6, Brno, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Backholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Azens, Andris
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Electrochemical and optical properties of sputter deposited IrTaOx and IrOx thin films.2006In: Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, no 90, p. 414-421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Backholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, Peter
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Determination of solid phase chemical diffusion coefficient and density of states by electrochemical methods: Application to iridium oxide-based thin films2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 023702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were investigated as methods to determine solid phase chemical diffusion coefficient (D) and electronic density of states (DOS). These techniques were then applied to iridium oxide (IrOx) and iridium-tantalum oxide (IrTaOx) thin films prepared by sputter deposition. The experiments, performed in 1M propionic acid between -0.2 and 0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl, showed effects of interfacial side reactions, whose contribution to the electrochemical response could be identified and corrected for in the case of PITT as well as EIS. It was found that D is strongly underestimated when using PITT with the common Cottrell formalism, which follows from non-negligible interfacial charge transfer and Ohmic resistances. EIS indicated an anomalous diffusion mechanism, and D was determined to be in the 10(-11)-10(-10) cm(2)/s range for IrOx and IrTaOx. Both PITT and EIS showed that the intercalated charge as a function of potential exhibits a shape that resembles the theoretical DOS of crystalline iridium oxide, especially for IrTaOx.

  • 35.
    Backholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical properties of electrochromic iridium oxide and iridium-tantalum oxide thin films in different colouration states2008In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 92, no 11, p. 1388-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic iridium oxide (IrOx) and iridium-tantalum oxide (IrTaOx) thin films were prepared by sputtering. Complex refractive indices were determined for samples deposited on indium-tin oxide covered glass in different colouration states, and for as-deposited samples on sapphire and Corning glass. The refractive index was found to be practically constant for both IrOx (similar to 1.3) and IrTaOx (similar to 2). The extinction coefficient was found to vary between the coloured and bleached states with similar to 35% for IrOx and similar to 55% for IrTaOx at 660 nm. This is believed to be a result of the removal of intraband transitions within the Ir t(2g) band during bleaching.

  • 36.
    Baloukas, Bill
    et al.
    Polytech Montreal, Dept Engn Phys, Montreal.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Vernhes, Richard
    Polytech Montreal, Dept Engn Phys, Montreal.
    Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E.
    Polytech Montreal, Dept Engn Phys, Montreal.
    Martinu, Ludvik
    Polytech Montreal, Dept Engn Phys, Montreal.
    Galvanostatic Rejuvenation of Electrochromic WO3 Thin Films: Ion Trapping and Detrapping Observed by Optical Measurements and by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 20, p. 16996-17002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to decrease our energy footprint while enhancing indoor comfort and convenience. However, the limited durability of these windows, as well as their cost, result in hampered market introduction. Here, we investigate thin films of the most widely studied EC material, WO3. Specifically, we combine optical measurements (using spectrophotometry in conjunction with variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry) with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. Data were taken on films in their as-deposited state, after immersion in a Li-ion-conducting electrolyte, after severe degradation by harsh voltammetric cycling and after galvanostatic rejuvenation to regain the original EC performance. Unambiguous evidence was found for the trapping and detrapping of Li ions in the films, along with a thickness increase or decrease during degradation and rejuvenation, respectively. It was discovered that (i) the trapped ions exhibited a depth gradient; (ii) following the rejuvenation procedure, a small fraction of the Li ions remained trapped in the film and gave rise to a weak short-wavelength residual absorption; and (iii) the surface roughness of the film was larger in the degraded state than in its virgin and rejuvenated states. These data provide important insights into the degradation mechanisms of EC devices and into means of achieving improved durability.

  • 37. Barrios, D
    et al.
    Vergaz, R
    Sanchez-Pena, J M
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Espectros de Transmitancia y Reflectancia Ópticas Difusas de un Dispositivo de Partículas Suspendidas2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Barrios, David
    et al.
    Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Alvarez, Carlos
    Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Miguitama, José
    Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Gallego, Daniel
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Inversion of two-flux and four-flux radiativetransfer models for determining scattering andabsorption coefficients for a suspended particledevice2019In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 58, no 32, p. 8871-8881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsic and extrinsic scattering and absorption coefficients of a suspended particle device (SPD) smart window sample at dark and clear appearance states—without and with applied electrical voltage, respectively—were determinedby means of the Maheu, Letoulouzan, and Gouesbet four-flux (intrinsic) and Kubelka–Munk two-flux(extrinsic) radiative transfer models, respectively. Extrinsic values were obtained from fitting to the two-flux model taking into account the predominantly forward scattering of the SPD. As an approximation, the Fresnel reflection coefficients were integrated out to the critical angle of total internal reflection in order to compute diffuse interface reflectances. Intrinsic coefficients were retrieved by adding a new proposed approximation for the average crossing parameter based on the collimated and diffuse light intensities at each interface. This approximation, although an improvement of previous approaches, is not entirely consistent with the two-flux model results. However, it paves the way for further development of methods to solve the inverse problem of the four-flux model.

  • 39.
    Barrios, David
    et al.
    Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Alvarez, Carlos
    Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Determination of the optical constants of the active layer of a suspended particle device smart window with multilayer structure at the clear and dark states, with and without applied voltage.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart windows based on suspended particle devices (SPDs) are able to switch optically from dark to clear visual appearance when applying an AC electrical signal. This effect is due to light absorbing nanoparticles that get aligned by the applied voltage. The sandwich structure of a SPD consist of several layers and includes two outer glass substrates, each one covered on its inwards-facing side with a transparent conducting thin layer surrounding the centrally positioned SPD active layer. A knowledge of the optical constants of each layer—i.e., the complex refractive index, including its real and imaginary (absorption and scattering) parts—is a key in the design of the visual appearance of the SPD window and is a useful tool to determine the optimum thickness of the active layer.

  • 40.
    Barrios, David
    et al.
    Univ. Carlos III.
    Vergaz, Ricardo
    Univ. Carlos III.
    Sanchez-Pena, J.-M.
    Univ. Carlos III.
    Garcia-Camara, B.
    Univ. Carlos III.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Thickness Dependence Simulations of the Optical Properties for a Suspended Particle Device Derived from Scattering and Absorption Coefficients2014In: European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, Lille, France, 26-30 May: Symposium L: Chromogenic Materials and Devices, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Barrios, David
    et al.
    Escuela Superior Ploytechnica de Chimborazo, Ecuador.
    Vergaz, Ricardo
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Sanchez-Pena, Jose M
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Garcia-Camara, Braulio
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Simulation of the thickness dependence of the optical properties of suspended particle devices2015In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 143, p. 613-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended particle devices (SPDs) constitute an electrically powered chromogenic technology, in which the active layer quickly are able to rapidly switches from a dark bluish-black dark color state to a clear greyish color appearance when an AC electric field is applied. Two-flux and four-flux models were used to derive refractive indices and extinction coefficients, as well as scattering and absorption coefficients, of the particle-containing active layer. These entities were used in model calculations to predict the direct, total and diffuse components of the transmittance andthe reflectance, together along with the color appearance and haze, as a function of the thickness of the active layer. An optimum thickness for the optical contrast of the SPD was determined in this way and was found to be in the range of 200 to 300 nm. The SPDdevices device exhibits a significant reflectance  haze particularly in reflection.

  • 42.
    Barrios, David
    et al.
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Vergaz, Ricardo
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Sanchez-Pena, Jose M.
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Toward a quantitative model for suspended particle devices: Optical scattering and absorption coefficients2013In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 111, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended particle devices (SPDs) allow rapid voltage-controlled modulation of their optical transmittance and are of interest for solar-energy-related and other applications. We investigated the spectral total and diffuse transmittance of an SPD, including its angular dependence. The optical modulation was large for visible light but almost nil in the infrared, and the devices had noticeable haze. A theoretical two-flux model was formulated and provided a quantitative description of the absorption and scattering coefficients and thereby of the detailed optical performance. This analysis gives a benchmark for assessing improvements of the SPD technology as well as for comparing it with alternative technologies for optical modulation.

  • 43.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical Properties and Ion Conductivity of PEI-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes with Added SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles2012In: Abstracts: ISPE-13, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, P.
    Charakterization and Modelling of Polymer Electrolytes2009In: Proc E-MRS Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Pehlivan, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    Milliron, D. J.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic Devices with Polymer Electrolytes Functionalized by SiO2 and In2O3:Sn Nanoparticles: Rapid Coloration/Bleaching Dynamics and Strong Near-Infrared Absorption2014In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 126, p. 241-247Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georen, P.
    Electrical modeling of PEI-LiTFSI polymer electrolytes2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA och Dept of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Li, Shuyi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Milliron, D. J.
    The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    A polymer electrolyte with high luminous transmittance and low solar throughput: Polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide with In2O3:Sn nanocrystals2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 24, p. 241902-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically prepared similar to 13-nm-diameter nanocrystals of In2O3:Sn were included in a polyethyleneiminelithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolyte and yielded high haze-free luminous transmittance and strong near-infrared absorption without deteriorated ionic conductivity. The optical properties could be reconciled with effective medium theory, representing the In2O3:Sn as a free electron plasma with tin ions screened according to the random phase approximation corrected for electron exchange. This type of polymer electrolyte is of large interest for opto-ionic devices such as laminated electrochromic smart windows.

  • 48.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qiu, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Impedance Spectroscopy Modeling of Nickel–Molybdenum Alloys on Porous and Flat Substrates for Applications in Water Splitting2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen production by splitting water using electrocatalysts powered by renewable energy from solar or wind plants is one promising alternative to produce a carbon–freeand sustainable fuel. Earth–abundant and non–precious metals are here of interest as a replacement for scarce and expensive platinum group catalysts. Ni–Mo is a promising alternative to Pt but the type of substrate could ultimately affect both the initial growth conditions as well as the final charge transfer in the system as a whole with resistive junctions formed in the heterojunction interface. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substrates on the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of Ni–M oelectrocatalysts. Ni–Mo catalysts (30 at. % Ni, 70 at. % Mo) were sputtered on various substrates with different porosity and conductivity. There was no apparent morphological difference at the surface of the catalytic films sputtered on the different substrates, and the substrates were classified from microporous to flat. The electrochemical characterization was carried out with linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the frequency range 0.7 Hz–100 kHz. LSV measurements were carried out at DC potentials between 200 and –400 mV vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in 1 M NaOH encompassing the HER. The lowest overpotentials for HER were obtained for films on nickel foam at all current densities (–157 mV vs. RHE @ 10 mA cm-2), and the overpotentials increased in the order of nickel foil, carbon cloth, fluorine doped tin oxide and indium tin oxide glass, respectively. EIS data were fitted with two equivalent circuit models and compared for different DC potentials and different substrate morphologies and conductivities. By critical evaluation of the data from the models, the influence of the substrates on the reaction kinetics was seen in the high– and low–frequency region. In the high–frequency region, a strong substrate dependence was seen and interpreted with a Schottky–type barrier, which can be rationalized as being due to a potential barrier in the material heterojunctions or a resistive substrate–film oxide/hydroxide. The results highlight the importance of substrates, the total charge transfer properties in electrocatalysis, the relevance of different circuit components in EIS as well as underpin the necessity to incorporate high conductivity, chemically inert and work function matched substrate–catalysts in the catalyst system.

  • 49.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Atak, Gamze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Stolt, Olof
    Solibro Research AB, Uppsala.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Stolt, Lars
    Solibro Research AB, Uppsala.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bifunctional solar electrocatalytic water splitting using CIGS solar modules and WO3-based electrolyzers.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using energy from the sun to produce a fuel and finally obtaining only water as an exhaust is a promising future technology for renewable energy and environmental sustainability. Solar driven water splitting is a method to produce hydrogen from solar energy. Coupling a solar cell with an electrolyzer is the approach with highest technological readiness. CuInxGa1-xSe2 (CIGS) is here a promising solar cell material for water splitting because it is possible to tune the band gap between 1.0 and 1.7 eV by changing the ratio between Ga and In, thus enabling maximum power point matching with an electrolyzer. Tungsten oxide is known as a photocatalytic material and mainly used for the oxygen evolution reaction in a water splitting process. However, WO3 films also show electrochromic activity together with hydrogen evolution. This result is interesting because it shows that WO3 films can be used as bifunctional materials for both hydrogen and oxygen evolution in water splitting, and provide additional functionalities to the system. In this study, WO3 films coated at different sputtering conditions on Ni foam and indium tin oxide substrates were investigated in the potential range of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The best overpotential of 164 mV vs. RHE at 10 mA/cm2 was obtained for WO3 films on Ni foam in 0.5 M H2SO4. The lowest potential needed for 10 mA/cm2 was measured 1.768 V for the electrolyzers consisting WO3 films on Ni foam as the cathode and non-coated Ni foam as the anode. Optimum solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of the CIGS solar cell modules and the electrolyzers was examined for different band gaps of the CIGS modules and sputtering conditions of WO3 films. Operation points of the combined system were calculated from the intersection of the voltage-current density curves for the CIGS modules and the electrolyzers. The results showed that the detailed sputtering conditions were not very critical to obtain high STH efficiency, indicating that the system could be robust and easily manufactured. The best-matched band gap of the CIGS was 1.19 eV and the highest STH efficiency of the CIGS driven WO3-based electrolyzers was 12.98 %.

  • 50.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georén, Peter
    Marsal, Roser
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ion conduction of branched polyethyleneimine-lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide electrolytes2011In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 57, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes containing branched poly (ethylene imine) (BPEI) and lithium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was measured between temperatures of 20 and 70◦C and molar ratios of 20:1 and 400:1. The electrolytes were characterized by impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and viscosity measurements. At room temperature, the maximum conductivity was 2×10−6 S/cm at a molar ratio of 50:1. The molar conductivity of the electrolytes displayed first a minimum and then a maximum upon increasing salt concentration. A proportionality of molar conductivity to segmental mobility was seen from glass transition temperature and viscosity measurements. Analysis of the Walden product and isoviscosity conductivity showed that the percentage of ions bound in ion pairs increased at low concentrations below 0.1 mol/kg. The average dipole moment decreased with salt concentration. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity showed an Arrhenius behavior.

1234567 1 - 50 of 394
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