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  • 1.
    Gu, Xiuquan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström. China Univ Min & Technol, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Xuzhou 221116, Peoples R China.
    Li, Cuiyan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström.
    Yuan, Shuai
    Shanghai Univ, Res Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Shanghai 200444, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Mingguo
    Beijing Forestry Univ, Coll Mat Sci & Technol, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.
    Qiang, Yinghuai
    China Univ Min & Technol, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Xuzhou 221116, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jie-Fang
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Strukturkemi.
    ZnO based heterojunctions and their application in environmental photocatalysis2016Inngår i: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 27, nr 40, artikkel-id 402001Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to TiO2 photocatalysts, ZnO exhibits a large potential for photocatalytic (PC) applications in environmental treatments, such as degradation of wastewater, sterilization of drinking water, and air cleaning. However, the efficiency achieved with ZnO to date is far from that expected for commercialization, due to rapid charge recombination, photo-corrosion as well as poor utilization of solar energy. Fortunately, in recent years, a great number of breakthroughs have been achieved in PC performance (including activity and stability) of micro-/ nano-structured ZnO by forming heterojunctions (HJs) with metal nanoparticles (NPs), carbon nanostructures and other semiconductors. In most cases, the improvement of PC performance was ascribed to the better charge separation at the interfaces between ZnO and the other components. Sometimes, the formation of hybrids is also in favor of visible light harvesting. This review summarizes recent advances in the fields of environmental photocatalysis by ZnO based HJs, and especially emphasizes their abilities in degradation of organic pollutants or harmful substances in water. We aim to reveal the mechanism underlying the enhanced PC performance by constructing HJs, and extend the potential of ZnO HJ photocatalysts for future trends, and practical, large-scale applications in environment-related fields.

  • 2.
    Yuan, Shuai
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jiang, Xia
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Translat Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden;Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic Prediction of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium, and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Relation to Development of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Study2019Inngår i: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 42, nr 12, s. 2197-2203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to investigate the associations of genetically predicted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), calcium (S-Ca), and parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) levels with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seven, six, and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with S-25OHD, S-Ca, and S-PTH levels, respectively, were used as instrumental variables. Data on T2DM were available for 74,124 case subjects with T2DM and 824,006 control subjects. The inverse variance-weighted method was used for the primary analyses, and the weighted median and Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger methods were used for supplementary analyses. RESULTS Genetically predicted S-25OHD but not S-Ca and S-PTH levels were associated with T2DM in the primary analyses. For 1 SD increment of S-25OHD levels, the odds ratio (OR) of T2DM was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88-0.99; P = 0.029) in an analysis based on all seven SNPs and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98; P = 0.011) in an analysis based on three SNPs within or near genes involved in vitamin D synthesis. Only the association based on the SNPs involved in vitamin D synthesis remained in the weighted median analysis, and no pleiotropy was detected (P = 0.153). Pleiotropy was detected in the analysis of S-Ca (P = 0.013). After correcting for this bias using MR-Egger regression, the OR of T2DM per 1 SD increment of S-Ca levels was 1.41 (95% CI 1.12-1.77; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Modest lifelong higher S-25OHD levels were associated with reduced odds of T2DM, but the association was only robust for SNPs in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. The possible role of S-Ca levels for T2DM development requires further research.

  • 3.
    Yuan, Shuai
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, Nobelsvag 13, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, Nobelsvag 13, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    No association between coffee consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: A Mendelian randomization study2019Inngår i: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 29, nr 11, s. 1185-1188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Some observational studies have found that habitual coffee and caffeine consumption might reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization study to explore the potential association between coffee consumption and AF.

    Methods and results: This study was based on summary-level data from the Atrial Fibrillation Consortium, including 588 190 individuals (65 446 cases and 522 744 non-cases). Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with coffee consumption at significance level of P < 5 x 10(-8) were used as instrumental variables and were obtained from a genome-wide association study that included up to 375 833 individuals. The odds ratio of AF per genetically-predicted 50% increase of coffee consumption was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.88, 1.10; P = 0.80) in the standard inverse-variance weighted analysis. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses using the weighted median and MR-Egger methods, and no directional pleiotropy (P = 0.37) was observed. Moreover, complementary analyses that separated the coffee-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms based on their association with blood levels of caffeine metabolites (lower, higher, unrelated or unknown association) revealed no association with AF.

    Conclusions: This study does not support a causal association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of AF. 

  • 4.
    Yuan, Shuai
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc & Nutr Epidemiol, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Mendelian Randomization Study2019Inngår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 1651Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Available evidence on the associations of dietary and circulating levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, which have potential antiarrhythmic properties, and other fatty acids with atrial fibrillation is conflicting and limited. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to assess the associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acid levels and atrial fibrillation. Summary-level data of atrial fibrillation were available from 65,446 cases and 522,744 non-cases included in the Atrial Fibrillation Consortium. Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ten fatty acids at significance level of p < 5 x 10(-8) were identified as instrumental variables from the hitherto largest genome-wide association studies for plasma fatty acids. The fixed-effects inverse-variance weighted method was used to assess the association of individual plasma fatty acids and atrial fibrillation risk. The random-effects inverse-variance weighted method, weighted median method, and Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger method were employed as the sensitivity analyses. Genetic predisposition to higher levels of any of the ten individual fatty acids was not associated with atrial fibrillation risk.

  • 5.
    Yuan, Shuai
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Wan, Zihao
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Fac Med, Dept Orthopaed & Traumatol, Shatin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Associations of Smoking and Alcohol and Coffee Intake with Fracture and Bone Mineral Density: A Mendelian Randomization Study2019Inngår i: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 105, nr 6, s. 582-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The causal associations of smoking and alcohol and coffee intake with fracture and bone mineral density are unknown. We investigated the associations using Mendelian randomization (MR). Summary-level data from UK Biobank for bone fractures (main outcome) (53,184 cases; 373,611 non-cases) and estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) (n = 426,824 individuals) were used. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with smoking initiation (n = 378) and alcohol (n = 99) and coffee (n = 15) intake at the genome-wide significance threshold (P = 5 x 10(-8)) were identified from published genome-wide association studies. Univariable and multivariable inverse-variance weighted, weighted median, MR-Egger, and MR-PRESSO methods were used for statistical analyses. Genetic predisposition to smoking initiation was associated with fracture but not eBMD. The odds ratio of fracture per one-unit increase in log odds of smoking was 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.04, 1.15; P = 8.58 x 10(-4)) after adjustment for alcohol intake in the multivariable MR analysis. The association remained in complementary analyses. Genetically predicted alcohol and coffee intake was not associated with fracture or eBMD. Nevertheless, genetic liability to alcohol dependence, based on variants in the ALD1B gene, was associated with fracture and lower eBMD. The odds ratio was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.12; P = 0.018) per genetically predicted one-unit higher log odds of liability to alcohol dependence. This MR study strengthens the causal inference on an association between smoking and higher fracture risk but found no linear association of modestly higher alcohol and coffee intake with fracture or BMD. However, alcohol dependence may increase fracture risk.

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