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  • 1.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Axelson, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Comparison between adaptive and fixed stimulus paired-pulsetranscranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) in normal subjects2017Inngår i: Clinical Neurophysiology Practice, ISSN 2467-981X, s. 91-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS) examines cortical excitability but may require lengthy test procedures and fine tuning of stimulus parameters due to the inherent variability of the elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and their tendency to exhibit a ‘ceiling/floor effects’ in inhibition trials. Aiming to overcome some of these limitations, we implemented an ‘adaptive’ ppTMS protocol and compared the obtained excitability indices with those from ‘conventional’ fixed-stimulus ppTMS.

    Methods

    Short- and long interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and LICI) as well as intracortical facilitation (ICF) were examined in 20 healthy subjects by adaptive ppTMS and fixed-stimulus ppTMS. The test stimulus intensity was either adapted to produce 500 μV MEPs (by a maximum likelihood strategy in combination with parameter estimation by sequential testing) or fixed to 120% of resting motor threshold (rMT). The conditioning stimulus was 80% rMT for SICI and ICF and 120% MT for LICI in both tests.

    Results

    There were significant (p < 0.05) intraindividual correlations between the two methods for all excitability measures. There was a clustering of SICI and LICI indices near maximal inhibition (‘ceiling effect’) in fixed-stimulus ppTMS which was not observed for adaptive SICI and LICI.

    Conclusions

    Adaptive ppTMS excitability data correlates to those acquired from fixed-stimulus ppTMS.

    Significance

    Adaptive ppTMS is easy to implement and may serve as a more sensitive method to detect changes in cortical inhibition than fixed stimulus ppTMS. Whether equally confident data are produced by less stimuli with our adaptive approach (as already confirmed for motor threshold estimation) remains to be explored.

  • 2.
    Axelson, Hans W
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Isberg, Mattias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation Does Not Acutely Affect Cortical Excitability in Healthy Subjects2014Inngår i: Brain Stimulation, ISSN 1935-861X, E-ISSN 1876-4754, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 613-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) has recently emerged as a new therapeutic option for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy but its potential mechanisms of action are not known. Since other antiepileptic treatments have been shown to alter cortical excitability, thereby reducing the liability to seizures, it has been suggested that cranial nerve stimulation such as TNS may act in the same way.

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether TNS has the potential to alter cortical excitability in healthy subjects.

    METHODS: An adaptive paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol stimulating the dominant hand motor area was used to measure resting motor threshold (rMT), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) before, during, and after 40 min of 120 Hz bilateral external continuous trigeminal nerve stimulation. Neuronavigation was used for guidance.

    RESULTS: TNS was well tolerated by all subjects. No significant changes were seen in the parameters studied.

    CONCLUSION: Unlike for example anti-epileptic drugs and the ketogenic diet, trigeminal nerve stimulation does not seem to alter cortical excitability in healthy subjects. This is the first study on cortical excitability in relation to continuous trigeminal nerve stimulation. It still remains to be proven that TNS has the prerequisites to effectively counteract epileptic events in humans.

  • 3.
    Backman, Sofia
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Div Clin Neurophysiol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Rosen, Ingmar
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Div Clin Neurophysiol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Blennow, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept New Born Med, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Thomas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Neurophysiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Englund, Marita
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Neurophysiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Hallberg, Boubou
    Karolinska Inst, Dept New Born Med, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liedholm, Lars-Johan
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Neurophysiol, Umea, Sweden.
    Norman, Elisabeth
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Lund, Sweden.
    Sailer, Alexandra
    Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Neurophysiol, Umea, Sweden.
    Thordstein, Magnus
    Linkoping Univ, Inst Clin & Expt Med, Dept Clin Neurophysiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Swedish consensus reached on recording, interpretation and reporting of neonatal continuous simplified electroencephalography that is supported by amplitude-integrated trend analysis2018Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 10, s. 1702-1709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous monitoring of electroencephalography (EEG), with a focus on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), has been used in neonatal intensive care for decades. A number of systems have been suggested for describing and quantifying aEEG patterns. Extensive full-montage EEG monitoring is used in specialised intensive care units. The American Clinical Neurophysiology Society published recommendations for defining and reporting EEG findings in critically ill adults and infants. Swedish neonatologists and clinical neurophysiologists collaborated to optimise simplified neonatal continuous aEEG and EEG recordings based on these American documents. Conclusion: This paper describes the Swedish consensus document produced by those meetings.

  • 4. Bialek, Fatima
    et al.
    Rydenhag, Bertil
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery in patients over 50 years of age in Sweden 1990-2009-A prospective longitudinal study2014Inngår i: Seizure, ISSN 1059-1311, E-ISSN 1532-2688, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 641-645Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Most epilepsy surgery candidates are young adults. Outcome reports after epilepsy surgery in patients >= 50 years are few and varying. The aim of this study was to describe patient characteristics of older compared to younger adults and analyse seizure, complication and vocational outcomes in a large population-based series. Methods: We analysed data from the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register for 1990-2009 for patients >= 19 years at resective surgery who had completed two-year follow-up. Variables studied were seizure outcome, histo-pathological diagnoses, complications and vocational outcome. Data from patients >= 50 years and 19-49 years at surgery were compared. Results: 558 Adults underwent resective epilepsy surgery 1990-2009 and had two-year follow-up. 12% of the adults (67 patients) were >= 50 years at surgery. Patients >= 50 had longer epilepsy duration, more often had mesial sclerosis and less often had neurodevelopmental tumours and cortical malformations. The proportion of seizure-free patients at two-year follow-up did not differ between those >= 50 and 1949 years (61% versus 61% seizure-free last year, 48% versus 43% completely seizure-free since surgery), neither did the occurrence of major complications (3% in both groups). The vocational situation was mainly stable between baseline and two-year follow-up in both groups, although older patients were less often employed than younger. Conclusion: 12% of adults in the Swedish series were >= 50 years at epilepsy surgery. Seizure outcome was as good for older as for younger adults, and there was no difference in the occurrence of major complications. This constitutes important information in the presurgical counselling process.  

  • 5. Bjellvi, J.
    et al.
    Edelvik, A.
    Ekstedt, G.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Malmgren, K.
    Complications of Epilepsy Surgery in Sweden 1996-2010: Results from the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register2012Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 53, nr S5, s. 181-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6. Bjellvi, Johan
    et al.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rydenhag, Berth
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Complications of epilepsy surgery in Sweden 1996-2010: a prospective, population-based study2015Inngår i: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 122, nr 3, s. 519-525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECT Detailed risk information is essential for presurgical patient counseling and surgical quality assessments in epilepsy surgery. This study was conducted to investigate major and minor complications related to epilepsy surgery in a large, prospective series. METHODS The Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register provides extensive population-based data on all patients who were surgically treated in Sweden since 1990. The authors have analyzed complication data for therapeutic epilepsy surgery procedures performed between 1996 and 2010. Complications are classified as major (affecting daily life. and lasting longer than 3 months) or minor (resolving within 3 months). RESULTS A total of 865 therapeutic epilepsy surgery procedures were performed between 1996 and 2010, of which 158 were reoperations. There were no postoperative deaths. Major complications occurred in 26 procedures (3%), and minor complications in 65 (7.5%). In temporal lobe resections (n = 523), there were 15 major (2.9%) and 41 minor complications (7.8%); in extratemporal resections (n = 275) there were 9 major (3.3%) and 22 minor complications (8%); and in nonresective procedures (n = 67) there were 2 major (3%) and 2 minor complications (3%). The risk for any complication increased significantly with age (OR 1.26 per 10-year interval, 95% Cl 1.09-1.45). Compared with previously published results from the same register, there is a trend toward lower complication rates, especially in patients older than 50 years. CONCLUSIONS This is the largest reported prospective series of complication data in epilepsy surgery. The complication rates comply well with published results from larger single centers, confirming that epilepsy surgery performed in the 6 Swedish centers is safe. Patient age should be taken into account when counseling patients before surgery.

  • 7. Edelvik, A.
    et al.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, K.
    Employment Outcome after Resective Epilepsy Surgery in Sweden 1995-2010 - a Longitudinal Observational Study2014Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 55, s. 174-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8. Edelvik, A.
    et al.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, K.
    Seizure Outcome Ten Years after Resective Epilepsy Surgery: A Population-Based, Prospective, Longitudinal Study2012Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 53, nr S5, s. 11-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Edelvik, Anna
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Clin Neurosci & Rehabil, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Clin Neurosci & Rehabil, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Prospective and longitudinal long-term employment outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery2015Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 85, nr 17, s. 1482-1490Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:To investigate long-term employment outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery in a national population-based cohort of adults.Methods:In the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register, all adults who were operated with resective epilepsy surgery from 1995 to 2010 were identified. Two-year follow-up was available for 473/496, 5-year follow-up for 220/240, 10-year follow-up for 240/278, and 15-year follow-up for 85/109 patients.Results:There were no significant changes in employment outcome over time at group level, but for those with full-time employment at baseline, 79%, 79%, 57%, and 47% of seizure-free patients were in full-time work at 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, compared to patients with benefits at baseline, where 16%, 27%, 31%, and 33% of seizure-free patients worked full time at these time points (p = 0.018 at 10 years). More patients with full-time work had ability to drive, a family of their own, and higher educational status than patients in part-time work or on benefits. Univariate predictors for employment at long term were having employment preoperatively, higher education, favorable seizure outcome, male sex, and younger age at surgery. Multivariate predictors were having employment preoperatively, favorable seizure outcome, and younger age.Conclusions:The best vocational outcomes occurred in seizure-free patients who were employed or students at baseline, which may reflect a higher general psychosocial level of function. Younger age also predicted better employment outcomes and it therefore seems plausible that early referral for surgery could contribute to better vocational outcomes.

  • 10. Edelvik, Anna
    et al.
    Rydenhag, Bertil
    Olsson, Ingrid
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Kallen, Kristina
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in Sweden A national prospective and longitudinal study2013Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 81, nr 14, s. 1244-1251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate prospective, population-based long-term outcomes concerning seizures and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment after resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden. Methods: Ten-and 5-year follow-ups were performed in 2005 to 2007 for 278/327 patients after resective epilepsy surgery from 1995 to 1997 and 2000 to 2002, respectively. All patients had been prospectively followed in the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Ninety-three patients, who were presurgically evaluated but not operated, served as controls. Results: In the long term (mean 7.6 years), 62% of operated adults and 50% of operated children were seizure-free, compared to 14% of nonoperated adults (p < 0.001) and 38% of nonoperated children (not significant). Forty-one percent of operated adults and 44% of operated children had sustained seizure freedom since surgery, compared to none of the controls (p < 0.0005). Multivariate analysis identified >= 30 seizures/month at baseline and long epilepsy duration as negative predictors and positive MRI to be a positive predictor of long-term seizure-free outcome. Ten years after surgery, 86% of seizure-free children and 43% of seizure-free adults had stopped AEDs in the surgery groups compared to none of the controls (p < 0.0005). Conclusions: This population-based, prospective study shows good long-term seizure outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery. The majority of the patients who are seizure-free after 5 and 10 years have sustained seizure freedom since surgery. Many patients who gain seizure freedom can successfully discontinue AEDs, more often children than adults. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that more patients are seizure-free and have stopped AED treatment in the long term after resective epilepsy surgery than nonoperated epilepsy patients.

  • 11. Ekman, A.
    et al.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Sundman, E.
    Eriksson, L.I.
    Brudin, L.
    Sandin, R.
    Neuromuscular block and the electroencephalogram during sevoflurane anaesthesia2007Inngår i: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 18, nr 17, s. 1817-1820Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of neuromuscular block on the anaesthetic depth of hypnosis is an elusive question. We simultaneously investigated the influence of neuromuscular block on the bispectral index, a measure of hypnosis during general anaesthesia, and on the electroencephalogram. Patients were anaesthetized with sevoflurane. Noxious tetanic electrical stimulation was applied on two occasions: before and after profound neuromuscular block achieved with rocuronium. Neuromuscular block significantly attenuated the effect from noxious stimulation on electroencephalogram power and synchrony in the γ band (P<0.05), and the corresponding effect on bispectral index (P<0.02). These findings are probably due to the reduced arousing afferent input from paralysed muscles, and not to changes in the frontal electromyogram.

  • 12.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Commentary on standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG2013Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 1137-1138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Flink, Roland
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi. Uppsala Universitet.
    Hedegård, E.
    Bjellvi, J.
    Edelvik, A.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Malmgren, K.
    Complications to invasive epilepsy surgery workup with subdural and depth electrodes: a prospective population based observational study2014Inngår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 85, nr 7, s. 716-720Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Godbolt, Alison
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Stenson, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Winberg, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Axelson, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Tengvar, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Diagnosis of Disorders of Consciousness: Evoked Potentials and Behavioural Assessment in clinical practice2012Inngår i: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 26, nr 4-5, s. 513-514Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Jensson, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Enghag, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Bylund, Nina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Grindlund, Margareta E
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Andres
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve.2018Inngår i: Plastic and reconstructive surgery (1963), ISSN 0032-1052, E-ISSN 1529-4242, Vol. 141, nr 4, s. 582e-585eArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In reanimation surgery, effortless smile can be achieved by a nonfacial donor nerve. The underlying mechanisms for this smile development, and which is the best nonfacial neurotizer, need further clarification. The aim of the present study was therefore to further explore the natural coactivation between facial mimic muscles and muscles innervated by the most common donor nerves used in smile reanimation. The study was conducted in 10 healthy adults. Correlation between voluntary facial muscle movements and simultaneous electromyographic activity in muscles innervated by the masseter, hypoglossal, and spinal accessory nerves was assessed. The association between voluntary movements in the latter muscles and simultaneous electromyographic activity in facial muscles was also studied. Smile coactivated the masseter and tongue muscles equally. During the seven mimic movements, the masseter muscle had fewer electromyographically measured coactivations compared with the tongue (two of seven versus five of seven). The trapezius muscle demonstrated no coactivation during mimic movements. Movements of the masseter, tongue, and trapezius muscles induced electromyographically recorded coactivation in the facial muscles. Bite resulted in the strongest coactivation of the zygomaticus major muscle. The authors demonstrated coactivation between voluntary smile and the masseter and tongue muscles. During voluntary bite, strong coactivation of the zygomaticus major muscle was noted. The narrower coactivation pattern in the masseter muscle may be advantageous for central relearning and the development of a spontaneous smile. The strong coactivation between the masseter muscle and the zygomaticus major indicates that the masseter nerve may be preferred in smile reanimation.

  • 16. Kors, E. E.
    et al.
    Melberg, Atle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Vanmolkot, K. R.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Haan, Jan
    Raininko, Raili
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Ginjaar, H.B.
    Frants, R.R.
    Ferrari, M.D.
    van den Maagdenberg, A. M.
    Childhood, epilepsy, familial hemiplegic migraine, cerebellar ataxia, and a new CACNA1A mutation2004Inngår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 1136-1137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Lundqvist, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Wickstrom, R.
    Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Women′s and Children′s Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adverse effects following lidocaine treatment are limited with current dosing regimens2013Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, nr 11, s. E485-E486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Lundqvist, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Wickstrom, R.
    Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Women′s and Children′s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Efficacy and safety of lidocaine for treatment of neonatal seizures2013Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, nr 9, s. 863-867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Treatment of neonatal seizures still relies primarily on phenobarbital, despite an estimated efficacy of less than 50% and concern over neurodegenerative side effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine as second-line treatment of neonatal seizures in infants following benzodiazepine treatment but without previous treatment with phenobarbital. Methods: In a 10-year cohort, a retrospective chart review was conducted for all infants (gestational age >= 37 w, age <= 28 days) who had received lidocaine as second-line treatment of neonatal seizures prior to treatment with phenobarbital between January 2000 and June 2010. Infants were included if they had electroencephalographic seizures. Results: Cessation of seizure activity was seen in 16 of 30 infants based on clinical and electroencephalographic features, and a probable response was seen in an additional 3 of 30 patients. Suspected adverse effects were seen in only one patient, who developed a transient bradycardia. Conclusion: Lidocaine has a moderate efficacy as second-line therapy following benzodiazepines for treating neonatal seizures and is not frequently associated with cardiovascular adverse effects. Lidocaine should therefore be considered in the treatment of seizures in the neonatal period to a higher extent than is the case today.

  • 19. Malmgren, K.
    et al.
    Bialek, F.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Seizure outcome and complications after resective epilepsy surgery in patients over 50 years in Sweden 1990-20092013Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 54, nr S3, s. 180-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20. Malmgren, K
    et al.
    Olsson, I
    Engman, E
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Rydenhag, B
    Seizure outcome after resective epilepsy surgery in patients with low IQ2007Inngår i: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 131, nr 2, s. 535-542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy surgery has been questioned for patients with low IQ, since a low cognitive level is taken to indicate a widespread disturbance of cerebral function with unsatisfactory prognosis following resective surgery. The prevalence of epilepsy in patients with cognitive dysfunction is, however, higher than in the general population and the epilepsy is often more severe and difficult to treat. It is therefore important to try to clarify whether IQ predicts seizure outcome after resective epilepsy surgery. The Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register, which includes data on all epilepsy surgery procedures in Sweden since 1990, was analysed for all resective procedures performed 1990–99. Sustained seizure freedom with or without aura at the 2-year follow-up was analysed as a function of pre-operative IQ level categorized as IQ <50, IQ 50–69 and IQ 70 and was also adjusted for the following variables: age at epilepsy onset, age at surgery, pre-operative seizure frequency, pre-operative neurological impairment, resection type and histopathological diagnosis. Four hundred and forty-eight patients underwent resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden from 1990 to 1999 and completed the 2-year follow-up: 72 (16%) had IQ <70, (18 with IQ <50 and 54 with IQ 50–69) and 376 IQ 70. There were 313 adults and 135 children 18 years. Three hundred and twenty-five patients underwent temporal lobe resections (TLR) and 123 underwent various extratemporal resections (XTLR). At the 2-year follow-up, 56% (252/448) of the patients were seizure free: 22% (4/18) in the IQ <50 group, 37% (20/54) in the IQ 50–69 group and 61% (228/376) in the IQ 70 group. There was a significant relation between IQ category and seizure freedom [odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.62] and this held also when adjusting for clinical variables [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.35–0.95)]. In this population-based epilepsy surgery series, IQ level was shown to be an independent predictor of seizure freedom at the 2-year follow-up. However, many of the low-IQ patients benefit from surgery, especially patients with lesions. Low IQ should not exclude patients from resective epilepsy surgery, but is an important prognostic factor to consider in the counselling process.

  • 21.
    Malmgren, K.
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Dept Clin Neurosci & Rehabil, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rydenhag, B.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Dept Clin Neurosci & Rehabil, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Olsson, I.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Paediat, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Mattsson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Epilepsy Surgery Trends In Sweden 1990-20132015Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 56, s. 145-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Nilsson, Daniel T.
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Epilepsy Res Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Bla Str 5,3 Tr, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Epilepsy Res Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rydenhag, Bertil
    Gothenburg Univ, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Epilepsy Res Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Outcomes of multilobar resections for epilepsy in Sweden 1990-2013: a national population-based study2016Inngår i: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 158, nr 6, s. 1151-1157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports on outcome after multilobar resection (MLR) are scarce and most are retrospective single-centre studies or case studies with few patients. The aim of this study is to present seizure and complication outcomes 2 years after MLR in a prospective population-based series. The Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Registry (SNESUR) provides prospective population-based data on outcome and complications after epilepsy surgery. For this study, we have analysed data on seizure outcome and complications after MLR from the SNESUR between 1990 and 2013. Fifty-seven patients underwent MLR; 40/57 surgeries were performed between 1990 and 2000. Sixteen operations were classified as partial hemispherotomy. Resections were right-sided in 33 (58 %) patients. Mean age was 17.3 years (range, 0.3-63.4 years) and mean duration of epilepsy before surgery was 11.0 years (range, 0.2-37 years). Preoperative neurological deficits were seen in 19 patients (33.3 %). Learning disability (LD) was seen in 18 patients (31.6 %), six had severe LD (IQ < 50). Seizure outcome after 2 years was available for 53 patients. Thirteen (24.5 %) were seizure-free and 12 (22.6 %) had > 75 % seizure frequency reduction. Three (5.3 %) patients suffered major complications: infarction of the middle cerebral artery, epidural abscess and hemiparesis. Minor complications were seen in ten patients. There was no mortality. This prospective, population-based study provides data on seizure outcome and complications after MLR. In selected patients MLR can be considered, but expectations for seizure freedom should not be too high and patients and parents should be counselled appropriately.

  • 23. Olsson, I.
    et al.
    Edelvik, A.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rydenhag, B.
    Malmgren, K.
    Seizure Outcome after Hemispherectomy Data from the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register2012Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 53, nr S5, s. 110-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24. Reinholdson, J.
    et al.
    Lundgren, J.
    Edelvik, A.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Hallbook, T.
    Olsson, I
    Rydenhag, B.
    Malmgren, K.
    Seizure Outcome after Resective Epilepsy Surgery in Infancy and Early Childhood2014Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 55, s. 25-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Rostedt Punga, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Askmark, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Stålberg, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Cholinergic neuromuscular hyperactivity in patients with myasthenia gravis seropositive for MuSK antibody2006Inngår i: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 111-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 75-year-old man with severe oculobulbar myasthenia gravis (MG) treated with acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEIs) was found to have muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies. Neurophysiological examination displayed extra repetitive discharges after the compound motor action potential (CMAP) at low-frequency stimulation, possibly triggered by AChEI. This indicates an abnormal sensitivity to acetylcholine in patients with MuSK antibodies and may be a useful indicator of the adverse effect of AChEI treatment in these patients. Muscle Nerve, 2006

  • 26. Rydenhag, B.
    et al.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, K.
    Resective Reoperations in Sweden 1990-2010 - a National Prospective Observational Study2014Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 55, s. 26-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27. Rydenhag, B.
    et al.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, K.
    Seizure Outcome and Etiologies in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery in Sweden 1990-20092012Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 53, s. 185-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28. Rydenhag, B.
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Broman, L.
    Ingrid, O.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, K.
    Long term follow-up after callosotomy2013Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 54, nr S3, s. 180-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29. Rydenhag, Bertil
    et al.
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Surgical outcomes in patients with epileptogenic tumours and cavernomas in Sweden: good seizure control but late referrals.2013Inngår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 84, nr 1, s. 49-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery is to an important extent related to underlying aetiology. In this study of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery with a lesional aetiology in Sweden 1990-2004, the aim was to investigate seizure outcome and prognostic factors. METHODS: All patients operated on during the time period with a histopathological diagnosis of an epileptogenic tumour (ganglioglioma (GGL), dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) and low grade astrocytoma (AST)) or a cavernous haemangioma (CAH) were identified in the population based Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the independent contribution of the following variables to seizure outcome: age at surgery; epilepsy duration; preoperative seizure frequency; localisation of the resection; and histopathology. RESULTS: Of the 156 identified patients who had a 2 year follow-up (103 adults and 53 children), 71% had temporal, 16% frontal and 13% parietal and occipital lobe resections. Mean presurgical epilepsy duration was 13 years in adults and 5 years in children. Main histopathological diagnosis was GGL or DNET in 67, CAH in 42 and AST in 47 patients. 77% of patients had sustained seizure freedom (with or without aura) 2 years after surgery. In the multivariate analysis, only diagnosis other than AST was independently associated with becoming seizure free. CONCLUSION: In this population based series, 120/156 patients (77%) with epileptogenic tumours and cavernomas were seizure free 2 years after surgery. Many had a very long epilepsy history. Seizure outcome can be improved if epilepsy surgery is considered earlier in patients with epileptogenic lesions.

  • 30. Stigsdotter-Broman, Lina
    et al.
    Olsson, Ingrid
    Flink, Roland
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurofysiologi.
    Rydenhag, Bertil
    Malmgren, Kristina
    Long-term follow-up after callosotomy: A prospective, population based, observational study2014Inngår i: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 316-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Analyze the long-term outcome of callosotomies with regard to seizure types and frequencies and antiepileptic drug treatment.

    Methods

    This longitudinal observational study is based on data from the prospective Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Thirty-one patients had undergone callosotomy in Sweden 1995-2007 and had been followed for 2 and 5 or 10years after surgery. Data on their seizure types and frequencies, associated impairments, and use of antiepileptic drugs have been analyzed.

    Results

    The median total number of seizures per patient and month was reduced from 195 before surgery to 110 twoyears after surgery and 90 at the long-term follow-up (5 or 10years). The corresponding figures for drop attacks (tonic or atonic) were 190 before surgery, 100 2years after surgery, and 20 at the long-term follow-up. Ten (56%) of the 18 patients with drop attacks were free from drop attacks at long-term follow-up. Three of the remaining eight patients had a reduction of >75%. At long-term follow-up, four were off medication. Only one of the 31 patients had no neurologic impairment.

    Significance

    The present population-based, prospective observational study shows that the corpus callosotomy reduces seizure frequency effectively and sustainably over the years. Most improvement was seen in drop attacks. The improvement in seizure frequency over time shown in this study suggests that callosotomy should be considered at an early age in children with intractable epilepsy and traumatizing drop attacks.

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