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  • 1.
    Achermann, Sheila
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prediction in Typical and Atypical Development2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Forming predictions about what is going to happen next is a crucial ability that develops early in life. Theory and some empirical evidence suggest that predictive abilities may be impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate early measures of prediction in relation to concurrent and later outcomes in typical and atypical development, with a particular focus on ASD and related behavioral problems.

    In Study I, we used motion capture technology to examine prospective motor control and its relationship to executive functions in typically developing 18-month-olds. Our findings showed that motor control is associated with executive functioning in infancy.

    Study II investigated motor control in infants at low and elevated likelihood for ASD and examined how these measures relate to later development. We found group differences as well as similarities in motor control in 10-months-olds with and without a familial history of ASD. Early motor measures were related to general developmental level, but not ASD symptomatology in toddlerhood.

    Using eye tracking, Study III examined how infants with later ASD and neurotypical infants form predictions about visual object motion. Our findings indicated that infants with later ASD were able to form predictions about object motion and adapt to simple changes in motion patterns, and that their performance did not differ from the performance of neurotypical infants.

    In Study IV, we surveyed parents about their experiences during participation in an infant sibling study of ASD as a first step to understanding the benefits and risks associated with this type of research. Parents were generally positive about their experiences both from their own perspective as well as, the child’s perspective.

    This thesis illustrates the potential of using advanced technology, such as motion tracking and eye tracking, to study and compare prediction in typical and atypical development. It points to the important role of prediction and motor control for child development, but fails to find a specific link to ASD.

    Delarbeten
    1. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 1600-1610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasksinvolving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibitionand a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life.

    Nyckelord
    prospective motor control, motor development, executive functions, reaching, infancy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314054 (URN)10.1177/0956797616667447 (DOI)000390582500006 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, 312292
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-26 Skapad: 2017-01-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Motor Atypicalities in Infancy are Associated with General Developmental Level at Two Years, but Not Autistic Symptoms
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Motor Atypicalities in Infancy are Associated with General Developmental Level at Two Years, but Not Autistic Symptoms
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Accepted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408578 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-04-08 Skapad: 2020-04-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-08
    3. Updating Expectations about Unexpected Object Motion in Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Updating Expectations about Unexpected Object Motion in Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-408576 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-04-08 Skapad: 2020-04-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-08
    4. Parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study of autism spectrum disorder
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study of autism spectrum disorder
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 69, artikel-id 101454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) play an important role in advancing our knowledge about early developmental pathways in ASD. Despite this clear benefit, currently little is known about potential risks or disadvantages for participating families. As a first step in addressing this issue, we asked parents about their experiences from participating in an infant sibling study.

    Method:

    Eighty-eight families responded to a questionnaire examining parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. The questions assessed parents' satisfaction with the study, the child's perceived satisfaction, and the parents' motivation for participating. The study included parents of two groups, (1) infants with an older sibling diagnosed with ASD (HR, high risk, n = 43) and (2) infants with no familial history of ASD (LR, low risk, n = 21).

    Results:

    The results indicated that parents are generally positive about study participation and few disadvantages were reported. This pattern was mirrored when splitting parents' responses into the two groups. There was no indication for group differences between parents of infants at high risk and low risk for ASD.

    Conclusion:

    Our findings present a first step into understanding parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. Most parents were satisfied with participation in the study and only few disadvantages were reported. Our results have implications for ethical discussions about benefits and risks regarding infant sibling studies in various fields.

    Nyckelord
    Autism spectrum disorder, Infant siblings, Early identification, Ethics, Risk factors
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi) Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400748 (URN)10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101454 (DOI)000501403800001 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, NHS14-1802:1Vetenskapsrådet, 2015-03670
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-03 Skapad: 2020-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-04-08Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 2.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bolte, Sven
    Karolinska Inst & Reg Stockholm, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Psychiat Res, Karolinska Inst KIND,Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden;Curtin Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy Social Work & Speech Pathol, Essential Partner Autism CRC, Curtin Autism Res Grp, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS). Karolinska Inst & Reg Stockholm, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Psychiat Res, Karolinska Inst KIND,Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study of autism spectrum disorder2020Ingår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 69, artikel-id 101454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) play an important role in advancing our knowledge about early developmental pathways in ASD. Despite this clear benefit, currently little is known about potential risks or disadvantages for participating families. As a first step in addressing this issue, we asked parents about their experiences from participating in an infant sibling study.

    Method:

    Eighty-eight families responded to a questionnaire examining parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. The questions assessed parents' satisfaction with the study, the child's perceived satisfaction, and the parents' motivation for participating. The study included parents of two groups, (1) infants with an older sibling diagnosed with ASD (HR, high risk, n = 43) and (2) infants with no familial history of ASD (LR, low risk, n = 21).

    Results:

    The results indicated that parents are generally positive about study participation and few disadvantages were reported. This pattern was mirrored when splitting parents' responses into the two groups. There was no indication for group differences between parents of infants at high risk and low risk for ASD.

    Conclusion:

    Our findings present a first step into understanding parents' experiences from participating in an infant sibling study. Most parents were satisfied with participation in the study and only few disadvantages were reported. Our results have implications for ethical discussions about benefits and risks regarding infant sibling studies in various fields.

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  • 3.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Bölte, Sven
    Nyström, Pär
    Updating Expectations about Unexpected Object Motion in Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum DisorderManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyström, Pär
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Motor Atypicalities in Infancy are Associated with General Developmental Level at Two Years, but Not Autistic SymptomsIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikel-id e52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

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  • 6.
    Alm, Per A
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stuttering, emotions, and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety:: a critical review2004Ingår i: Journal of fluency disorders, ISSN 0094-730X, E-ISSN 1873-801X, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 123-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons who stutter often report their stuttering is influenced by emotional reactions, yet the nature of such relation is still unclear. Psychophysiological studies of stuttering have failed to find any major association between stuttering and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. A review of published studies of heart rate in relation to stressful speech situations indicate that adults who stutter tend to show a paradoxical reduction of heart rate compared with nonstuttering persons. Reduction of heart rate has also been observed in humans and mammals during anticipation of an unpleasant stimulus, and is proposed to be an indication of anticipatory anxiety resulting in a “freezing response” with parasympathetic inhibition of the heart rate. It is suggested that speech-related anticipatory anxiety in persons who stutter is likely to be a secondary, conditioned reaction based on previous experiences of stuttering.

  • 7.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Cernvall, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Hedström, Mariann
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Mattsson, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study2016Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 582-589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a cohort diagnosed with cancer during adolescence from shortly after up to 10 years after diagnosis.

    Methods: Participants (n = 61) completed the SF-36 and the HADS shortly; six, 12, and 18 months; and two, three, four, and 10 years (n = 28) after diagnosis. Polynomial change trajectories were used to model development.

    Results: Polynomial change trajectories showed an initial increase which abated over time into a decrease which abated over time for the SF-36 subscales Mental Health and Vitality; an initial decline which abated over time into an increase for HADS anxiety; and an initial decline which abated over time into an increase which abated over time for HADS depression. The SF-36 mental component summary showed no change from two to 10 years after diagnosis whereas the SF-36 physical component summary showed an increase from two years after diagnosis which declined over time. Ten years after diagnosis 29% reported possible anxiety.

    Conclusions: Development of HRQOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression appears to be nonlinear among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence. Well into permanent survivorship an increase in symptoms of anxiety is shown and approximately a third of the participants report possible anxiety. The findings indicate the need for: studies designed to pinpoint the times of highest psychological risk, clinical follow-up focusing on psychological problems, and development of effective psychological interventions for survivors of adolescent cancer

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass2009Ingår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 218-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual judgments of relative mass of colliding objects observers may function in either a perceptual or an inferential mode of apprehension (Runeson, Juslin, & Olsson, 2000). This finding was based on participants’ over/underconfidence in their judgments. Also phenomenological mode reports, for which participants indicated whether they “saw” or “inferred” the relative mass in each trial, have been used as mode indicators (Andersson, Kreegipuu, Allik, & Runeson, 2009). The present study showed that over/underconfidence and mode reports are not congruent as mode indicators: in Experiments 1 and 2, participants’ over/ underconfidence was about the same in “saw” and “inferred” trials. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, unexpectedly judgments of relative exit-speed did not engender underconfidence. Hence, one or both indicators do not well enough distinguish the modes of apprehension.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass2008Ingår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic event perception, one issue is whether direct perception or cue-based inferences explains learning and performance. For visual discrimination of relative mass of colliding objects, Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) found that observers change from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension during practice, as indicated by lower confidence in their judgments. Unlike Runeson et al. (2000), we scored confidence against the variables used in individual blocks and analyzed collision-subsets, thereby counteracting inflated confidence scores. A majority of 40 novice participants used a nonspecifying variable and functioned inferentially, as indicated by realistic confidence. Five novices used the mass-ratio invariant and were overconfident therein. Ten participants received feedback based on the most-used nonspecifying variable. Despite feedback suggesting specificity of the variable, they continued to use the variable inferentially. After practice based on the invariant, 7 out of 10 used the invariant. An unexpected  dearth of underconfidence for invariant usage is explained by fluctuations in variable usage. Methodological problems in the use of confidence as a mode indicator are discussed.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Wirebring, Linnea Karlsson
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging, Umea, Sweden.
    Neurocognitive processes underlying heuristic and normative probability judgments2020Ingår i: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 196, artikel-id 104153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Judging two events in combination (A&B) as more probable than one of the events (A) is known as a conjunction fallacy. According to dual-process explanations of human judgment and decision making, the fallacy is due to the application of a heuristic, associative cognitive process. Avoiding the fallacy has been suggested to require the recruitment of a separate process that can apply normative rules. We investigated these assumptions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during conjunction tasks. Judgments, whether correct or not, engaged a network of brain regions identical to that engaged during similarity judgments. Avoidance of the conjunction fallacy additionally, and uniquely, involved a fronto-parietal network previously linked to supervisory, analytic control processes. The results lend credibility to the idea that incorrect probability judgments are the result of a representativeness heuristic that requires additional neurocognitive resources to avoid.

  • 11.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Vad är det trafikledarna gör som automationen inte klarar?: Tågtrafikstyrning med människan i centrum2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 12.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Social media as a tool for change2011Ingår i: The social impact of social computing / [ed] A. Bisset et al., Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University , 2011, s. 44-50Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    ICT supported crisis communication and dialog2013Ingår i: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, s. 37-41Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how people use social media under serious social conditions, and how social media affects people’s behavior after a disaster based on the case of the March 2011 disaster in Japan. In this critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, television, radio and newspapers did not work well, the Japanese exchanged and received information through social media. In fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Corresponding to people’s need, social media provided various services to support people immediately after the disaster. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to horizontal communication, critical thinking, dialog; supporting social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives and supporting democratic communication as well as the difficulties in people bonding together through social media.

  • 14. Asberg Johnels, Jakob
    et al.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Face-Viewing Patterns in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Speaking up for the Role of Language Comprehension.2014Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 57, nr 6, s. 2246-2252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine whether viewing patterns toward the mouth, eyes, and nonmouth-noneyes areas differed between young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children when viewing a person speaking. The role of language comprehension in such viewing patterns was also examined.

    Method: Eleven children with ASD (approximately 4.5 years old) and 29 TD toddlers (approximately 2.5 years old) participated. The groups were matched on language comprehension raw scores from the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. All children viewed short films of a woman speaking while their eye movements were recorded with eye-tracking equipment.

    Results: Children with ASD spent proportionally less time viewing the mouth and more time viewing the nonmouth-noneyes areas. Time viewing the eyes did not differ between groups. Increased mouth viewing was associated with lower language comprehension in the group with ASD.

    Conclusion: Variability in language comprehension is an important factor to monitor when interpreting face-viewing patterns in young children with ASD, particularly with regard to mouth viewing. The results may help explain divergent findings in this field of research.

  • 15. Axelsson, E.L.
    et al.
    Moore, D.G.
    Murphy, E.M.
    Goodwin, J.E.
    Clifford, B.R.
    The role of bodies in infants’ categorical representations of humans and non-human animals2018Ingår i: Infant and Child DevelopmentArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Balkenius, Christian
    et al.
    Lund Univ Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS).
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Birger
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Lund Univ Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Pupillary Correlates of Emotion and Cognition: A Computational Model2019Ingår i: 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference On Neural Engineering (NER), IEEE, 2019, s. 903-907Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to controlling the influx of light to the retina, the pupil also reacts as a result of cognitive and emotional processing. This makes it possible to use pupil dilation as an index for cognitive effort and emotional arousal. We show how an extended version of a computational model of pupil dilation can account for pupillary contagion effects where the pupil of an observer dilates upon seeing another person with dilated pupils. We also show how the model can reproduce the effects of cognitive effort in a math exercise. Furthermore, we investigate how the model can account for different explanations for the abnormal pupil response seen in individuals with or at risk for autism spectrum disorder. The reported computer simulations illustrate the usefulness of system-level models of the brain in addressing complex cognitive and emotional phenomena.

  • 17. Bark, Mats
    et al.
    Heide, Mats
    Langen, Maria
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informationsvetenskap. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Intranätboken: från elektronisk anslagstavla till dagligt arbetsverktyg2002Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Boken handlar inte om tekniken bakom intranät eller hur man implementerar ett intranät, utan fokuserar på "mjuka" saker som innehåll, kommunikation, organisation, kultur, lärande och gränssnitt. Den visar på de möjligheter och svårigheter det innebär att skapa system som stödjer individens och organisationens processer.

    Intranätboken kan läsas från pärm till pärm, men man kan också välja att läsa de kapitel man är mest intresserad av, eftersom de är fristående. Varje författare har skrivit om den del av intranät hon/han behärskar bäst. Boken rör sig från det övergripande och något mer teoretiska till en fallstudie av portalutvecklingen inom Telia, och avslutas med en mer handgriplig diskussion om vikten av att skapa användarvänliga webblösningar. Perspektivet är snarare utifrån en vidareutveckling av ett befintligt intranät än en start av ett nytt.

    Boken är främst avsedd för dem som arbetar med webbfrågor inom något större organisationer, men är även tänkt för högskole-/universitetskurser i medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, företagsekonomi och informatik.

  • 18. Bell, Simon
    et al.
    van Zon, Roland
    Van Herzele, Ann
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Health benefits of nature experience: Implications of practice for research2011Ingår i: Forests, trees, and human health / [ed] Nilsson, Kjell, Marcus Sangster, Christos Gallis, Terry Hartig, Sjerp de Vries, Klaus Seeland & Jasper Schipperijn, Dordrecht: Springer , 2011, 1st Edition, s. 183-202Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prejudiced Personalities Revisited: On the Nature of (Generalized) Prejudice2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I media diskuteras ofta fördomar mot en viss grupp som helt skilda från fördomar mot andra grupper. Efter Breivik’s massaker debatterades till exempel intolerans mot muslimer i stor utsträckning, men det diskuterades inte mycket kring att han även uttryckt extrema åsikter om kvinnor och homosexuella. Likväl är den gemensamma nämnaren i sådana attityder av yttersta vikt för att förstå varför vissa individer är mer intoleranta än andra. Tidigare forskning visar att personer som är mer rasistiska än andra också tenderar att vara mer sexistiska, samt nedvärdera till exempel, handikappade människor. Den gemensamma nämnare i sådana attityder kallas generaliserad fördomsfullhet och utgör grundbulten i personlighetsteorier om fördomar då det pekar på att somliga alltid tycks ogilla/nedvärdera utsatta grupper. Idag är det även välkänt att två personlighetsvariabler, vänlighet och öppenhet för nya erfarenheter, beskriver vem som uttrycker mer fördomar än andra. Däremot har det inte ägnats mycket kraft åt frågan vad exakt det är som dessa variabler förklarar, respektive inte förklarar. Syftet med avhandlingen var därmed att erbjuda en mer detaljerad analys av kopplingen mellan personlighet och generaliserad fördomsfullhet. Artikel I visade att personlighet förklarar den gemensamma nämnaren i olika typer av fördomar, medan grupptillhörighet (exempelvis kön) förklarar skillnader som är unika för fördomar mot en viss grupp (kvinnor). Personlighet och grupptillhörighet kompletterar alltså varandra som förklaringar snarare än att vara motsägelsefulla, såsom vissa forskare menat. Tre studier från Artikel II visade att vänlighet och öppenhet till nya erfarenheter hänger samman med viljekontrollerade fördomar, men inte spontana negativa associationer. Målet med Artikel III var att undersöka om personlighet förklarar fördomar av anledningen att vissa alltid favoriserar sin egen grupp över andra grupper (så kallad etnocentrism). Denna tanke har tagits för givet inom forskning om fördomsfullhet, men antagandet har inte testats empiriskt. Resultaten från tre studier pekar på att, till skillnad från generaliserad fördomsfullhet, så visar etnocentrism i sig inte på några starka samband med personlighet. Sammanfattningsvis så hänger varken vänlighet eller öppenhet ihop med spontan gruppnegativitet eller att ogilla ”de andra”. Däremot så pekar personlighetsfaktorer i stor utsträckning på vem som väljer att uttryckligen nedvärdera utsatta grupper.

    Delarbeten
    1. Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 57-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141035 (URN)10.1177/0956797610390384 (DOI)000294708600012 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-01-10 Skapad: 2011-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 614-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

    Nyckelord
    personality, generalized prejudice, implicit association test, cultural stereotypes, personal attitudes
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208609 (URN)10.1177/1948550611432937 (DOI)000208936600013 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-10-25 Skapad: 2013-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

    Nyckelord
    Ethnocentrism, generalized prejudice, personality, agreeableness, openness to experience
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210291 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-11-04 Skapad: 2013-11-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-01-23Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 20.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

  • 21.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice2012Ingår i: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 614-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

  • 22.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sibley, Chris G.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Dimensions of Social Dominance: Their Personality and Socio-political Correlates within a New Zealand Probability Sample2015Ingår i: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1179-7924, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 25-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) was introduced as a unidimensional construct predicting numerous socio-political attitudes. However, recent findings suggest that SDO is composed of two sub-dimensions: dominance (SDO-D) and anti-egalitarianism (SDO-E). Despite converging evidence concerning their empirical differentiability, there is little consensus on how to best define them. Thus, we examined the correlates of SDO-D and SDO-E using a broad array of personality, political, ethnic and gender issue variables within a New Zealand national probability sample (N = 5,741) with European and Maori participants. SDO-D primarily related to the personality trait of honesty-humility, hostile and benevolent sexism. SDO-E primarily related to political conservatism and pro-Maori policies. In many cases, the predictive power differed between SDO-D and SDO-E, and across ethnic groups.

  • 23.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fabian, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Hjern, Anders
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent2018Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 294-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure.

    RESULTS: Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families.

    CONCLUSION: Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3-5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences.

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  • 24.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    "We also communicate through a book in the diaper bag"-Separated parents' ways to coparent and promote adaptation of their 1-4 year olds in equal joint physical custody2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikel-id e0214913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint physical custody (JPC) refers to a practice where children with separated parents share their time between the parents' respective homes. Studies on parents' views of JPC for young children are scarce. The aim of this interview study was to explore parents' perceptions on how they experience and practice equally shared JPC for their 1-4 year-olds in Sweden. Forty-six parents (18 fathers and 28 mothers) of 50 children (31 boys and 19 girls) under 5 years of age were interviewed. Parents were recruited through information in the media and represented a broad range of socioeconomic backgrounds, as well as both voluntary and court-ordered custody arrangements. The interviews were semi-structured and analyzed using systematic text condensation. Two themes emerged regarding the research question. In the first theme, Always free, never free, parents described their striving to coparent without a love relationship. While they appreciated the freedom of being a "half-time parent", doing things one's own way, they felt constrained by the long-term commitment to live close to and keep discussing child rearing issues with the ex-partner. Good communication was key and lessened parent's feelings of being cut-off from half of the child's life. When JPC was ordered by court or conflicts were intense, parents tried to have less contact and worried when the children were in the other home. The second theme, Is it right, is it good?, included descriptions of how the parents monitored the child's responses to the living arrangement and made changes to optimize their adjustment. Adaptations included visits for the child with the other parent mid-week, shared meals or adapting schedules. In conclusion, these parents worked hard to make JPC work and cause minimal damage to their children. Most parents were pleased with the arrangements with the notable exception of couples experiencing ongoing conflict.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liu, Bojing
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ullman, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Police, Dept Invest, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jadbäck, Isabel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Tellas Consulting AB, Malmo, Sweden..
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id e0150545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. Methods A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parentrated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence-and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings showed no gender or age differences. Item-by-item child-parent agreement was slight for 14 items (51.9%), fair for 12 items (44.4%), and less than chance for one item (3.7%), but agreement on all dimensions as well as the total score was substantial according to the PABAK-OS. Visual interpretation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested that when children's average wellbeing score was lower parents seemed to rate their children as having relatively higher total wellbeing, but as children's average wellbeing score increased, parents tended to rate their children as having relatively lower total wellbeing. Children living with both parents had higher wellbeing than those who lived with only one parent. Conclusions Results agreed with European findings that adolescent wellbeing decreases with age but contrasted with some prior Swedish research identifying better wellbeing for boys on all dimensions but Social support and peers. The study suggests the importance of considering children's own reports and not only parental or other informant ratings. Future research should be conducted at regular intervals and encompass larger samples.

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  • 26.
    Bhardwaj, Manisha
    et al.
    University of Houston.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    New York University.
    Josić, Krešimir
    University of Houston.
    Do people take stimulus correlations into account in visual search?2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id e0149402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory visual search experiments, distractors are often statistically independent of each other. However, stimuli in more naturalistic settings are often correlated and rarely independent. Here, we examine whether human observers take stimulus correlations into account in orientation target detection. We find that they do, although probably not optimally. In particular, it seems that low distractor correlations are overestimated. Our results might contribute to bridging the gap between artificial and natural visual search tasks.

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  • 27.
    Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The alluring nature of episodic odor memory: Sensory and cognitive correlates across age and sex2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memory for olfactory information is still relatively uncharted. The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the sensory and cognitive causes of the well-established age-related decline in olfactory episodic odor memory and of the age-independent sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The purpose of Study I was to investigate the causes of the sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The results show that the female advantage in episodic recognition memory seems to be explained by women´s higher aptitude in odor identification for familiar odors. With this background, the purpose of Study II was to investigate the age-related decline in olfactory episodic memory, with a particular eye to the role of odor identification. When controlling for the sensory variables olfactory threshold and odor quality discrimination, and the cognitive factor mental speed, the age-related deterioration in odor identification was eliminated. This suggests that changes in basic sensory and cognitive abilities underlie the age-related impairment in odor identification. The purpose of Study III was to investigate the role of recollective experience and intention to memorize for age-related and sex-related differences in episodic odor memory. Younger adults reported more experiences of remembering, and the elderly adults more experiences of feeling of knowing. The participants benefited from intentionality at encoding when the odors were unfamiliar, but intentionality did not affect memory for the familiar odors. The purpose of Study IV was to investigate the role of subjectively perceived qualities of the encoded odors for episodic memory across age and sex. Odors perceived as unpleasant, intense, and irritable were more easily remembered throughout the adult life span. The oldest adults selectively recognized the odors they rated as highly irritable indicating compensatory use of trigeminal activation. Overall, the result suggests that episodic odor memory rely heavily on both sensory and cognitive abilities, but in a different manner depending on demographic factors. The age-related decline appears to be driven by a sensory flattening disabling adequate cognitive processing. The age-independent sex difference on the other hand, is mainly cognitively mediated and driven by cognitive factors such as the ability to verbalize olfactory information.

    Delarbeten
    1. Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, s. 691-698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Olfaction, Sex, Recognition memory, Familiarity, Identification, Verbal processing, Quality discrimination
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264975 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-20 Skapad: 2015-10-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01
    2. Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, s. 231-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Olfaction, Age, Sex, Identification, Speed, Verbal fluency, Threshold, Quality discrimination
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi; Geriatrik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264976 (URN)10.1080/138255890968385 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-20 Skapad: 2015-10-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01
    3. Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, s. 68-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    Olfaction, Episodic memory, Recollective experience, Age, Sex, Familiarity, Intentionality, identification
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265008 (URN)10.1007/s00426-004-0190-9 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-20 Skapad: 2015-10-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01
    4. Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 375-380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nyckelord
    odor, adult, age, sex, odor recognition memory, odor quality, hedonics, pleasantness, intensity, irritability, trigeminal
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
    Forskningsämne
    Psykologi; Geriatrik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265009 (URN)10.1027/1618-3169.56.6.375 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-20 Skapad: 2015-10-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-12-16
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  • 28.
    Bodén, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Abrahamsson, Tore
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Holm, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Borg, Jacqueline
    Psychomotor and cognitive deficits as predictors of 5-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenia2014Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 282-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia but the predictive value of these deficits for long-term outcome in first-episode patients is unclear. Aims: We aimed to investigate associations of performance in psychomotor and cognitive tests with a 5-year functional and symptomatic outcome. Methods: After clinical stabilization, patients with a first schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (n = 46) were assessed for global cognitive function [Synonyms, Reasoning, and Block Design (SRB)], psychomotor speed [Trail Making Test (TMT) and finger tapping] and verbal learning (Claeson-Dahl Verbal Learning Test). The subsequent 5-year outcome regarding independent living, occupational and social function, and symptomatic remission status was assessed. Results: Low psychomotor speed was associated with poor social function 5 years later, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.37 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.08-10.51, adjusted for antipsychotic drug use. Better performance on finger tapping with the non-dominant hand was associated with an increased risk of a 5-year symptomatic non-remission (adjusted OR = 0.42, CI 0.19-0.96). Occupational function and independent living were not significantly associated with any of the investigated tests. Conclusions: Psychomotor speed is associated with a long-term outcome regarding social function and symptom remission in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

  • 29.
    Braukmann, Ricarda
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Stapel, Janny
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hunnius, Sabine
    Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Conducting infant EEG and NIRS experiments: Commonalities and differences2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Swdedes in Moro I: The effects of providing specific goals in a complex dynamic taskManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31. Brewin, C R
    et al.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK; The Traumatic Stress Clinic, London, UK.
    Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder2003Ingår i: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 339-376Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize recent research on the psychological processes implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an aid to evaluating theoretical models of the disorder. After describing a number of early approaches, including social-cognitive, conditioning, information-processing, and anxious apprehension models of PTSD, the article provides a comparative analysis and evaluation of three recent theories: Foa and Rothbaum's [Foa, E. B. & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford Press] emotional processing theory; Brewin, Dalgleish, and Joseph's [Psychological Review 103 (1996) 670] dual representation theory; Ehlers and Clark's [Behaviour Research and Therapy 38 (2000) 319] cognitive theory. We review empirical evidence relevant to each model and identify promising areas for further research. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Browning, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Murphy, Susannah E.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Goodwin, Guy M.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Harmer, Catherine J.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Cognitive Modification of Attentional Bias2010Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 67, nr 10, s. 919-925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A tendency to orient attention toward threatening stimuli may be involved in the etiology of anxiety disorders. In keeping with this, both psychological and pharmacological treatments of anxiety reduce this negative attentional bias. It has been hypothesized, but not proved, that psychological interventions may alter the function of prefrontal regions supervising the allocation of attentional resources. Methods: The current study examined the effects of a cognitive training regime on attention. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training conditions: "attend-threat" training, which increases negative attentional bias, or "avoid-threat" training, which reduces it. The behavioral effects of training were assessed using a sample of 24 healthy participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected in a further 29 healthy volunteers using a protocol that allowed the influence of both stimuli valence and attention to be discriminated. Results: Cognitive training induced the expected attentional biases in healthy volunteers. Further, the training altered lateral frontal activation to emotional stimuli, with these areas responding specifically to violations of the behavioral rules learned during training. Connectivity analysis confirmed that the identified lateral frontal regions were influencing attention as indexed by activity in visual association cortex. Conclusions: Our results indicate that frontal control over the processing of emotional stimuli may be tuned by psychological interventions in a manner predicted to regulate levels of anxiety. This directly supports the proposal that psychological interventions may influence attention via an effect on the prefrontal cortex.

  • 33.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Edström, G.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Shafiei, D.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tärnqvist, C.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ljóttson, B.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Andersson, G.
    Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic pain patients who have residual symptoms after rehabilitation: Randomized controlled trial2013Ingår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 753-765Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chronic pain can be treated with cognitive behavioural therapy delivered in multidisciplinary settings. However, relapse is likely, and there is a need for cost-effective secondary interventions for persons with residual problems after rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural intervention for patients who had completed multidisciplinary treatment at a pain management unit. Methods A total of 72 persons with residual pain problems were included in the study and were randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group who were invited to participate in a moderated online discussion forum. The participants had different chronic pain conditions, and a majority were women (72%). Twenty-two percent of the participants dropped out of the study before the post-treatment assessment. Results Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated differences on the catastrophizing subscale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (Cohen's d=0.70), in favour of the treatment group but a small within-group effect. Differences were also found on other measures of pain-related distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. A 6-month follow-up exhibited maintenance of improvements. Conclusions We conclude that Internet-delivered treatment can be partly effective for persons with residual problems after completed pain rehabilitation.

  • 34.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fältenhag, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ström, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Controlled trial of Internet-based treatment with telephone support for chronic back pain2004Ingår i: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 111, nr 3, s. 368-377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Skoglund, Astrid
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Husell, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergström, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bendelin, Nina
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Guided Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain patients: a randomized controlled trial2013Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 307-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions for persons with chronic pain have recently received empirical support. ACT focuses on reducing the disabling influences of pain through targeting ineffective control strategies and teaches people to stay in contact with unpleasant emotions, sensations, and thoughts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a guided internet-delivered ACT intervention for persons with chronic pain. A total of 76 patients with chronic pain were included in the study and randomized to either treatment for 7 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant increases regarding activity engagement and pain willingness. Measurements were provided with the primary outcome variable Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire which was in favour of the treatment group. Reductions were found on other measures of pain-related distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. A six month follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an acceptance based internet-delivered treatment can be effective for persons with chronic pain.

  • 36.
    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;Univ Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Jih, Yeou-Rong
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Block, Per
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hiu, Chii-Fen
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, London W1N 4AL, England;Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;Kings Coll London, London WC2R 2LS, England.
    Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects2015Ingår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 1489-1506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N=42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N=81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood.

  • 37.
    Cetrez, Önver
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Religionsbeteendevetenskap, Religionspsykologi.
    Balkir, Nazli
    Department of Psychology, Işık University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Resilience and Mental Health Risks among Syrian Refugees in Europe: A Cultural Perspective2017Ingår i: ACTA PSYCHOPATHOLOGICA, ISSN 2469-6676, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 1-4, artikel-id 65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dated from 2011, the civil war in Syria has forced more than half of the Syrians to leave their home. This crisis is defined as the world's largest humanitarian tragedy since the World War II. Ransom and kidnap, rape, sexual slavery, brutal executions, disappearances, forced displacement have become regular part of the daily news from the region. As for today, the total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria has reached 12.2 million, approximately 7.6 million of whom are internally displaced; the largest number of internally displaced persons in any country in the world [1]. Refugees from Syria are now the largest refugee population in the world with more than four million Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries and the larger region, such as Europe. The continuation of multi-sided armed conflict has lead to new cross-border movements of refugees each year, increasing the number of Syrians seeking protection in Europe [2-4].

    In response to the humanitarian needs, many EU countries have received applications from asylum seekers and refugees. The report of UNHCR in 2014 claims 562.680 asylum applications records in 38 European countries, which reflects an increase of 24% in comparison to the same period of 2013 [5,6]. The number of people applying for asylum in the European Union was more than doubled in 2015, reaching a record 1.26 million, according to the EU statistics agency. Syrians accounted for almost a third, with 362,775 people seeking shelter in Europe, followed by Afghans and Iraqis. Since 2016, rapid growth rate of the refugee population has been decelerating slightly [7,8].

    Eurostat [9] reports that the highest number of positive asylum decisions was recorded in Germany, followed by Sweden, France and Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands under the UN's humanitarian resettlement program. Those aforementioned states accounted for 81 % of the total number of acceptances issued in the EU-28 [9,10].

    In conjunction with their educational needs and possibility to work and settlement in the countries of migration, the health situation of the refugees is a large field of concern. A United Nations and Government of Syria joint assessment mission has specified mental health and psychosocial support as one of the most major concerns resulting from the current crisis [11]. In light of this unique set of challenges, there is an ongoing need for information on the mental health issues and culturally appropriate interventions not only for reducing symptoms of psychological distress but also for enhancing qualities of psychological and social wellbeing of this marginalized population. Hence, the specific objectives of the current paper are to: 1) provide basic information on the common mental health problems caused by the crisis; 2) discuss cultural issues in the conceptualizations of mental health problems, resilience enhancing practices and possible expectations about the appropriate healing strategies in order to promote mental health status and psychiatric care of Syrian refugees in Europe.

  • 38.
    Chapman, Colin Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Experimenter gender and replicability in science2018Ingår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id e1701427Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a replication crisis spreading through the annals of scientific inquiry. Although some work has been carried out to uncover the roots of this issue, much remains unanswered. With this in mind, this paper investigates how the gender of the experimenter may affect experimental findings. Clinical trials are regularly carried out without any report of the experimenter's gender and with dubious knowledge of its influence. Consequently, significant biases caused by the experimenter's gender may lead researchers to conclude that therapeutics or other interventions are either overtreating or undertreating a variety of conditions. Bearing this in mind, this policy paper emphasizes the importance of reporting and controlling for experimenter gender in future research. As backdrop, it explores what we know about the role of experimenter gender in influencing laboratory results, suggests possible mechanisms, and suggests future areas of inquiry.

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  • 39.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    On the physiology of vascular permeability2015Ingår i: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 215, s. 19-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Clark, Ian A.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7NG, England.
    Mackay, Clare E.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7NG, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Med Res Council Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments2015Ingår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 702-713Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith "flashbacks". Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development.

  • 41.
    Clark, Ian A.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Mackay, Clare E.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Positive involuntary autobiographical memories: You first have to live them2013Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 402-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are typically discussed in the context of negative memories such as trauma 'flashbacks'. However, IAMs occur frequently in everyday life and are predominantly positive. In spite of this, surprisingly little is known about how such positive IAMs arise. The trauma film paradigm is often used to generate negative IAMs. Recently an equivalent positive film was developed inducing positive IAMs (Davies, Malik, Pictet, Blackwell, & Holmes, 2012). The current study is the first to investigate which variables (emotional reaction to the film; recognition memory of the film; participant characteristics) would best predict the frequency of positive IAMs. Higher levels of positive mood change to the film were significantly associated with the number of positive IAMs recorded in the subsequent week. Results demonstrate the importance of positive emotional reaction at the time of an event for subsequent positive IAMs. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Crawford, Stella
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för speldesign.
    The ways Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice represents psychosis2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker hur ​Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice​ (Ninja Theory, 2017) representerar mental ohälsa och varför spelet uppehålls som delvis banbrytande inom spel som behandlar mental ohälsa. Undersökningen i fråga är gjord via att göra en kortöversiktavhur tidigare spel handlat samma ämne och ta en titt på hur ​Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice representerar psykos i sin mekanik och narrativ. Detta åstadkoms genom metoden Player-as-analyst genom att spela igenom hela spelet en gång och kolla igenom en playthrough video och genom att följa metodologi och teori av Diane Carr (2014). Datan samlad under spelningen och video tittandet sedan analyseras.

  • 43.
    Cullhed, Eric
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi. Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS).
    What Evokes Being Moved?2020Ingår i: Emotion Review, ISSN 1754-0739, E-ISSN 1754-0747, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent attempts to define being moved have difficulties agreeing on its eliciting conditions. The status quaestionis is often summarized as a question of whether the emotion is evoked by exemplifications of a wide range of positive core values or a more restricted set of values associated with attachment. This conclusion is premature. Study participants associate being moved with interactions with their loved ones not merely for what they exemplify but also for their affective bond to them. Being moved is elicited when we apprehend the value of entities to which we are connected through basic as well as extended forms of affiliative attachment. These comprise people, certain objects, and even abstract entities, including the unshakable life-guiding ideas we call “core values.”

  • 44.
    Dang, Junhua
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi.
    Hagger, Martin S.
    Univ Calif Merced, Dept Psychol Sci, Merced, CA USA;Univ Jyvaskyla, Fac Sport & Hlth Sci, Jyvaskyla, Finland;Univ Calif Merced, Sch Social Sci Humanities & Arts, Psychol Sci, 5200 N Lake Rd, Merced, CA 95343 USA.
    Time to Set a New Research Agenda for Ego Depletion and Self-Control2019Ingår i: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 50, nr 5-6, s. 277-281Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Deeprose, Catherine
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Zhang, Shuqi
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    DeJong, Hannah
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Dalgleish, Tim
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: Using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory2012Ingår i: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, ISSN 0005-7916, E-ISSN 1873-7943, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 758-764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Involuntary autobiographical memories that spring unbidden into conscious awareness form part of everyday experience. In psychopathology, involuntary memories can be associated with significant distress. However, the cognitive mechanisms associated with the development of involuntary memories require further investigation and understanding. Since involuntary autobiographical memories are image-based, we tested predictions that visuospatial (but not other) established cognitive tasks could disrupt their consolidation when completed post-encoding. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants watched a stressful film then immediately completed a visuospatial task (complex pattern tapping), a control-task (verbal task) or no-task. Involuntary memories of the film were recorded for 1-week. In Experiment 2, the cognitive tasks were administered 30-min post-film. Results: Compared to both control and no-task conditions, completing a visuospatial task post-film reduced the frequency of later involuntary memories (Expts 1 and 2) but did not affect voluntary memory performance on a recognition task (Expt 2). Limitations: Voluntary memory was assessed using a verbal recognition task and a broader range of memory tasks could be used. The relative difficulty of the cognitive tasks used was not directly established. Conclusions: An established visuospatial task after encoding of a stressful experience selectively interferes with sensory-perceptual information processing and may therefore prevent the development of involuntary autobiographical memories. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 46. Del Bianco, Teresa
    et al.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Karolinska Institutet.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Developmental Origins of Gaze-Following in Human Infants2019Ingår i: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 433-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants develop the capacity to follow the gaze of others. This behavior allows sharing attention and facilitates language acquisition and cognitive development. This article reviews studies that investigated gaze-following before 12 months of age in typically developing infants and discusses current theoretical perspectives on early GF. Recent research has revealed that early GF is highly dependent on situational constraints and individual characteristics, but theories that describe the underlying mechanisms have partly failed to consider this complexity. We propose a novel framework termed the perceptual narrowing account of GF that may have the potential to integrate existing theoretical accounts.

  • 47.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen, Religionsbeteendevetenskap, Religionspsykologi.
    Mental Health Diagnosis: Is it relative or universal in relation to culture?2018Ingår i: Relativism and Post-Truth in Contemporary Society / [ed] M. Stenmark, S. Fuller, U. Zackariasson, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, s. 101-121Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Dickson, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
    Laursen, Brett
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, USA.
    Valdes, Olivia
    Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, USA.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Derisive Parenting Fosters Dysregulated Anger in Adolescent Children and Subsequent Difficulties with Peers2019Ingår i: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 1567-1579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying and victimization are manifest in the peer social world, but have origins in the home. Uncertainty surrounds the mechanisms that convey problems between these settings. The present study describes the indirect transmission of hostility and coercion from parents to adolescent children through emotional dysregulation. In this model, derisive parenting-behaviors that demean or belittle children-fosters dysregulated anger, which precipitates peer difficulties. A total of 1409 participants (48% female; M-age=13.4 years at the outset) were followed across secondary school (Grades 7-9) for three consecutive years. The results indicated that derisive parenting in Grade 7 was associated with increases in adolescent dysregulated anger from Grade 7 to 8, which, in turn, was associated with increases in bullying and victimization from Grade 8 to 9. The findings suggest that parents who are derisive, have children who struggle with emotional regulation and, ultimately, with constructive peer relationships.

  • 49.
    Dragojevic, Marko
    et al.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Commun, 242 Grehan Bldg, Lexington, KY 40506 USA.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Blauvelt, Timothy
    Ilia State Univ, Soviet & Postsoviet Studies, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.; Amer Councils Int Educ ACTR ACCELS, Georgia Field Off, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Figuring Out Who's Who: The Role of Social Categorization in the Language Attitudes Process2018Ingår i: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 28-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the role of social categorization in the language attitudes process. Participants (N = 1,915) from three ethnolinguistic groups residing in the republic of Georgia—Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijanis—listened to a speaker reading a text in a Tbilisi-accented (standard variety) and a Mingrelian-accented (nonstandard variety) Georgian guise. We predicted that the three groups would vary in their ability to correctly categorize the two guises and that this intergroup variation in categorization accuracy would result in intergroup variation in language attitudes. These hypotheses were supported. Georgians were more accurate than Armenians and Azerbaijanis in their categorization of both guises. The Tbilisi-accented (Mingrelian-accented) guise was evaluated more (less) favorably when categorized correctly than when miscategorized. This resulted in intergroup variation in language attitudes: Overall, Georgians evaluated the Tbilisi-accented (Mingrelian-accented) guise more (less) favorably than Armenians and Azerbaijanis, due in part to Georgians’ higher categorization accuracy of both guises. 

  • 50.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rohlfing, Katharina
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Infants' online perception of give-and-take interactions2014Ingår i: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 126, s. 280-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigated infants’ online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants’ gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants’ online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants’ online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective.

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